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Biomechanics, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 7 articles

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2 pages, 381 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Kramer et al. A Simple, Efficient Method for an Automatic Adjustment of the Lumbar Curvature Alignment in an MBS Model of the Spine. Biomechanics 2023, 3, 166–180
by Ivanna Kramer, Sabine Bauer and Valentin Keppler
Biomechanics 2024, 4(2), 294-295; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics4020018 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 49
Abstract
In Section 2 [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gait and Posture Biomechanics)
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12 pages, 1470 KiB  
Article
Females Present Different Single-Leg Squat Kinematics and Muscle Activation Strategies than Males Even after Hip Abductor Fatigue
by Pablo Gaviraghi, Francesca Chaida Sonda, Michele Fernandes Frigotto, Talita Molinari, Luiza Pizarro Chaffe, José Luis Flor, Rodrigo Rabello and Rodrigo Rodrigues
Biomechanics 2024, 4(2), 282-293; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics4020017 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 262
Abstract
Background: Despite the potential connection between hip and knee muscle control, there is limited research on the effects of hip abductor fatigue on the hip and knee neuromuscular responses in both males and females. This study aimed to investigate the influence of sex [...] Read more.
Background: Despite the potential connection between hip and knee muscle control, there is limited research on the effects of hip abductor fatigue on the hip and knee neuromuscular responses in both males and females. This study aimed to investigate the influence of sex on the hip and knee frontal plane kinematics and the EMG responses of the hip abductors and knee extensor muscles during the single-leg squat before and after hip abductor fatigue. Methods: A total of 30 participants (males, n = 15; females, n = 15) performed single-leg squats before and immediately after a hip abductor fatigue protocol (10° hip abduction position while bearing a 20% load of their estimated 1RM until exhaustion). The frontal plane kinematics (hip adduction and knee frontal plane projection angle) and EMG parameters (amplitude and median frequency) of the gluteus medius (GMed), tensor fascia latae (TFL), vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) were measured during the single-leg squat. Results: We did not find any effects of hip abductor fatigue or interaction between fatigue and sex on the evaluated parameters (p > 0.05). However, compared to males, females had greater values for the hip and knee frontal plane kinematics (p = 0.030), GMed EMG amplitude (+10.2%, p = 0.012) and median frequency (+10.3%; p = 0.042) and lower VL median frequency (−9.80%; p = 0.007). Conclusions: These findings establish sex-related differences in the kinematics and hip and knee EMG parameters during the single-leg squat, which were not influenced by the hip abductor fatigue protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gait and Posture Biomechanics)
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14 pages, 2488 KiB  
Article
Muscle Activation Frequency Relationship with Cost of Transport at Increasing Walking Speed in Preliminary Study Reveals Interplay of Both Active and Passive Dynamics
by Grace Van Namen, David Adair, Dean J Calsbeek and Rajat Emanuel Singh
Biomechanics 2024, 4(2), 269-281; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics4020016 - 1 May 2024
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Abstract
Metabolic cost plays a critical role in gait biomechanics, particularly in rehabilitation. Several factors influence metabolic cost during walking. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between metabolic cost and muscle activity, focusing on the frequency of EMG signals during walking. We [...] Read more.
Metabolic cost plays a critical role in gait biomechanics, particularly in rehabilitation. Several factors influence metabolic cost during walking. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between metabolic cost and muscle activity, focusing on the frequency of EMG signals during walking. We recruited nine participants (five male and four female, age range 20–48 years) who walked for four minutes at six different speeds (ranging from 1.8 to 5.9 mph). EMG data were collected from the dominant lower leg muscles, specifically the lateral gastrocnemius (GAS-L) and the anterior tibialis (AT). Oxygen respiration was measured using open-circuit spirometry. Energy expenditure was estimated as the cost of transport (COT). The EMG data were analyzed using frequency domain features, such as the area under the curve of power spectral density (PSD-AUC) and the maximal distance between two points before and after the peak of the power spectral density curve (MDPSD). The results indicated that PSD-AUC is a better measure than MDPSD for understanding the relationship between activation frequency and COT. PSD-AUC demonstrated an increasing curvilinear trend (R2 = 0.93 and 0.77, second order polynomial fit), but the AT displayed higher variability. MDPSD exhibited more nonlinearity (R2 = 0.17–28, second order polynomial fit), but MDPSD demonstrated statistically significant differences (p < 0.05, t-test independent) in frequency between the GAS-L (64–237 Hz) and AT (114–287 Hz) during slow walking. Additionally, the relationship between COT and PSD-AUC revealed a U-shaped curve, suggesting that high COT is a function of both active and passive dynamics during walking. These findings will be valuable in rehabilitating individuals who suffer from gait-related disorders, especially those related to muscle inefficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gait and Posture Biomechanics)
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10 pages, 1301 KiB  
Article
Test–Retest Reliability of a Motorized Resistance Device for Measuring Throwing Performance in Volleyball Athletes
by Eleftherios Paraskevopoulos, Anna Christakou, George Plakoutsis, George M. Pamboris and Maria Papandreou
Biomechanics 2024, 4(2), 259-268; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics4020015 - 28 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Throwing performance is a critical aspect of sports, particularly in overhead activities, necessitating reliable assessment methods. This study explores the test–retest reliability of throwing performance metrics measured by the 1080 Sprint, a robotic device integrating linear position technology and an electric motor. Specifically [...] Read more.
Throwing performance is a critical aspect of sports, particularly in overhead activities, necessitating reliable assessment methods. This study explores the test–retest reliability of throwing performance metrics measured by the 1080 Sprint, a robotic device integrating linear position technology and an electric motor. Specifically focusing on professional volleyball athletes with scapular dyskinesis, the study draws data from a previously published investigation on the impact of mirror cross exercise. Thirty-nine athletes were recruited, aged 21.9 ± 3.6 years, height 1.79 ± 0.3 m weight 68.5 ± 19.8 kg, and body mass index 21.3 ± 3.2 kg/m2, meeting stringent inclusion criteria. One-sample t-tests indicated no statistically significant differences between test–retest trials. The study revealed excellent reliability of the 1080 Sprint, with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values exceeding 0.99 for all metrics, including speed, force, and power. The standard error of measurement (SEM) calculation revealed that the Sprint 1080 motorized resistance device demonstrates high precision in measuring throwing performance. Bland and Altman plots indicated minimal systematic bias across all metrics, encompassing speed, force, and power. The provision of the minimum detectable change (MDC) for each variable of the Sprint 1080 motorized resistance device offers coaches a valuable tool to identify performance improvements in volleyball athletes. In conclusion, the present study shows that the 1080 Sprint is valid and reliable for measuring throwing performance in volleyball athletes for monitoring purposes. Full article
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13 pages, 3945 KiB  
Article
Lower Extremity Joint Kinetics during Walk-to-Run and Run-to-Walk Transitions
by Li Jin and Michael E. Hahn
Biomechanics 2024, 4(2), 246-258; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics4020014 - 23 Apr 2024
Viewed by 370
Abstract
Lower extremity joint kinetic factors are thought to modulate walk-to-run transition (WRT) and run-to-walk transition (RWT). This study aimed to investigate joint stiffness and energetic patterns during the WRT and RWT processes and identify whether gait transitions occur within a single step or [...] Read more.
Lower extremity joint kinetic factors are thought to modulate walk-to-run transition (WRT) and run-to-walk transition (RWT). This study aimed to investigate joint stiffness and energetic patterns during the WRT and RWT processes and identify whether gait transitions occur within a single step or not. Ten healthy subjects participated in treadmill WRT (1.8–2.4 m/s) and RWT (2.4–1.8 m/s) tests. We investigated two steps before transition (S–2, S–1), two steps after transition (S1, S2) and the transition step (S0). We found significant differences between S2 and S–2 for ankle joint stiffness during WRT and RWT (p < 0.001); for hip joint stiffness, we found significant differences between S1 and S–1 during WRT and RWT (p ≤ 0.001). Additionally, stance phase mechanical energy generation was observed to transfer from proximal to distal joints at S0 during WRT, and from distal to proximal at S0 during RWT. Transition step ankle kinematic and kinetic patterns were similar to the target locomotion task gait format in both WRT and RWT. Moreover, RWT required longer adaptation time compared with WRT. These findings indicate that WRT and RWT were modulated before and after the actual transitions, not within a single step. Redistribution of joint mechanical work generation was related to gait transition triggers, which modulate the WRT and RWT processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gait and Posture Biomechanics)
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11 pages, 936 KiB  
Article
Impact of Obesity on Foot Kinematics: Greater Arch Compression and Metatarsophalangeal Joint Dorsiflexion despite Similar Joint Coupling Ratios
by Freddy Sichting, Alexandra Zenner, Lutz Mirow, Robert Luck, Lydia Globig and Nico Nitzsche
Biomechanics 2024, 4(2), 235-245; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics4020013 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 447
Abstract
This study investigates the sagittal plane dynamics of the foot, particularly the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint and medial longitudinal arch (MLA) movements, in relation to obesity and foot health. The kinematics of the MTP and arch joints were measured in 17 individuals with class [...] Read more.
This study investigates the sagittal plane dynamics of the foot, particularly the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint and medial longitudinal arch (MLA) movements, in relation to obesity and foot health. The kinematics of the MTP and arch joints were measured in 17 individuals with class 2–3 obesity (BMI > 35 kg/m²) and 10 normal-weight individuals (BMI ≤ 24.9 kg/m²) using marker-based tracking. Analysis was conducted during heel lifting while seated and during walking at self-selected speeds. The results indicated that obese participants exhibited 20.92% greater MTP joint dorsiflexion at the end of the push-off phase and 19.84% greater MLA compression during the stance phase compared to normal-weight controls. However, no significant differences were found in the kinematic joint coupling ratio. While these findings reveal the different biomechanical behaviors of the MTP joint and MLA in obese compared to normal-weight individuals, it is important to interpret the implications of these differences with caution. This study identifies specific biomechanical variations that could be further explored to understand their potential impact on foot health in obese populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Biomechanics and Orthopedics of the Lower Extremity)
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16 pages, 787 KiB  
Review
Wheelchair Badminton: A Narrative Review of Its Specificities
by Ilona Alberca, Bruno Watier, Félix Chénier, Florian Brassart and Arnaud Faupin
Biomechanics 2024, 4(2), 219-234; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics4020012 - 2 Apr 2024
Viewed by 517
Abstract
This narrative review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific literature on wheelchair badminton and its distinctive aspects, encompassing abilities and disabilities, propulsion technique, and the use of a racket. The relatively young history of wheelchair badminton is reflected in the [...] Read more.
This narrative review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific literature on wheelchair badminton and its distinctive aspects, encompassing abilities and disabilities, propulsion technique, and the use of a racket. The relatively young history of wheelchair badminton is reflected in the scarcity of scientific studies within this domain, highlighting the need for further investigation. The review systematically covers existing articles on wheelchair badminton, offering a nearly exhaustive compilation of knowledge in this area. Findings suggest that athletes with abdominal capacities engage in more intense matches with a higher frequency of offensive shots compared to athletes with little or no abdominal capacities. Moreover, backward propulsion induces higher cardiorespiratory responses, overall intensity of effort, physiological stress, metabolic load, and rating of perceived exertion, particularly at high imposed rolling resistance or speeds, and makes it difficult to generate sufficient forces on the handrim, requiring adjustments in the kinematics of propulsion techniques, particularly at high rolling resistances or speeds, potentially leading to performance decrements. The use of a badminton racket further increases generated forces while decreasing the efficiency of propulsion and modifying the propulsion technique with shorter and quicker pushes, potentially impacting performance. Further research is imperative to explore additional perspectives, address existing gaps, and expand the scope of study within the wheelchair badminton domain. This narrative review serves as a foundation for future investigations, emphasizing the necessity of continued research to enhance our understanding of wheelchair badminton. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Locomotion Biomechanics and Motor Control)
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