Special Issue "Selected Papers from the HYdrogen POwer THeoretical and Engineering Solutions International Symposium"

A special issue of ChemEngineering (ISSN 2305-7084).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Massimiliano Lo Faro

Italian National Research Council (CNR), Institute for advanced energy technologies "Nicola Giordano" (ITAE), Messina, Italy
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Interests: hydrogen; fuel cell; energy; energy system; energy policy; national programs; international programs; catalysts; electrocatalysts; electrolysis; reforming; membranes; infrastructure; refueling; storage; modelling; simulation; nanomaterials; safety; power to gas
Guest Editor
Dr. Pietro Staiti

Italian National Research Council (CNR), Institute for advanced energy technologies "Nicola Giordano" (ITAE), Messina, Italy
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Interests: conversion of chemical energy (mainly hydrogen) to electricity through the development of materials for low temperature fuel cells; storage of electricity through electrochemical capacitors
Guest Editor
Dr. Orazio Di Blasi

Italian National Research Council (CNR), Institute for advanced energy technologies "Nicola Giordano" (ITAE), Messina, Italy
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Interests: reforming of hydrocarbons; storage of energy through flow batteries
Guest Editor
Dr. Sabrina Campagna Zignani

Italian National Research Council (CNR), Institute for advanced energy technologies Nicola Giordano (ITAE), Messina, Italy
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Interests: conversion of ethanol to energy through fuel cells operating at low, medium, and high temperatures

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

“Towards hydrogen for everyone” is the theme of this edition of HYPOTHESIS XII, a series conference on “HYdrogen—POwer THeoretical and Engineering Solutions”, which, every two years, goes around the world to share the latest knowledge developed in the field of hydrogen and its related technologies. This year, HYPOTHESIS XII will be held in Siracusa, Sicily (Italy), which was the birthplace of Archimedes. Who does not remember Archimedes’ famous sentence “give me a place to stand and I will move the Earth”? A parallelism would be that hydrogen is the lever, Siracusa is the place, and the attendees are the power to move the next green community and economy. With these premises, authors and readers of this Special Issue of ChemEngineering on HYPOTHESIS XII are part of this enthusiastic community.

Dr. Massimiliano Lo Faro
Dr. Pietro Staiti
Dr. Orazio Di Blasi
Dr. Sabrina Campagna Zignani
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. ChemEngineering is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hydrogen
  • fuel cell
  • reforming
  • storage
  • energy
  • energy system
  • infrastructure
  • refueling
  • modelling
  • simulation
  • nanomaterials
  • catalysts
  • electrocatalysts

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Study of Hydrogen Interactions with Nd2Fe17 and Nd2Fe14B by Means of Calorimetric Method
ChemEngineering 2018, 2(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering2020015
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 9 April 2018
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Abstract
Hydrogen interactions with Nd2Fe17 and Nd2Fe14B was investigated by means of the calorimetric method with application of differential heat-conducting calorimeters that were of the Tean-Calvet type. The reaction of hydrogen absorption and desorption was carried out
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Hydrogen interactions with Nd2Fe17 and Nd2Fe14B was investigated by means of the calorimetric method with application of differential heat-conducting calorimeters that were of the Tean-Calvet type. The reaction of hydrogen absorption and desorption was carried out at 250 and 300 °C for Nd2Fe17, while the pressure-composition-isotherms (P-C-T) and enthalpy change with hydrogen concentration in the intermetallic compound (IMC) were obtained. The Nd2Fe14B-H2 system was studied at 50 °C and the dependence of the enthalpy change with hydrogen concentration in the intermetallic compound was also obtained. Based on the measured data, the assumption about the order of filling the interstitial sites by hydrogen atoms was made. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of a Catalytic Fuel Processor for a 10 kW Combined Heat and Power System: Experimental and Modeling Analysis of the Steam Reforming Unit
ChemEngineering 2018, 2(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering2010005
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 28 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
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Abstract
In this work, we address the development of a combined heat and power unit for residential applications, fed by natural gas, air and H2O; focus is on the design of the first catalytic stage of the fuel processor, that is the
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In this work, we address the development of a combined heat and power unit for residential applications, fed by natural gas, air and H2O; focus is on the design of the first catalytic stage of the fuel processor, that is the steam reforming unit. A commercial catalyst was tested at the laboratory scale, under kinetically controlled conditions in order to derive information on the reaction kinetics and support the basic engineering of the full scale reactor. Analogous tests after long term steam reforming ageing were then performed to quantify the evolution of the catalyst activity under real operating conditions and estimate a lumped deactivation factor. A modelling analysis was performed to predict the expected performance of the fuel processor at varying input parameters and catalyst activity profiles. It was verified that at a space velocity below 5000 Nl/kgcat/h, the reactor output is fully controlled by the thermodynamics at 650 °C, which guarantees the best operability and efficiency of the whole fuel processor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Interlayer Properties of In-Situ Oxidized Porous Stainless Steel for Preparation of Composite Pd Membranes
ChemEngineering 2018, 2(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering2010001
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
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Abstract
Hydrogen is considered as a real alternative for improving the current energy scenario in the near future and separation processes are a crucial step for the economy of the process in both centralized and distributed production systems. In this context, Pd-based composite membranes
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Hydrogen is considered as a real alternative for improving the current energy scenario in the near future and separation processes are a crucial step for the economy of the process in both centralized and distributed production systems. In this context, Pd-based composite membranes appear as an attractive technology trying to reduce the Pd thickness by modifying the commercial supports, mainly formed by metals to fit properly in conventional industrial devices. In most cases, a final calcination step is required and hence, the metallic support can be oxidized. This work analyzes in detail the properties of intermediate layers generated by in-situ oxidation of tubular PSS supports as a crucial step for the preparation of Pd/PSS membranes. The oxidation temperature determines the modification of original morphology and permeability by increasing the presence of mixed iron-chromium oxides as temperature rises. A compromise solution need to be adopted in order to reduce the average pore mouth size and the external roughness, while maintaining a high permeation capacity. Temperature of 600 °C lets to reduce the average pore size from 3.5 to 2.1 μm or from 4.5 to 2.3 μm in case of using PSS supports with 0.1 or 0.2 μm porous media grades, respectively but maintaining a hydrogen permeation beyond targets of United States of America Department of Energy (US DOE). Lower temperatures provoke an insufficient surface modification, while greater values derive in a drastic reduction of permeability. In these conditions, two composite membranes were prepared by ELP-PP, obtaining 14.7 and 18.0 μm thick palladium layers in case of modifying PSS tubes of 0.1 or 0.2 μm media grades, respectively. In both cases, the composite Pd membranes exhibited a hydrogen perm-selectivity greater than 2000 with permeances ranged from 2.83 to 5.84·10−4 mol m−2 s−1 Pa−0.5 and activation energies of around 13–14 kJ mol−1. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hydrogen Utilization in Green Fuel Synthesis via CO2 Conversion to Methanol over New Cu-Based Catalysts
ChemEngineering 2017, 1(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering1020019
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
The use of hydrogen as an energy vector and raw material for “very clean liquid fuels” manufacturing has been assessed by the catalytic conversion of CO2 to methanol over copper based catalysts. A systematic evaluation of copper based catalysts, prepared varying the
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The use of hydrogen as an energy vector and raw material for “very clean liquid fuels” manufacturing has been assessed by the catalytic conversion of CO2 to methanol over copper based catalysts. A systematic evaluation of copper based catalysts, prepared varying the chemical composition, has been carried out at 0.1–5.0 MPa of total pressure and in the range of 453–513 K by using a semi-automated LAB-microplant, under CO2/H2 reactant mixture (1/3), fed at GHSV of 8.8 NL∙kgcat−1∙h−1. Material’s properties have been investigated by the means of chemical-physical studies. The findings disclose that the addition of structure promoters (i.e., ZrO2/CeO2) strongly improves the textural properties of catalysts, in term of total surface area and exposure of metal surface area (MSA), also reducing the sintering phenomena. The results of the catalytic study clearly prove a structure-activity relationship at low reaction pressure (0.1 MPa), while at higher pressure (3.0–5.0 MPa) the reaction path is insensitive to structure and chemical composition. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Hydrogen and Deuterium Solubility in Commercial Pd–Ag Alloys for Hydrogen Purification
ChemEngineering 2017, 1(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering1020014
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 12 November 2017
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Abstract
Pd–Ag alloys with compositions close to 23–25% Ag are considered as a benchmark for hydrogen permeability. They are used in small scale reactors for hydrogen separation and purification. Permeability and solubility are strictly mathematically correlated, and the temperature dependence of solubility can provide
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Pd–Ag alloys with compositions close to 23–25% Ag are considered as a benchmark for hydrogen permeability. They are used in small scale reactors for hydrogen separation and purification. Permeability and solubility are strictly mathematically correlated, and the temperature dependence of solubility can provide useful information about the physical state of the material, the hydrogenation enthalpy, and the occurrence of different thermodynamic states. While the permeability of Pd–Ag alloys has been largely investigated, solubility measurements are available only in a restricted temperature range. In this paper, we extend solubility measurements up to 7 bar for Pd77Ag23 in the temperature range between 25 °C and 400 °C and for Pd30Ag70 for temperatures between 190 °C and 300 °C. The occurrence of solid solutions or hydride phases is discussed, and the hydrogenation enthalpy is calculated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Airflow Management in Solid Oxide Electrolyzer (SOE) Operation: Performance Analysis
ChemEngineering 2017, 1(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering1020013
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
Hydrogen is being studied as a means of energy storage and can be synthetized to store renewable energy and successively used as a fuel for power production or transport purposes. High temperature solid oxide electrolyzers (SOE) are proposed as a technology to produce
[...] Read more.
Hydrogen is being studied as a means of energy storage and can be synthetized to store renewable energy and successively used as a fuel for power production or transport purposes. High temperature solid oxide electrolyzers (SOE) are proposed as a technology to produce hydrogen with high energy efficiency and high power density. Within the studies on SOE operation, little attention has been given to the oxygen electrode side, where air is normally used as a sweep gas. In this study, we consider the option of reducing the air flow rate when operating an SOE stack. The advantages in terms of efficiency are calculated, showing that efficiency increases up to 2.8% when reducing the air flow rate down to 7% of nominal value. Full article
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