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Waste, Volume 1, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 14 articles

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19 pages, 724 KiB  
Review
Attitudes towards Plastic Pollution: A Review and Mitigations beyond Circular Economy
Waste 2023, 1(2), 569-587; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1020034 - 15 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3331
Abstract
Plastic pollution has received unprecedented attention globally, and there are increasing calls to control it. Despite this, the uptrends of plastic consumption and mismanaged plastic waste show little sign of reversal. This review aims to examine the attitudes of various societal groups towards [...] Read more.
Plastic pollution has received unprecedented attention globally, and there are increasing calls to control it. Despite this, the uptrends of plastic consumption and mismanaged plastic waste show little sign of reversal. This review aims to examine the attitudes of various societal groups towards plastics to identify the behavioral barriers to reduce plastic pollution and synthesize effective countermeasures. It achieved the aim through content analysis of the most recent literature related to attitudes and behaviors towards plastic pollution, consumption and management, as well as an important emerging theme on plastics recycling ecosystem and economy. It reveals the general negative attitudes of the participants in the studies reviewed towards plastic pollution and their willing attitude to act against it by supporting campaigns, paying for environmentally friendly alternatives and supporting solution-based interventions from governments including policies, regulations and guidelines. Inconvenience due to limited options for plastic items and habits are two main barriers to behavioral changes. This underscores the crucial roles of governments to tap into these attitudes to lead and intensify plastic pollution control through a multi-pronged approach that facilitates systematic substitution of conventional plastics with environmentally friendly alternatives as well as the stepping-up of the circular plastic economy and industrial symbiosis. This review deems that progressively regulated capping of conventional plastic production and consumption could help the transition, and the public could complement government endeavors through education, mutual influence and awareness-raising which could also be driven by governmental policies and programs. Full article
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20 pages, 11708 KiB  
Article
Rosaceae Nut-Shells as Sustainable Aggregate for Potential Use in Non-Structural Lightweight Concrete
Waste 2023, 1(2), 549-568; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1020033 - 06 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
Apricot (AS), peach (PS), and plum shells (PlS) were examined as sustainable aggregates for non-structural lightweight concrete. The extraction of natural resources has a significant environmental impact and is not in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of Agenda 2030. Recycling agri-food [...] Read more.
Apricot (AS), peach (PS), and plum shells (PlS) were examined as sustainable aggregates for non-structural lightweight concrete. The extraction of natural resources has a significant environmental impact and is not in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of Agenda 2030. Recycling agri-food waste, such as fruit shells, fully respects circular economy principles and SDGs. The chemical and physical properties of the shells were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for microstructure analysis and TG-MS-EGA for thermal stress behavior. Two binding mixtures were used to prepare the concrete samples, one containing lime only (mixture “a”) and one containing both lime and cement (mixture “b”). Lime is a more sustainable building material but it compromises mechanical strength and durability. The performance of lightweight concrete was determined based on the type of aggregate used. PS had a high-water absorption capacity due to numerous micropores, resulting in lower density (1000–1200 kg/m3), compressive strength (1–4 MPa), and thermal conductivity (0.15–0.20 W/mK) of PS concrete. AS concrete showed the opposite trend (1120–1260 kg/m3; 2.8–7.0 MPa; 0.2–0.4 W/mK) due to AS microporosity-free and denser structure. PlS has intermediate characteristics in terms of porosity, density, and water absorption, resulting in concrete with intermediate characteristics (1050–1240 kg/m3; 1.9–5.2 MPa; 0.15–0.3 W/mK). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agri-Food Wastes and Biomass Valorization)
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17 pages, 1993 KiB  
Article
Promoting Sustainable Fruit and Vegetable Biowaste Management and Industrial Symbiosis through an Innovative Web Platform
Waste 2023, 1(2), 532-548; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1020032 - 05 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1168
Abstract
Sustainable bioeconomy is a promising pathway towards the transition to a circular and climate-neutral economy. The valorization of biowaste is a key player in this direction. This paper presents the design and development of the AgriPLaCE Platform, which aims to promote synergies that [...] Read more.
Sustainable bioeconomy is a promising pathway towards the transition to a circular and climate-neutral economy. The valorization of biowaste is a key player in this direction. This paper presents the design and development of the AgriPLaCE Platform, which aims to promote synergies that enable the utilization of biowaste from the fruit and vegetable supply chain. The platform consists of the AgriPLaCE Waste Management Database, which provides users with an extended list of potential utilization methods for various types of fruit and vegetable biowaste streams, and the AgriPLaCE Synergies Tool, which facilitates synergies between different actors involved in the biowaste-to-resource value chain from agricultural waste production to waste treatment and new valuable products’ exploitation. Initially, the conceptual design of both tools took place based on analysis of user needs and services alongside the system architecture. Following this, the AgriPLaCE Platform was developed with the implementation of all the necessary subsystems. The results of the platform’s implementation demonstrated its potential to generate multiple collaborations and synergies while users can also deepen their knowledge about alternative and emerging treatment technologies and valuable products from a wide range of fruit and vegetable biowaste streams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agri-Food Wastes and Biomass Valorization)
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17 pages, 2972 KiB  
Article
Gasification of Waste Machine Oil by the Ultra-Superheated Mixture of Steam and Carbon Dioxide
Waste 2023, 1(2), 515-531; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1020031 - 01 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1111
Abstract
Reported in the article is further progress in the development of the novel pulsed detonation gun (PDG) technology for the conversion of organic wastes into syngas in a two-component gasifying agent (GA) containing ultra-superheated steam and carbon dioxide obtained by pulsed detonations of [...] Read more.
Reported in the article is further progress in the development of the novel pulsed detonation gun (PDG) technology for the conversion of organic wastes into syngas in a two-component gasifying agent (GA) containing ultra-superheated steam and carbon dioxide obtained by pulsed detonations of a natural gas–oxygen mixture at a frequency of 1 Hz. Experimental studies were carried out on a waste converter with a 40 dm3 flow reactor and two PDGs with a total volume of 2.4 or 3.2 dm3, which is approximately a factor of 6 and 4.5 less than in previous studies, respectively. The objective of the research was to find the design and operation parameters of the waste converter that provide a minimum amount of CO2 in the gasification products. Waste machine oil was used as a feedstock. It is shown that, compared with the earlier experiments with a higher average temperature of the reactor wall and with a PDG of a much larger volume, the contents of H2, CO, CH4, and CO2 in the syngas remained virtually unchanged, whereas the efficiency of the gasification process increased significantly: the use of 1 g of natural gas made it possible to gasify up to 4 g of the feedstock. It is also shown that the determining role in the gasification process of liquid feedstock is played by the feedstock residence time in the PDG rather than in the reactor. The minimum ratio between the flow rates of the GA and liquid feedstock, the minimum ratio between the flow rates of combustible gas and liquid feedstock, as well as the actual GA consumption in the gasification process are determined experimentally. Full article
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18 pages, 2173 KiB  
Article
Twin-Screw Extrusion Mechanical Pretreatment for Enhancing Biomethane Production from Agro-Industrial, Agricultural and Catch Crop Biomasses
Waste 2023, 1(2), 497-514; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1020030 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 1493
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of mechanical treatment through twin-screw extrusion for the enhancement of biomethane production. Four lignocellulosic biomasses (i.e., sweetcorn by-products, whole triticale, corn stover and wheat straw) were evaluated, and two different shear stress screw profiles were tested. [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of mechanical treatment through twin-screw extrusion for the enhancement of biomethane production. Four lignocellulosic biomasses (i.e., sweetcorn by-products, whole triticale, corn stover and wheat straw) were evaluated, and two different shear stress screw profiles were tested. Chemical composition, particle size reduction, tapped density and cellulose crystallinity were assessed to show the effect of extrusion pretreatment on substrate physico-chemical properties and their biochemical methane production (BMP) capacities. Both mechanical pretreatments allowed an increase in the proportion of particles with a diameter size less than 1 mm (from 3.7% to 72.7%). The most restrictive profile also allowed a significant solubilization of water soluble coumpounds, from 5.5% to 13%. This high-shear extrusion also revealed a reduction in cellulose crystallinity for corn stover (i.e., 8.6% reduction). Sweetcorn by-products revealed the highest BMP values (338–345 NmL/gVS), followed by corn stover (264–286 NmL/gVS), wheat straw (247–270 NmL/gVS) and whole triticale (233–247 NmL/gVS). However, no statistical improvement in maximal BMP production was provided by twin-screw extrusion. Nevertheless, BMP kinetic analysis proved that both extrusion pretreatments were able to increase the specific rate constant (from 13% to 56% for soft extrusion and from 66% to 107% for the high-shear one). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agri-Food Wastes and Biomass Valorization)
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15 pages, 1838 KiB  
Review
Membrane Separation in the Nickel-Contaminated Wastewater Treatment
Waste 2023, 1(2), 482-496; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1020029 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1400
Abstract
Nowadays, electroplating plants are factories that use huge amounts of water in the coating process of anti-corrosion layers. They are required to decrease the heavy metal content to very low values before releasing the post-process water into the aquatic environment. They very often [...] Read more.
Nowadays, electroplating plants are factories that use huge amounts of water in the coating process of anti-corrosion layers. They are required to decrease the heavy metal content to very low values before releasing the post-process water into the aquatic environment. They very often decrease their content using coagulation combined with flocculation. However, these processes are often not effective enough, and the concentration of a given metal does not reach a satisfactory low level. The use of membrane techniques to purify this type of wastewater leads to a reduction in the content of heavy metals, including nickel, to zero values. This allows for not only reducing the negative impact on the aquatic environment but also a step toward more conscious management of water resources—namely, the reuse of water in the electroplating process. The following review not only describes the membrane methods used to treat the wastewater considered, e.g., nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, or electrodialysis, but also shows the directions of development of these processes. Full article
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14 pages, 1877 KiB  
Article
Participatory Design and Public Policies: The Case of the General Regional Waste Plan in Valle d’Aosta (Italy)
Waste 2023, 1(2), 468-481; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1020028 - 05 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
Waste management is one of the most strategic areas of regional policy planning. The impact of decisions such as the allocation of industrial waste treatment plants and waste collection strategies can affect the economic structure and quality of life of territories. The effectiveness [...] Read more.
Waste management is one of the most strategic areas of regional policy planning. The impact of decisions such as the allocation of industrial waste treatment plants and waste collection strategies can affect the economic structure and quality of life of territories. The effectiveness of regulatory and organisational arrangements of Regional Waste Plans is linked to the availability of technologies and material infrastructure, but also to social consensus and behaviours. On this level, participatory planning conducted through foresight techniques plays an increasing role. The article presents an innovative case carried out in Valle d’Aosta in 2021, with the aim of promoting the participatory methodology experimented and the institutionalisation of such applications in strategic waste planning processes. The process involved 35 different stakeholders (unions, businesses, schools, trade, environmental associations, etc.) in structured consultations based on the principle of building a shared transition to 2030. In particular, the project was effective in broadening the participation of civil society in the area, in making the plan’s objectives more ambitious, and in fostering the creation of a collaborative network between public, market and third sector actors. Full article
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13 pages, 5101 KiB  
Article
Decolorization of Melanoidin Using Sono–Fenton and Photo–Fenton Processes
Waste 2023, 1(2), 455-467; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1020027 - 05 May 2023
Viewed by 1820
Abstract
Ethanol production wastewater contains high quantities of dark–brown pigments (melanoidin) that result in low color removal using conventional biological treatments. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are the most documented methods for reducing the color associated with melanoidin. This study examines the degradation of melanoidin [...] Read more.
Ethanol production wastewater contains high quantities of dark–brown pigments (melanoidin) that result in low color removal using conventional biological treatments. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are the most documented methods for reducing the color associated with melanoidin. This study examines the degradation of melanoidin using AOPs based on photo–Fenton, sono–Fenton, and sono–photo–Fenton processes. Their effects on decolorization were investigated based on light intensity, ultrasonic frequency, and the iron concentration (Fe2+)–to–H2O2 ratio. This study showed that ultrasonic waves and UV light result in a higher melanoidin decolorization efficiency than Fenton reactions alone. The initial color values were reduced from 5000–5500 ADMI to below 500 ADMI for both processes because the ultrasonic waves and ultraviolet light induced H2O2 breakdown into the 🞄OH radical. Reducing the color of the melanoidin using the photo–Fenton process resulted in a decolorization rate of 0.1126 min−1, which was higher than the rates of both the sono–Fenton and sono–photo–Fenton processes. These results provide proof that the photo–assisted Fenton process is more applicable to treating dye–contaminated water than are other enhancing approaches. Full article
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29 pages, 5563 KiB  
Article
Conversion of Waste Synthesis Gas to Desalination Catalyst at Ambient Temperatures
Waste 2023, 1(2), 426-454; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1020026 - 01 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2508
Abstract
In this study, a continuous flow of a synthetic, dry, and acidic waste synthesis gas (WSG) (containing N2, H2, CO, CH4, and CO2) at ambient temperatures was first passed through a fixed bed reactor (FBR) [...] Read more.
In this study, a continuous flow of a synthetic, dry, and acidic waste synthesis gas (WSG) (containing N2, H2, CO, CH4, and CO2) at ambient temperatures was first passed through a fixed bed reactor (FBR) containing halite + m-Fe0 and then a saline bubble column diffusion reactor (BCDR) containing m-Fe0. The FBR converted 47.5% of the CO + CH4 + CO2 into n-C0. Passage of the n-C0 into the BCDR resulted in the formation of the desalination catalyst (Fe0:Fe(a,b,c)@C0) + CH4 + CO + CO2 + CxHy, where 64% of the feed n-C0 was converted to gaseous products. The desalination pellets can remove >60% of the water salinity without producing a reject brine or requiring an external energy source. The gaseous products from the BCDR included: CxHy (where x < 6), CO, CO2, and H2. Full article
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12 pages, 2330 KiB  
Article
An Improved Design for Flow Conditioning in Waste Water Pipes
Waste 2023, 1(2), 414-425; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1020025 - 18 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1510
Abstract
In practical applications, waste water piping includes elbows and bends which give unrepeatable, asymmetric and swirling flow profiles, which result in flow meter inaccuracy. Flow conditioners can be inserted into the pipe network to remove these flow patterns prior to a flow meter, [...] Read more.
In practical applications, waste water piping includes elbows and bends which give unrepeatable, asymmetric and swirling flow profiles, which result in flow meter inaccuracy. Flow conditioners can be inserted into the pipe network to remove these flow patterns prior to a flow meter, to improve the accuracy of the measurement and to reduce the length of straight-run which would otherwise be required. In this investigation, a new design of flow conditioner is considered in two configurations, with and without vanes. The performance of the conditioner is considered by exposing it to a swirling flow that was disturbed by two 90° bends. The flow downstream of the conditioner was simulated using CFD software STAR-CCM+ 12 to find the downstream axial velocity profile, swirl angle and pressure drop. The vane-less conditioner provided a suitable axial profile for flow measurement 2D downstream, at which point the swirl was removed. This illustrated the improved performance compared to other conditioners in the literature, but came at the price of a somewhat higher pressure drop. The addition of vanes improved the performance slightly in terms of regulating the flow and removing swirl, while at the same time increasing the pressure drop further. Full article
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25 pages, 4730 KiB  
Review
Municipal Solid Waste Collection and Coverage Rates in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Comprehensive Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Waste 2023, 1(2), 389-413; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1020024 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 7951
Abstract
The annual volume of waste generated in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) increased from 81 million tonnes to 174 million tonnes per year between 2012 and 2016 and is projected to reach 269 million tonnes in 2030. In 2018, SSA’s municipal solid waste (MSW) collection [...] Read more.
The annual volume of waste generated in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) increased from 81 million tonnes to 174 million tonnes per year between 2012 and 2016 and is projected to reach 269 million tonnes in 2030. In 2018, SSA’s municipal solid waste (MSW) collection coverage was estimated at 44%. Concerned that the waste generation rate outweighs the collection pace, we conducted a systematic review of studies on MSW collection to examine the current situation in the region concerning the waste collection and coverage rates and to highlight the impediments to rapid progress in waste collection using the lens of four cities. Findings reveal that, despite the involvement of private waste collectors, collection and coverage rates are still below the desired 100% with backlogs of uncollected waste in public spaces, especially in low-income neighbourhoods where coverage remains abysmally low. This study fortifies the systematic discussion on MSW collection and coverage rates by conducting a meta-analysis. The result of the analysis shows that the waste collection and coverage rates are 65% and 67% in SSA, respectively. Aside from the paucity of data on waste generation rate and characterisation, most available data are incongruent. The review further shows that although several studies have been carried out on waste disposal, waste treatment and recycling in SSA studies directly focused on MSW collection are still few, leaving room for more research in this area. The review offers suggestions on how collection and coverage rates can be increased and equally proposes a strategy for reducing scavenging activities in the region’s unsanitary landfills, given its concomitant health impacts on the scavengers. Full article
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19 pages, 4370 KiB  
Article
Computational Modelling on Gasification Processes of Municipal Solid Wastes Including Molten Slag
Waste 2023, 1(2), 370-388; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1020023 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1404
Abstract
The formulation of the CFD-DEM model, CD-MELT, is established in this study to include three-phase non-isothermal processes with simultaneous combustion and melting for gasification simulations. To demonstrate the model capability, CD-MELT is used to assess the need for slag recycling for the non-isothermal [...] Read more.
The formulation of the CFD-DEM model, CD-MELT, is established in this study to include three-phase non-isothermal processes with simultaneous combustion and melting for gasification simulations. To demonstrate the model capability, CD-MELT is used to assess the need for slag recycling for the non-isothermal melting of municipal solid wastes (MSW) in a prototype waste-to-energy research facility. The simulation encompasses the full fixed-bed slagging gasification process, including chemical reactions and melting of MSW and slag. In order to assess the need for slag recycling, comparisons are made for the two cases of with and without, in terms of the slag mass, liquid slag volume fraction, exit gas composition, and temperature distribution in the gasifier. The prediction results enable the tracking of liquid molten slag as it permeates through the solids-packed bed for the first time in the literature as far as we are aware, which is crucial to address design considerations such as distribution of bed temperature and optimal location for slag-tap holes at the bottom, as well as potential slag clogging within the porous media. The model also predicts an uneven and intermittent slag permeation through the packed bed without the recycling, and provides a plausible explanation for the operators’ experience of why slag recycling is important for process stability. Finally, the predicted slag outlet temperature using the proposed CFD approach also agrees well with the measurement data published in an earlier case study for the same facility. Full article
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37 pages, 6504 KiB  
Review
Value Chain Analysis of Rice Industry by Products in a Circular Economy Context: A Review
Waste 2023, 1(2), 333-369; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1020022 - 04 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4254
Abstract
The quantity of organic waste generated by agricultural sectors is continually increasing due to population growth and rising food demand. Rice is the primary consumable food in Asia. However, many stakeholders follow a linear economic model such as the “take–make–waste” concept. This linear [...] Read more.
The quantity of organic waste generated by agricultural sectors is continually increasing due to population growth and rising food demand. Rice is the primary consumable food in Asia. However, many stakeholders follow a linear economic model such as the “take–make–waste” concept. This linear model leads to a substantial environmental burden and the destruction of valuable resources without gaining their actual value. Because these by-products can be converted into energy generating and storage materials, and into bio-based products by cascading transformation processes within the circular economy concept, waste should be considered a central material. This review examines the composition of rice straw, bran, and husks, and the procedures involved in manufacturing value-added goods, from these wastes. Moreover, starting with an extensive literature analysis on the rice value chains, this work systematizes and displays a variety of strategies for using these by-products. The future development of agricultural waste management is desirable to capitalize on the multi-functional product by circulating all the by-products in the economy. According to the analysis of relevant research, rice straw has considerable potential as a renewable energy source. However, there is a significant research gap in using rice bran as an energy storage material. Additionally, modified rice husk has increased its promise as an adsorbent in the bio-based water treatment industry. Furthermore, the case study of Sri Lanka revealed that developing countries have a huge potential to value these by-products in various sectors of the economy. Finally, this paper provides suggestions for researchers and policymakers to improve the current agriculture waste management system with the best option and integrated approach for economic sustainability and eco- and environmental solution, considering some case studies to develop sustainable waste management processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agri-Food Wastes and Biomass Valorization)
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20 pages, 823 KiB  
Review
Review of Barriers to Effective Implementation of Waste and Energy Management Policies in Ghana: Implications for the Promotion of Waste-to-Energy Technologies
Waste 2023, 1(2), 313-332; https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1020021 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2433
Abstract
Issues of rising waste generation are calling for proper management and the sustainable control of waste. This study examines waste- and energy-relevant policies and strategies in Ghana and the stakeholders’ perceptions on such policies and strategies. It explores the gaps and challenges in [...] Read more.
Issues of rising waste generation are calling for proper management and the sustainable control of waste. This study examines waste- and energy-relevant policies and strategies in Ghana and the stakeholders’ perceptions on such policies and strategies. It explores the gaps and challenges in national policy documents to guide the implementation of waste-to-energy projects in Ghana. The approach adopted includes a comprehensive review of relevant policy documents and key informant interviews with selected key stakeholders. Factors such as limited funding, inadequate logistics, expertise and infrastructure, growing population and negative attitudes of general public towards the environment, amongst others, are the concerns identified. Findings from the policy review revealed that capacity to harness energy from waste could be improved through appropriate technologies suitable for Ghana. Adequate institutional framework, stakeholders and mechanisms to explore opportunities to coordinate implementation of various policy strategies and interventions have been established. Streamlining strategies to constitute components to improve governance on waste management, improving financing to ensure sustainable investment in waste-to-energy projects, improving research on waste-to-energy technologies as well as enhancing public interest and education on proper waste management could enhance the implementation of national waste and energy policies for feasible up-scaling of waste-to-energy technologies in Ghana. Full article
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