# An Improved Design for Flow Conditioning in Waste Water Pipes

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

^{5}: a 90° bend with a bend radius of 2D; and two 90° out-of-plane bends. The flow conditioner was placed 2D downstream of the bend(s) and velocity profiles were presented in the near-field, where the jets, passing through the conditioner, could be distinguished for x < 4D, as well as the far field. Swirl was found to be significantly reduced, compared to when no conditioner was present, and for all three configurations the swirl angle was found to be around 1° for x/D > 1.5. They concluded that the flow profile matched a fully developed flow at approximately 25D downstream, and that the perforated plates have a higher efficiency than the tube bundle.

^{5}< Re < 1.6 × 10

^{5}for different flow conditions generated by different valve openings. They considered velocity profiles, pressure drops and the effect on the coefficient of discharge on an orifice plate meter downstream of the conditioner. Both conditioners were found to be good for removing swirl, with the NEL plate performing slightly better. However, the vaned plate showed a head loss of less than 1/3 of that of the NEL plate, and performed well for all upstream conditions considered. Although the NEL plate was good at removing swirl, it was poor at recovering a fully developed flow.

^{−1}, a blockage easily formed in the conditioner, and this was also found to be a long-term effect. The blockage was found to have an effect on the accuracy of flow measurement downstream from the flow conditioner. In [19], this effect was further analyzed using a novel flow conditioner with regularly sized holes. Here, the experimental and simulation data was found to be in good agreement, and the effect of particle size and Reynolds number was studied. Investigations into the accuracy of ultrasonic flow meters for natural gas were performed by Liu et al. [20] and Peng et al. [21], both using a RANS k-ε simulation approach. In both cases, deviations of the flow were observed, although the specific details of the flow conditioner geometry were not apparent.

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Pipe Geometry

#### 2.2. CFD Model

^{5}cells. This mesh was applied in the remaining simulations. In the boundary layer, ten prism layers were used with a stretching ratio of 1.8. The values of ${y}^{+}$, a non-dimensional distance used to assess the distance of the first mesh cell from the wall, were typically below 1, and always below 5, ensuring that the simulation is resolved inside the inner viscous sublayer. An example of the computer mesh is shown in Figure 3. The simulations were performed in 3D using a steady-state model, since we are not considering fully developed flow, with no time-variations flow or initial conditions. The water was simulated as a constant density liquid and a segregated flow solver was implemented, as we have low Mach number flow. Full details of the physics models used in the simulation are given in Table 1. A constant velocity inlet, with axial and swirl velocity components of 10.85 m/s and 4.1 m/s, respectively, and an ambient pressure outlet were applied at the ends of the pipe. No-slip boundary conditions were applied at the rigid pipe walls.

#### 2.3. Validation of CFD Model

#### 2.4. Conditioner Geometry

## 3. Results

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 6.**(

**a**) Shows the axial profile 1D upstream and (

**b**) shows the axial velocity profiles for the no-vane case and (

**c**) for the vaned case, both downstream of the conditioner.

Group Box | Model |
---|---|

Space | Three dimensional |

Time | Steady |

Material | Liquid |

Flow | Segregated flow |

Equation of state | Constant density |

Viscous region | Turbulent |

Reynolds-Average Turbulence | k-$\epsilon $ Turbulence |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Lyndsell, A.; Buick, J.M.
An Improved Design for Flow Conditioning in Waste Water Pipes. *Waste* **2023**, *1*, 414-425.
https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1020025

**AMA Style**

Lyndsell A, Buick JM.
An Improved Design for Flow Conditioning in Waste Water Pipes. *Waste*. 2023; 1(2):414-425.
https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1020025

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Lyndsell, Adam, and James M. Buick.
2023. "An Improved Design for Flow Conditioning in Waste Water Pipes" *Waste* 1, no. 2: 414-425.
https://doi.org/10.3390/waste1020025