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Volume 1, December

Onco, Volume 1, Issue 1 (September 2021) – 5 articles

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Article
Clinical Application of Next-Generation Sequencing in Recurrent Glioblastoma
Onco 2021, 1(1), 38-48; https://doi.org/10.3390/onco1010005 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 475
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is driven by various genomic alterations. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) could yield targetable alterations that might impact outcomes. The goal of this study was to describe how NGS can inform targeted therapy (TT) in this patient population. METHODS: The medical records [...] Read more.
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is driven by various genomic alterations. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) could yield targetable alterations that might impact outcomes. The goal of this study was to describe how NGS can inform targeted therapy (TT) in this patient population. METHODS: The medical records of patients with a diagnosis of GBM from 2017 to 2019 were reviewed. Records of patients with recurrent GBM and genomic alterations were evaluated. Objective response rates and disease control rates were determined. RESULTS: A total of 87 patients with GBM underwent NGS. Forty percent (n = 35) were considered to have actionable alterations. Of these 35, 40% (n = 14) had their treatment changed due to the alteration. The objective response rate (ORR) of this population was 43%. The disease control rate (DCR) was 100%. The absolute mean decrease in contrast-enhancing disease was 50.7% (95% CI 34.8–66.6). CONCLUSION: NGS for GBM, particularly in the recurrent setting, yields a high rate of actionable alterations. We observed a high ORR and DCR, reflecting the value of NGS when deciding on therapies to match genomic alterations. In conclusion, patient selection and the availability of NGS might impact outcomes in select patients with recurrent GBM. Full article
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Review
Targeting HMGB1 in the Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Adenocarcinoma
Onco 2021, 1(1), 25-37; https://doi.org/10.3390/onco1010004 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 718
Abstract
Evidence of immunogenic cell death as a predictor of response to cancer therapy has increased interest in the high molecular group box 1 protein (HMGB1). HMGB1 is a nuclear protein associated with chromatin organization and DNA damage repair. HMGB1 is also a damage-associated [...] Read more.
Evidence of immunogenic cell death as a predictor of response to cancer therapy has increased interest in the high molecular group box 1 protein (HMGB1). HMGB1 is a nuclear protein associated with chromatin organization and DNA damage repair. HMGB1 is also a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) protein and promotes proinflammatory signaling in a paracrine and autocrine manner. Extracellular HMGB1 can promote activation of NF-kB and is associated with several chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, including sepsis, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), as well as cancer. In this review, we describe studies that demonstrate the use of deacetylase inhibitors and HMGB1 inhibitors to alter the expression and localization of HMGB1 in cancer cells, with a focus on lung cancer. The drugs described herein are well established and frequently used in human and small mammal studies. The main objective of this review is to summarize the potential benefit of targeting posttranslational modification of HMGB1 to decrease inflammatory signaling in the tumor microenvironment, and perhaps lead to improved response to current immunotherapeutic approaches. Full article
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Editorial
Do We Really Need Another Oncology Journal?
Onco 2021, 1(1), 23-24; https://doi.org/10.3390/onco1010003 - 08 Apr 2021
Viewed by 655
Abstract
As the inaugural editor in chief of the journal Onco I am very proud to take on the challenge of bringing to life a new journal dedicated to promoting the new developments and management of this challenging disease [...] Full article
Systematic Review
The Impact of Immune Checkpoint-Inhibitors Therapy in Urinary Bladder Cancer
Onco 2021, 1(1), 3-22; https://doi.org/10.3390/onco1010002 - 04 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1091
Abstract
Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancers in the world. From an early age, it was observed that chronic inflammation is associated with conditions favorable to the development of tumors, as well as the tumor microenvironment. Moreover, regulating tumor progression [...] Read more.
Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancers in the world. From an early age, it was observed that chronic inflammation is associated with conditions favorable to the development of tumors, as well as the tumor microenvironment. Moreover, regulating tumor progression also interferes with the therapy’s response. The interaction between the tumor and the immune system led to the development of new immune therapies, the immune checkpoint inhibitors. Immunotherapy has shown a better safety profile, survival, and tolerance compared to standard chemotherapy. This therapy offers an effective alternative to patients who are ineligible for cisplatin and patients with advanced disease progression after platinum-based therapy. The first immunotherapy approved for BC was intravesical instillation with Bacillus Calmette–Guérin, for tumors at early stages. Later, immunotherapy focused on immune checkpoint inhibitors, namely, anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), anti-programmed cell death protein ligand 1(PD-L1), and anti-antigen 4 associated with cytotoxic T cells (CTLA-4). Currently, five immune checkpoint inhibitors for advanced BC are approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA): Atezolizumab, Durvalumab, Avelumab, Pembrolizumab, and Nivolumab. This review addresses the correlation between inflammation, tumor microenvironment, and cancer; various studies regarding immune checkpoint inhibitors, either in monotherapy or in combination therapy, are also addressed. Full article
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Editorial
Synthetic Inhibitors of CDK4/6 Activities and Tumor Suppression: A Preface to the Special Issue
Onco 2021, 1(1), 1-2; https://doi.org/10.3390/onco1010001 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 543
Abstract
The status of RB1 in cancer may help us determine the optimal therapeutic approach to patients [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting Abnormal Cell Cycle in Cancer)
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