Effect of Neuromuscular Deficit on Gait

A special issue of Biomechanics (ISSN 2673-7078). This special issue belongs to the section "Neuromechanics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 7359

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Gait is a major human movement, and its physiological function is fundamental for a wide range of physical activities (e.g., household chores, sports, transportation, work). However, this movement can be compromised in the existence of any neuromuscular deficit such as muscle weakness, abnormal muscle tone, and coordination. Despite the large number of neurological and orthopedic conditions inducing neuromuscular deficits, few data exist on the concomitant changes in gait. Therefore, this Special Issue invites original research and review papers in both neurological and orthopedic conditions that lead to abnormal gait. We are especially interested in research on the effects of cerebral palsy, cerebrovascular accident, ataxia, Parkinson's disease, and weakness of hip, knees, and ankle muscle groups on gait mechanics and metabolic cost.

Dr. Pantelis T. Nikolaidis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • arm swing
  • assistive device
  • biomechanics
  • center of gravity
  • crouch gait
  • double support
  • gait efficiency
  • kinesiology
  • metabolic cost
  • running
  • stance phase
  • step length
  • stiff leg gait
  • stride length
  • swing phase
  • trendelenburg gait
  • walking

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 4660 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Different Self-Selected Walking Speeds on Muscle Synergies in Transfemoral Amputees during Transient-State Gait
by Pouyan Mehryar, Mohammad Shourijeh, Tahmineh Rezaeian, Aminreza Khandan, Neil Messenger, Rory O’Connor, Farzam Farahmand and Abbas Dehghani-Sanij
Biomechanics 2024, 4(1), 14-33; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics4010002 - 11 Jan 2024
Viewed by 622
Abstract
Facing above-knee amputation poses a significant hurdle due to its profound impact on walking ability. To overcome this challenge, a complex adaptation strategy is necessary at the neuromuscular level to facilitate safe movement with a prosthesis. Prior research conducted on lower-limb amputees has [...] Read more.
Facing above-knee amputation poses a significant hurdle due to its profound impact on walking ability. To overcome this challenge, a complex adaptation strategy is necessary at the neuromuscular level to facilitate safe movement with a prosthesis. Prior research conducted on lower-limb amputees has shown a comparable amount of intricacy exhibited by the neurological system, regardless of the level of amputation and state of walking. This research investigated the differences in muscle synergies among individuals with unilateral transfemoral amputations during walking at three different speeds of transient-state gait. Surface electromyography was recorded from eleven male transfemoral amputees’ intact limbs (TFA), and the concatenated non-negative matrix factorization technique was used to identify muscle synergy components, synergy vectors (S), and activation coefficient profiles (C). Results showed varying levels of correlation across paired-speed comparisons in TFA, categorized as poor (S1), moderate (S3 and S4), and strong (S2). Statistically significant differences were observed in all activation coefficients except C3, particularly during the stance phase. This study can assist therapists in understanding muscle coordination in TFA during unsteady gait, contributing to rehabilitation programs for balance and mobility improvement, and designing myoelectric prosthetic systems to enhance their responsiveness to trips or falls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Neuromuscular Deficit on Gait)
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12 pages, 2232 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Gait Variability in Children Aged 2 to 10 Decreases throughout Pre-Adolescence
by Bryon C. Applequist, Zachary L. Motz and Anastasia Kyvelidou
Biomechanics 2023, 3(4), 571-582; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics3040046 - 03 Dec 2023
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Abstract
Background: Children’s gait is traditionally understood to mature as young as three years old through pre-adolescence. Studies looking at gait biomechanics suggest that gait matures around three years old, while studies investigating gait variability propose a much later maturation. The studies that have [...] Read more.
Background: Children’s gait is traditionally understood to mature as young as three years old through pre-adolescence. Studies looking at gait biomechanics suggest that gait matures around three years old, while studies investigating gait variability propose a much later maturation. The studies that have examined children’s gait variability did so while the children walked around a track or down hallways that created a discontinuous gait, potentially affecting the measures of variability and the efficacy of the results. Purpose: Therefore, the purpose of our study was to investigate the development of gait dynamics and gait variability in children in a more continuous fashion, in this case, by walking on a treadmill. Methods: To accomplish this, we included four age groups of children, ranging 2–10 years old, walking on a treadmill for at least three minutes while stride time and stride length were collected. Stride time and stride length’s variability was then analyzed using linear (mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation) and nonlinear (sample entropy, detrended fluctuation analysis) measures across the varying ages of our participants. Results: Interestingly, both the linear and nonlinear variabilities of the stride time and stride length measures decreased as the groups of children got older. Specifically, CV ST (2–3 (9.3 ± 4%), 8–10 (3.6 ± 0.7%), p < 0.05) and CV SL (2–3 (11.4 ± 3%), 8–10 (4.6 ± 1%), p < 0.05) were our strongest linear measures, and DFA α ST (2–3 (0.97 ± 0.12), 8–10 (0.82 ± 0.10), p < 0.05) and DFA α SL (2–3 (0.91 ± 0.04), 8–10 (0.81 ± 0.03), p < 0.05) were our strongest nonlinear measures, particularly between the youngest and oldest groups. This trend of variability decreasing with age suggests that as children’s gait matures, their gait becomes more stable and reliable. Significance: Our study rejects the notion that children’s gait is mature by the age of three, as some would suggest. By analyzing the variability of stride time and stride length, we can see that even later into childhood, children’s gait continues to change and evolve. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Neuromuscular Deficit on Gait)
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Review

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15 pages, 1940 KiB  
Review
On the Optimal Whole-Body Vibration Protocol for Muscle Strength
by Abdullah Al Masud, Chwan-Li Shen and Ming-Chien Chyu
Biomechanics 2022, 2(4), 547-561; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics2040043 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4945
Abstract
The application of Whole Body Vibration (WBV) has been demonstrated to be effective in improving muscle strength/power by a number of studies, but an optimal training protocol has never been established. This paper presents a review of studies on the effects of WBV [...] Read more.
The application of Whole Body Vibration (WBV) has been demonstrated to be effective in improving muscle strength/power by a number of studies, but an optimal training protocol has never been established. This paper presents a review of studies on the effects of WBV on muscles and an analysis of data to identify the optimal protocols for the most beneficial neuromuscular responses in terms of vibration frequency, amplitude, knee flexion angle, body posture (standing, sitting, supine, prone), muscle type (quadriceps, hamstrings), and vibration mode (superoinferior, anteroposterior, rotational). Ninety articles were selected for final review from initially selected 2093 articles using PRISMA guidelines. The findings suggest that the beneficial effects of WBV increase with frequency and amplitude but the optimal frequency and amplitude have not been established. The effect of the knee flexion angle is not clear. The optimal WBV protocol should be determined by considering the adverse effects of WBV on all parts of the human body including that related to head acceleration. WBV in sitting or lying positions may provide a better muscle response than standing. Directions for future research are discussed with regard to establishing the optimal WBV protocol as a safe and effective therapeutic/exercise modality for improving muscle strength and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Neuromuscular Deficit on Gait)
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