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Environ. Sci. Proc., 2023, CIGEO 2023​

IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering

Madrid, Spain | 6–7 July 2023

Volume Editors:

María Belén Benito Oterino, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain
José Fernández Torres, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Spain
Rosa María García Blanco, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain
Jorge Miguel Gaspar Escribano, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain
Miguel Ángel Manso Callejo, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain
Antonio Vázquez Hoehne, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain

Number of Papers: 32
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Cover Story (view full-size image): After the III Congress in Geomatics Engineering held in Valencia, Spain in 2021, the 4th edition, CIGEO2023 was held in Madrid on July 6 and 7, 2023. The Geomatics Engineering Congress aims to bring [...] Read more.
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2 pages, 179 KiB  
Editorial
Statement of Peer Review
by María Belén Benito Oterino, José Fernández Torres, Rosa María García Blanco, Jorge Miguel Gaspar Escribano, Miguel Ángel Manso Callejo and Antonio Vázquez Hoehne
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028030 - 6 Mar 2024
Viewed by 540
Abstract
In submitting conference proceedings to Environment Sciences Proceedings, the volume editors of these proceedings certify to the publisher that all papers published in this volume have been subjected to peer review administered by the volume editors [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)

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5 pages, 619 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Treatment and Analysis of the GNSS Signal from Smartphones and Its Applicability to Urban Mobility
by Jorge Hernández Olcina, Ana B. Anquela Julián and Ángel E. Martín Furones
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028001 - 18 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 697
Abstract
High-precision GNSS algorithms have a complexity that requires a high computational load, so not all mobile devices will be capable of calculating position through their use, and without compromising their efficiency and wasting battery. The development of an app will provide the opportunity [...] Read more.
High-precision GNSS algorithms have a complexity that requires a high computational load, so not all mobile devices will be capable of calculating position through their use, and without compromising their efficiency and wasting battery. The development of an app will provide the opportunity to research the possibility of controlling 100% of the raw data from the GNSS sensor from smartphones. Oriented to “cloud computing”, since the main objective is to provide a real-time computing tool to achieve a navigation solution, we use GNSS algorithms for this purpose, and thus avoid the computational load on the smartphone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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4 pages, 1009 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Geomatic Tools in Agricultural Management
by Paulo Escandón-Panchana, Gricelda Herrera-Franco and Sandra Martínez Cuevas
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028002 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Agricultural management guarantees food security and economic development in various countries by applying new technologies to improve management practices. This study aims to identify the geomatic tools and their relationship with the agricultural activities used in cartography by reviewing scientific publications that contribute [...] Read more.
Agricultural management guarantees food security and economic development in various countries by applying new technologies to improve management practices. This study aims to identify the geomatic tools and their relationship with the agricultural activities used in cartography by reviewing scientific publications that contribute to improving agricultural management practices. The methodology consists of (i) a data source search strategy related to geomatics and agricultural management; (ii) data analysis; and (iii) a literary review of the contribution of geomatics in agricultural management. The results show that a large part of the studies orients to agricultural cartography and a smaller number to the use and cover of land (LULC) by agricultural activity, cadastre and precision agriculture. The studies focus on improving agricultural management practices to contribute to food security and combat the impacts of climate change (Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2, 12 and 13). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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4 pages, 1164 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analysis of the Current Dynamic of the Jalisco Block, Mexico through GNSS Observations
by Juan L. Cabanillas Zavala, Manuel E. Trejo Soto and Xóchitl G. Torres Carrillo
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028003 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 565
Abstract
Mexico is surrounded by a highly dynamic tectonic environment, where the area of greatest influence is in the west, since it is where large earthquakes occur and tectonic blocks are generated due to the subduction of two oceanic plates in the North American [...] Read more.
Mexico is surrounded by a highly dynamic tectonic environment, where the area of greatest influence is in the west, since it is where large earthquakes occur and tectonic blocks are generated due to the subduction of two oceanic plates in the North American plate. In the present study, the horizontal velocities of 15 GNSS stations of continuous operation are calculated, over a period of 11 years, which are located within the Jalisco Block, Mexico with the objective of analyzing the current dynamics of this tectonic block, which is mainly influenced by the oblique subduction of the Rivera plate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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4 pages, 1908 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Vine Volume Estimation from UAV Photogrammetry and Imagery Processing
by Angel Collado, David Hernández-López and José Fernando Ortega
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028004 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 417
Abstract
The application of geomatics to the agroforestry field is acquiring greater prominence in recent times in a world that is increasingly digital and aware of sustainability and food security. The use of geomatics tools for 3D documentation and visualisation is becoming essential in [...] Read more.
The application of geomatics to the agroforestry field is acquiring greater prominence in recent times in a world that is increasingly digital and aware of sustainability and food security. The use of geomatics tools for 3D documentation and visualisation is becoming essential in so-called precision agriculture. This article describes the methodology used to obtain the wood volume of a set of vines in the town of Tarazona de la Mancha (Albacete, Spain). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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5 pages, 1326 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Wind Influence on the Spatiotemporal Forecast of Global Horizontal Irradiance
by Llinet Benavides Cesar, Miguel Ángel Manso Callejo and Calimanut-Ionut Cira
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028005 - 19 Dec 2023
Viewed by 523
Abstract
The connection between solar irradiance and wind is a topic of interest in the field of renewable energies, as wind data have proven to be effective predictors of solar energy, being indicators of cloud movement and atmospheric conditions. This study focuses the use [...] Read more.
The connection between solar irradiance and wind is a topic of interest in the field of renewable energies, as wind data have proven to be effective predictors of solar energy, being indicators of cloud movement and atmospheric conditions. This study focuses the use of decision tree-based algorithms (random forest, XGBoost and light gradient boosting machine, and LightGBM) to analyse the impact of the meridional and zonal wind components as input variables. In the study, past observations of neighbours were included as predictors to include a spatiotemporal analysis. The studied models were trained on the open, well-established OIH dataset (containing data from Oahu Island, Hawaii, located in the United States of America) featuring predominantly northeasterly winds. In the post-training analysis, it was found that the inclusion of the wind components resulted in a mean improvement of approximately 1% in the forecast skill (FS) score for all models, with the XGBoost model being the best performing model (with a 27.63% FS score). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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5 pages, 216 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design and Research of a Multipurpose Cadastre for the Development of Smart Communities in Municipalities of Chile
by Daniel Flores-Rozas, Miguel-Ángel Manso-Callejo and Sandra Martínez-Cuevas
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028006 - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 641
Abstract
In many governments, a digital transformation is gradually taking place in their municipal governance, not without many difficulties due to the lack of resources and qualified professionals. This is where the cadastre, understood as a multifunctional tool, provides a strategic vision of the [...] Read more.
In many governments, a digital transformation is gradually taking place in their municipal governance, not without many difficulties due to the lack of resources and qualified professionals. This is where the cadastre, understood as a multifunctional tool, provides a strategic vision of the socio-economic situation of the territory through geospatial data. If environmental conditions are added to this information, a diagnostic tool can be used by citizens under the concept of “Smart Communities” for the application of public policies to ensure that the administration of the territory is more efficient and to strengthen decision making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
6 pages, 8655 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Review of Hybrid Methods for the Characterization of Seismic Hazard in Central America
by Carlos Gamboa-Canté, Belén Benito, Alicia Rivas-Medina, Ligia Quiros, Mario Arroyo-Solórzano and Conrad Lindholm
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028007 - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 552
Abstract
This study compares methods that address two key aspects: how to quantify geological information and transfer it to recurrence models, and how to distribute the seismic potential between two types of sources. These methods are as follows: 1) the mom-rate method, 2) the [...] Read more.
This study compares methods that address two key aspects: how to quantify geological information and transfer it to recurrence models, and how to distribute the seismic potential between two types of sources. These methods are as follows: 1) the mom-rate method, 2) the mom-slip method, 3) the Hybrid Method Proposed (MHP), and 4) the method to build hazard models including earthquake ruptures involving several faults named Seismic hazard and earthquake rate in fault systems (SHERIFS). The results show that the peak ground acceleration (PGA) values increase significantly in the vicinity of the faults, when these are modeled as independent sources in the hybrid methods, reaching, in some cases, to be multiplied by a factor of 2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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6 pages, 1836 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evolution of the Guatemalan Earthquake Catalog
by Ramiro González and Jorge Gaspar-Escribano
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028008 - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 516
Abstract
This paper describes all the characteristics of the Guatemalan earthquake catalog and how it has evolved. Over 64,483 earthquakes are included in this paper distributed in some areas of El Salvador, Mexico, Honduras, and Belize, but mainly in Guatemala. Regularly, the earthquake catalogs [...] Read more.
This paper describes all the characteristics of the Guatemalan earthquake catalog and how it has evolved. Over 64,483 earthquakes are included in this paper distributed in some areas of El Salvador, Mexico, Honduras, and Belize, but mainly in Guatemala. Regularly, the earthquake catalogs improve their characteristics over time, however, this is not the case for the catalog of Guatemala. Although earthquake detection improved with the establishment of the national seismic network operated by the National Institute of Seismology, Vulcanology, Meteorology and Hydrology (INSIVUMEH) in 1977, the catalog has not kept a favorable evolution over time. This has led to problems with earthquake detection, large location errors, increasing magnitude of completeness, and others that are going to be discussed later in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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4 pages, 1316 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Towards the Updating of Rural Cadastre: Justification for Improved Land Administration
by Angel Collado, Fernando Buchón-Moragues and David Hernández-López
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028009 - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 524
Abstract
Keeping the database of a country's land administration system up to date is essential for territorial and social development. In the dual Spanish case, public policies should be applied in order to coordinate and improve land management. This article aims to highlight the [...] Read more.
Keeping the database of a country's land administration system up to date is essential for territorial and social development. In the dual Spanish case, public policies should be applied in order to coordinate and improve land management. This article aims to highlight the need to update the outdated cadastral ownership component as a result of its scarce updating. The comparison of cadastral ownership with population and genealogical information will be fundamental to show the current situation and justify the need to improve the rural cadastre. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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4 pages, 1783 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Principal Component Analysis for the Identification of the Vegetal Status in the Cerro Azul Meámbar National Park, Honduras, Using a Landsat 8 Image from the Year 2018
by Rafael Enrique Corrales, Juan Gregorio Rejas and Mercedes Farjas
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028010 - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 648
Abstract
The present area of investigation is located in the core zone of the Cerro Azul Meámbar National Park, Honduras. The objective was to demonstrate the vegetation cover and its biomass conditions in the core zone, using geomatics techniques. The methodology is based on [...] Read more.
The present area of investigation is located in the core zone of the Cerro Azul Meámbar National Park, Honduras. The objective was to demonstrate the vegetation cover and its biomass conditions in the core zone, using geomatics techniques. The methodology is based on Principal Component Analysis, using the image p18r50 (year 2018) from the Landsat 8 Program as data. This returned the following results: (A) Percentages of the total variation for each of the five components; (B) Eigenvalues and percentages of total variation; and (C) The correlation between the principal components and the five bands of the sensor. By using these components, we achieved a separability between the vegetation cover and the bare soil in the image. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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5 pages, 738 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of Interpolation Methods for Refractivity Mitigation
by Raquel Luján, Luis García-Asenjo and Sergio Baselga
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028011 - 25 Dec 2023
Viewed by 425
Abstract
Refraction has to be eliminated or mitigated for medium- or long-range applications requiring high accuracy (such as deformation monitoring). The high variability of meteorological parameters, and thus refraction, makes mitigation complicated. This study explores the possibility of direct refractivity interpolation with different algorithms [...] Read more.
Refraction has to be eliminated or mitigated for medium- or long-range applications requiring high accuracy (such as deformation monitoring). The high variability of meteorological parameters, and thus refraction, makes mitigation complicated. This study explores the possibility of direct refractivity interpolation with different algorithms for a nine-station meteorological sensor network in Cortes de Pallás (Spain). Our Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) model can potentially contribute to improving the refraction correction of the monitored area. MLR provides, on average, an RMSE of 0.6 (dimensionless) compared to 1.5 obtained with Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW). For future improvements, the previous smoothing of meteorological data will be considered, and the possibility of using GNSS for vertical atmospheric information will be studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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5 pages, 618 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Linear Regression Model for Live Fuel Moisture Content Estimation during the Fire Season in Shrub Areas of the Province of Valencia in Spain Using Sentinel-2 Remote Sensing Data
by Kenneth Pachacama-Vallejo and Ángel Balaguer-Beser
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028012 - 25 Dec 2023
Viewed by 549
Abstract
Live Fuel Moisture Content (LFMC) describes the amount of water present in any type of vegetation and helps quantify the amount of fuel available in a wildfire. In this paper, a multivariate linear regression model was built to estimate the LFMC of the [...] Read more.
Live Fuel Moisture Content (LFMC) describes the amount of water present in any type of vegetation and helps quantify the amount of fuel available in a wildfire. In this paper, a multivariate linear regression model was built to estimate the LFMC of the weighted average of all shrub-type species present, using the fraction of canopy cover (FCC) of each forest species as weights. Sample training was conducted with field data obtained during the fire season of the years 2019, 2020 and 2021 in 15 plots of a Mediterranean area where vegetation composed of the shrub-type species dominates. Different spectral indices extracted from Sentinel-2 together with the mean surface temperature, the accumulated precipitation and the seasonal parameters were considered as predictors. The results were compared with the extrapolation of another model trained with field data collected in the year 2019. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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5 pages, 739 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Agricultural Cultural Landscapes in America and Their Cartographic Delimitations
by Henry Leonel Carcamo and María José Viñals
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028013 - 27 Dec 2023
Viewed by 490
Abstract
This research analyzed a sample of agricultural cultural landscapes recognized by United Nations agencies on the American continent, with the objective of study being the geographical delimitation established for each of the cultural properties. The results show the lack of “general considerations” that [...] Read more.
This research analyzed a sample of agricultural cultural landscapes recognized by United Nations agencies on the American continent, with the objective of study being the geographical delimitation established for each of the cultural properties. The results show the lack of “general considerations” that provide guidelines to carry out this activity, which consequently enables the protection of a territory and its management. It was identified that the perimeters of these cultural landscapes may have limits based on the following; geomorphological features, linear infrastructures, political–administrative limits, and if none of these limits are present then they are physically catalogued as vague or unclear. The establishment of general delimitation guidelines will allow the development of public policies for the organizing of such territory and a sustainable, dynamic, efficient, and resilient management for this type of living landscape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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5 pages, 2744 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Field Campaign for the Collection of Exposure Data Regarding Natural Hazards in Heritage Buildings, Guaranda, Ecuador
by Alejandra Benavides-Ocampo, Jorge Gaspar-Escribano and Carlos Ocampo-León
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028014 - 25 Dec 2023
Viewed by 618
Abstract
The present investigation addresses the context in which the heritage buildings of the city of Guaranda (Ecuador) are exposed, in the face of natural or anthropic hazards. The interest lies in the degree of sensitivity towards the correct assessment of cultural heritage, given [...] Read more.
The present investigation addresses the context in which the heritage buildings of the city of Guaranda (Ecuador) are exposed, in the face of natural or anthropic hazards. The interest lies in the degree of sensitivity towards the correct assessment of cultural heritage, given that, for several years, this issue has been scarcely analyzed or documented. Consequently, field work was carried out in conjunction with the authorities of Guaranda and the Bolívar State University, in order to update the inventory of goods. The exposure and vulnerability measures of the National Institute of Cultural Heritage were used to analyze hazards and vulnerabilities in a GIS environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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7 pages, 3800 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Automatic Classification of Active Deformation Areas Based on Synthetic Aperture Radar Data and Environmental Covariates Using Machine Learning—Application in SE Spain
by Jhonatan Rivera-Rivera, Marta Béjar-Pizarro, Héctor Aguilera, Carolina Guardiola-Albert, César Husillos, Pablo Ezquerro, Anna Barra, Rosa María Mateos, María Cuevas-González, Roberto Sarro, Oriol Monserrat, Mónica Martínez-Corbella, Michele Crosetto and Juan López-Vinielles
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028015 - 29 Dec 2023
Viewed by 599
Abstract
Deformation processes, both natural (e.g., subsidence, landslides, active tectonics) and induced (e.g., associated with mining, construction. groundwater exploitation), result in significant socioeconomic losses worldwide. Accurate detection and classification of these processes are crucial for effective risk management. In this study, we present a [...] Read more.
Deformation processes, both natural (e.g., subsidence, landslides, active tectonics) and induced (e.g., associated with mining, construction. groundwater exploitation), result in significant socioeconomic losses worldwide. Accurate detection and classification of these processes are crucial for effective risk management. In this study, we present a novel approach for the automatic classification of deformation processes using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and machine learning techniques. Specifically, we use a decision tree-based classification algorithm to train a model capable of recognizing and distinguishing different types of deformation processes using time series of displacements, grouped into Active Deformation Areas (ADAs). We test this methodology in a large area in SE Spain. Our results demonstrate promising performance, with an Area Under the Curve (AUC) > 0.95, identifying several covariates of morphometric, geological, hydrogeological, and geotechnical nature as key factors. This automatic classification of InSAR data holds significant implications for risk management associated with ground deformation, providing a potentially valuable tool for decision makers in urban planning and land management officials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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6 pages, 1779 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Rice Crop Yield Prediction from Sentinel-2 Imagery Using Phenological Metric
by Javier A. Quille-Mamani, Luis A. Ruiz and Lía Ramos-Fernández
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028016 - 2 Jan 2024
Viewed by 987
Abstract
Crop yield prediction at plot scale is a vitally important magnitude for farmers at the socio-economic level. This study aims to quantify rice yield using phenological metrics from a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series derived from Sentinel-2 imagery, with yield data [...] Read more.
Crop yield prediction at plot scale is a vitally important magnitude for farmers at the socio-economic level. This study aims to quantify rice yield using phenological metrics from a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series derived from Sentinel-2 imagery, with yield data collected from 32 plots with an area of 36 ha in the Ferreñafe District of the Lambayeque region, Peru. Three different rice yield models were obtained, the best linear regression models were obtained for the SVM classification, with R2 of 0.69, MAE = 1.01 and RMSE = 1.23 t ha−1; and MRL with R2 of 0.61, MAE = 1.10 and RMSE = 1.38 t ha−1; RF with R2 of 0.44, MAE = 1.23 and RMSE = 1.66 t ha−1. The models obtained open the possibility to generate more robust models using a larger number of samples, which would be useful for farmers as well as for management and planning decisions for food and economic security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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5 pages, 2233 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Computing and Sharing the Differential Deformation of the Ground at a Continental Level Using Public EGMS Data
by Saeedeh Shahbazi, José A. Navarro and Anna Barra
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028017 - 2 Jan 2024
Viewed by 523
Abstract
The European Ground Motion Service (EGMS) monitors and measures land displacement on a European scale using Sentinel-1 data, providing reliable and consistent data on natural ground motion phenomena. The Geomatics Research Unit of the Center Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC) is working [...] Read more.
The European Ground Motion Service (EGMS) monitors and measures land displacement on a European scale using Sentinel-1 data, providing reliable and consistent data on natural ground motion phenomena. The Geomatics Research Unit of the Center Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC) is working on a project to generate wide-area differential deformation maps from EGMS basic products and make this information available to the public through a web server. The project involves configuring a self-hosted, low-cost web server using open-source tools; adapting the ADAfinder application to identify active deformation areas (ADAs); developing software pipelines to compute and convert deformation data; and developing a tailored web visor to display the results. Automation is crucial to the project’s success since it must handle a significant volume of data with millions of PS points and long processing durations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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5 pages, 213 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessment of the Structure Gauge against Characteristic Cross Sections in the Trans-European Rail System
by Ángel Luis Navarro, Jesús Velasco and Serafín Lopez-Cuervo
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028018 - 3 Jan 2024
Viewed by 663
Abstract
To achieve safety, accessibility, and technical compatibility in the operation of rail systems, technical specifications for interoperability are adopted to be complied with. This paper presents a study of the essential interoperability requirement ʺStructure Gaugeʺ within the framework of the regulations applicable to [...] Read more.
To achieve safety, accessibility, and technical compatibility in the operation of rail systems, technical specifications for interoperability are adopted to be complied with. This paper presents a study of the essential interoperability requirement ʺStructure Gaugeʺ within the framework of the regulations applicable to new, upgraded, or renewed infrastructure in the rail system within the European Union. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
7 pages, 6397 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Identification of Areas with Instability and Surface Deformation: Using Advanced Radar Interferometry in the Municipality of Fusagasugá, Colombia
by Edier Fernando Ávila, Bibiana Royero Benavides and Gelberth Efren Amarillo
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028019 - 10 Jan 2024
Viewed by 675
Abstract
The municipality of Fusagasugá is located 50 kilometers from the city of Bogotá, Colombia, in the eastern cordillera of the Andes in South America. Due to its geographical location, a mountainous area with heights between 1000 and 2000 meters above sea level and [...] Read more.
The municipality of Fusagasugá is located 50 kilometers from the city of Bogotá, Colombia, in the eastern cordillera of the Andes in South America. Due to its geographical location, a mountainous area with heights between 1000 and 2000 meters above sea level and two rainy seasons a year, it is affected by processes of instability and surface deformations. The objective of the present investigation was to identify and quantify the displacement speeds of the zones affected by processes of instability and superficial deformation. In this study, 20 radar satellite images from the Sentinel-1 program were used in the SLC format between 30 January 2020 and 19 April 2022 in descending orbit, applying the Small Base Line (SBAS) technique. On the other hand, 21 SAR images were also used in descending orbit between 6 January 2020 and 14 December 2021, applying the persistent scatterers (PS) technique. With the above information, it was possible to map and update the data of the municipality of Fusagasugá in order to include them in the monitoring processes at the regional level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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4 pages, 1884 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Improvement of Methane Plume Detection with High-Resolution Satellite-Based Imaging Spectrometers
by Javier Roger, Itziar Irakulis-Loitxate, Javier Gorroño, Adriana Valverde and Luis Guanter
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028020 - 9 Jan 2024
Viewed by 750
Abstract
The detection and monitoring of methane anthropogenic emissions is of vital importance in order to curb global warming. Satellite-based imaging spectrometers, such as PRISMA and EnMAP, have proven instrumental in this task. Methane absorption features from the shortwave infrared spectral range (1000–2400 nm) [...] Read more.
The detection and monitoring of methane anthropogenic emissions is of vital importance in order to curb global warming. Satellite-based imaging spectrometers, such as PRISMA and EnMAP, have proven instrumental in this task. Methane absorption features from the shortwave infrared spectral range (1000–2400 nm) are exploited by algorithms such as the matched-filter. This method can correctly characterize methane plumes, but retrieval artifacts disturb methane plume detection when using only those spectral channels related to the methane absorption features. Retrievals from simulated plumes and real emission cases from PRISMA and EnMAP data cubes are used to demonstrate that using the whole shortwave infrared region in the matched-filter method results in a better plume detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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5 pages, 1248 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Reconstructing the Past of Magnetic Declination at the Real Observatorio de Madrid
by Jose Manuel Tordesillas, Francisco Javier Pavón-Carrasco and Ana Belén Anquela
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028021 - 11 Jan 2024
Viewed by 511
Abstract
The agonic line, characterized by zero values of geomagnetic declination, has had a westward drift during the last centuries, crossing the location of the Real Observatorio de Madrid at the end of the year 2021. This fact, which was monitored by the Instituto [...] Read more.
The agonic line, characterized by zero values of geomagnetic declination, has had a westward drift during the last centuries, crossing the location of the Real Observatorio de Madrid at the end of the year 2021. This fact, which was monitored by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional, moves us to study the evolution of the magnetic declination in this emblematic emplacement between the last two crosses of the agonic line. Our results point out that the current westward drift started around the year 1810 and, before this period, the agonic line moved from west to east, crossing the location of the Real Observatorio around 1650–1675. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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4 pages, 3156 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Satellite Characterization of Methane Point Sources by Offshore Oil and Gas PlatForms
by Adriana Valverde, Itziar Irakulis-Loitxate, Javier Roger, Javier Gorroño and Luis Guanter
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028022 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 912
Abstract
Reducing methane, which is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, has been shown to be a good opportunity to mitigate global warming in the short to medium time. Remote sensing is nowadays a useful tool for the identification of [...] Read more.
Reducing methane, which is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, has been shown to be a good opportunity to mitigate global warming in the short to medium time. Remote sensing is nowadays a useful tool for the identification of anthropogenic emission from methane point sources. In this work, we will demonstrate the capability of high-resolution satellites to detect point sources of methane. Specifically, this study focuses on emissions from offshore oil and gas platforms using sun-glint mode acquisitions, as these platforms represent a significant fraction of total emissions and pose a challenging issue due to the low radiation from water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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5 pages, 1049 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Performance of Assisted-Global Navigation Satellite System from Network Mobile to Precise Positioning on Smartphones
by Mónica Zabala Haro, Ángel Martín, Ana Anquela and María Jesús Jiménez
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028023 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 448
Abstract
Indoor navigation is the most challenging environment regarding precise positioning service for a smartphone’s physical quality limitations and interferences for high buildings, trees and multipath fading in the GNSS signal received. A GPS by itself cannot offer a solution; the A-GNSS from a [...] Read more.
Indoor navigation is the most challenging environment regarding precise positioning service for a smartphone’s physical quality limitations and interferences for high buildings, trees and multipath fading in the GNSS signal received. A GPS by itself cannot offer a solution; the A-GNSS from a network mobile provided through telecommunication infrastructure provides information that is useful to counteract these issues. A smartphone has full connectivity to the mobile network 24/7 and has access to the GNSS database when required, and the assisted information is sent over an Internet Protocol (IP) and processed by the GNSS chip, increasing the accuracy, TTFF, and availability of data even in harsh environments. The outdoor, light indoor, and urban canyon scenarios are experienced when driving in some places in the city, and they are recorded with Geo++ and processed with RTKlib using a single frequency in a standalone and multi-constellation double-frequency smartphone, Xiaomi Mi 8, with A-GNSS. The results show good accuracy in the SPS for over 10 (m) and in assisted positioning over 50 (m); the TTFF in assisted positioning is always 5 (s), and in the SPS, it reaches 20 (s). Finally, during the trajectory, only the assisted positioning can compute the position; this is because of the data availability from a mobile network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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5 pages, 2117 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Space–Air–Earth–Water Sensor Network Used to Determine the Impact of Overexploitation of Water Resources (Ecuador)
by Ángel Morales Sánchez, Serafín López-Cuervo and Juan F. Prieto
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028024 - 16 Jan 2024
Viewed by 515
Abstract
This study analyzes repercussions for the morphology, talweg, riverbanks and surrounding structures of several aquatic systems transformed by multipurpose reservoirs located within the Ecuadorian territory of South America. For this purpose, several geomatics techniques were used simultaneously, minimizing the temporal error in the [...] Read more.
This study analyzes repercussions for the morphology, talweg, riverbanks and surrounding structures of several aquatic systems transformed by multipurpose reservoirs located within the Ecuadorian territory of South America. For this purpose, several geomatics techniques were used simultaneously, minimizing the temporal error in the reservoir water level in order to measure the impact of partial or total emptying operations on these reservoirs. High precision geodetic networks were designed to synchronously use geospatial data-capturing equipment, namely UASs/drones with INS/GNSS systems, LiDAR sensors, RGB optical sensors, USVs/aquatic drones equipped with GNSS systems, and single-beam sensors. Photogrammetric, LiDAR and underwater results were contrasted with topographic techniques used in the monitoring and control of structures. Environmental changes in the surroundings, soil movements due to sedimentary and erosive effects, and possible displacements in existing structures were analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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5 pages, 233 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparative Study of Algorithms for Obtaining AOD Using High Spatial Resolution Satellite Imagery
by María Joaquina Porres, Edgar Lorenzo-Sáez, Javier Solá and Eloína Coll
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028025 - 16 Jan 2024
Viewed by 423
Abstract
Air pollution control and air quality monitoring are global priority, which also applies to local scales. Ground-based monitoring stations provide high quality values, but their number and cost make them insufficient for use at certain scales and for air monitoring in urban areas. [...] Read more.
Air pollution control and air quality monitoring are global priority, which also applies to local scales. Ground-based monitoring stations provide high quality values, but their number and cost make them insufficient for use at certain scales and for air monitoring in urban areas. Satellite imagery provides indicators directly related to air quality. Aerosol optical thickness (AOD), used in atmospheric corrections of images, can be used as an indicator of air quality. This product is present in images obtained by satellites of medium spatial resolution, so it is necessary to develop methodologies to obtain it at higher resolution. This work aims to compare methodologies for obtaining AOD and its use in high spatial resolution satellites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
5 pages, 1070 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Tracking the Evolution of Biodeterioration and Physico-Chemical Alterations Using Microphotogrammetric Techniques in the Altamira Cave
by Vicente Bayarri and Alfredo Prada
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028026 - 16 Jan 2024
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Caves are open ecosystems with natural microbiota, and they are generally stable if environmental conditions are stable. Some have rock art, which is generally characterized as fragile, especially when the equilibrium conditions of the hypogeum are changed. This article shows how high-resolution microphotogrammetry, [...] Read more.
Caves are open ecosystems with natural microbiota, and they are generally stable if environmental conditions are stable. Some have rock art, which is generally characterized as fragile, especially when the equilibrium conditions of the hypogeum are changed. This article shows how high-resolution microphotogrammetry, supported by other geomatic techniques, allows the objective and quantifiable control of the alterations suffered by the pigment and its variation over time regarding earlier campaigns. This method, applied periodically, makes it possible to prevent and/or detect possible alterations at an early stage and improve the conditions of the conservation of the cave. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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5 pages, 2286 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Tool to Generate Deforestation and Illegal Mining Alerts with Remote Sensing
by Martha Patricia Valbuena Gaona, Cindy Carolina Ferrucho Parra, María Angélica Prieto Arenas and Germán Alberto Muñoz Bravo
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028027 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 906
Abstract
The Colombian environmental policies in the 2022–2026 Development Plan align with international guidelines such as the Escazú Agreement, the Rio Declaration, and the Sustainable Development Goals. In concordance with these ongoing efforts, a specialized tool has been developed to effectively identify potential cases [...] Read more.
The Colombian environmental policies in the 2022–2026 Development Plan align with international guidelines such as the Escazú Agreement, the Rio Declaration, and the Sustainable Development Goals. In concordance with these ongoing efforts, a specialized tool has been developed to effectively identify potential cases of deforestation and illegal mining linked to forest cover loss and the presence of mercury-contaminated water bodies using planet imagery. The workflow used the ArcGIS Pro Task module, with geo-processes integrated into the Python library, arcpy, and fundamental concepts of object-based image analysis (OBIA) and pixel-based analysis. A methodology known as tip and cue was also implemented to detect illegal mining zones. The tool provides efficient means to study environmental crimes and prevent ecosystem damages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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5 pages, 578 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Preliminary Results of Satellite-Derived Nearshore Bathymetry
by Ausiàs Roch-Talens, Josep Eliseu Pardo-Pascual and Jaime Almonacid-Caballer
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028028 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 505
Abstract
This article presents the preliminary results of a study on satellite-derived bathymetry. The purpose of this research is to explore the use of remote sensing and optical imagery for mapping the depth of coastal waters. This study uses empirical models to estimate the [...] Read more.
This article presents the preliminary results of a study on satellite-derived bathymetry. The purpose of this research is to explore the use of remote sensing and optical imagery for mapping the depth of coastal waters. This study uses empirical models to estimate the water depth based on the optical properties of the water column. To carry this out, it employs atmospheric correction algorithms to remove the influence of atmospheric scattering and absorption on the optical signals. The authors then apply the empirical models to the corrected imagery to obtain the bathymetric maps. The study shows promising results (RMSE ranging between 0.49 and 0.96m using the Lyzenga methodology), with the estimated depths generally consistent with the available ground-truth data. However, the accuracy of the estimated depths varies depending on the water conditions, such as the presence of waves and bottom type. The authors conclude that satellite-derived bathymetry has great potential for coastal applications, such as environmental monitoring and coastal management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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5 pages, 1371 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Detection of Methane Point Sources with High-Resolution Satellites
by Itziar Irakulis-Loitxate, Javier Roger, Javier Gorroño, Adriana Valverde and Luis Guanter
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028029 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 658
Abstract
Methane is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas, whose emissions need to be mitigated to curb global warming. There is a large uncertainty about its point source, but thanks to a new generation of high-spatial-resolution satellites, this situation is changing drastically, revealing [...] Read more.
Methane is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas, whose emissions need to be mitigated to curb global warming. There is a large uncertainty about its point source, but thanks to a new generation of high-spatial-resolution satellites, this situation is changing drastically, revealing thousands of emission point sources worldwide. In this paper, several hotspot areas are mapped, looking for methane emission point sources with different types of high-resolution satellites. Our results demonstrate the potential of satellite remote sensing to reveal methane emission point sources in different scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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5 pages, 237 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of Water Vapor-Weighted Mean Temperature Models in GNSS Station ACOR
by Raquel Perdiguer-López, José Luis Berné Valero and Natalia Garrido-Villen
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028031 - 7 Mar 2024
Viewed by 448
Abstract
The delay of GNSS signals in the neutral atmosphere allow the determination of atmospheric water vapor. The conversion factor of the delay in the water vapor uses the water vapor-weighted mean temperature, Tm, which is a crucial parameter to improve the [...] Read more.
The delay of GNSS signals in the neutral atmosphere allow the determination of atmospheric water vapor. The conversion factor of the delay in the water vapor uses the water vapor-weighted mean temperature, Tm, which is a crucial parameter to improve the quality of conversion. This study analyzed two different types of models: linear models such as Bevis, Mendes and Ortiz de Galisteo, and empirical models such as GPT2w, GPT3 and GWMT_D. The performance of the models was analyzed using the models as the source of Tm to obtain the precipitable water vapor (PWV), which was compared to a reference set of PWV obtained from a matched radiosonde site. The results show a better performance of the linear models, with the Bevis model achieving the best performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
4 pages, 4180 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Towards Modeling of the Landscape Evolution of Los Naranjos Archaeological Site, Honduras
by Nohemy Lizeth Rivera Gutiérrez
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2023, 28(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2023028032 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Los Naranjos is an archaeological site inhabited since approximately 800 BC. The objective is to analyze the landscape of this site to understand the territorial, social, and cultural dynamics, along with its natural environment, since pre-Hispanic times. The methodology involves a documentary review [...] Read more.
Los Naranjos is an archaeological site inhabited since approximately 800 BC. The objective is to analyze the landscape of this site to understand the territorial, social, and cultural dynamics, along with its natural environment, since pre-Hispanic times. The methodology involves a documentary review of investigations, and a search for mappings and reconstructions of previous studies, historical sources, and fieldwork. Preliminary results include a review of existing sources for model generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of IV Conference on Geomatics Engineering)
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