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Eng. Proc., 2022, ICAME-22

The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering

Islamabad, Pakistan | 25 August 2022 

Volume Editors:
Muhammad Mahabat Khan, Capital University of Science and Technology (CUST), Pakistan
Mohammad Javed Hyder, Capital University of Science and Technology (CUST), Pakistan
Muhammad Irfan, Capital University of Science and Technology (CUST), Pakistan
Manzar Masud, Capital University of Science and Technology (CUST), Pakistan

Number of Papers: 37

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Cover Story (view full-size image): The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering 2022 (ICAME-22) was organized on 25 August 2022 by the Capital University of Science and Technology (CUST). ICAME is held [...] Read more.
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1 pages, 171 KiB  
Editorial
Statement of Peer Review
by Muhammad Mahabat Khan, Mohammad Javed Hyder, Muhammad Irfan and Manzar Masud
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023037 - 11 Oct 2022
Viewed by 706
Abstract
In submitting conference proceedings to Engineering Proceedings, the volume editors of the proceedings certify to the publisher that all papers published in this volume have been subjected to peer review administered by the volume editors [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)

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5 pages, 991 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
To Investigate Thermal Conductivity of Phase Change Material by Incorporating Surfactants
by Qaiser Azim, Shahid Mehmood and Azhar Hussain
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023001 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 897
Abstract
Phase change materials (PCMs) store or release heat during their phase transition. Their low thermal conductivity affects the performance of the latent heat energy storage system. This study aimed to investigate the thermal conductivity of PCMs by mixing surfactants. Surfactants with varying weights [...] Read more.
Phase change materials (PCMs) store or release heat during their phase transition. Their low thermal conductivity affects the performance of the latent heat energy storage system. This study aimed to investigate the thermal conductivity of PCMs by mixing surfactants. Surfactants with varying weights of sodium stearate (SS), gum arabic (GA), and sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) were mixed with paraffin wax. The charging and discharging rate of pure paraffin wax was compared to surfactant-mixed paraffin wax. Pure paraffin wax peaked at 66.76 °C. SSL’s highest temperature was 68.3 °C at the critical micelle concentration (CMC) (the concentration of surfactants above which micelles form) and 69 °C above the CMC. GA reached 70 °C at the CMC and 71 °C above the CMC. Sodium stearate (SS) reached 72.12 °C at the CMC and 73.8 °C above the CMC. The melting time test revealed that a reduced melting time resulted in the higher heat conductivity of paraffin. When compared to the melting times of pure paraffin, those of composite PCM containing SSL (>CMC), GA (>CMC), and SS (>CMC) decreased by 6.12%, 14.28%, and 22.44%, respectively. The results show that a concentration above the critical micelle concentration of sodium stearate leads to the best results compared to other samples. Surfactants form micelle, which acted as the conducting medium inside the paraffin wax. Thus, paraffin wax’s thermal conductivity was boosted, and the study’s goal was met. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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6 pages, 2411 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development of a Computational Tool for Maneuver Loads Estimation in Initial Design Phase for Fighter Aircraft
by Chaudry Rohan Rafiq and Waqar Ahmed Qureshi
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023002 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1045
Abstract
The determination of aircraft loads in the preliminary design phase is important for the optimal design of aircraft structures. In this paper, the inflight load calculation methodology for aircraft in the preliminary design phase is formulated in the form of a computer tool [...] Read more.
The determination of aircraft loads in the preliminary design phase is important for the optimal design of aircraft structures. In this paper, the inflight load calculation methodology for aircraft in the preliminary design phase is formulated in the form of a computer tool developed in MATLAB/Simulink environment. In this tool (Loads Model), aircraft maneuvers are simulated, and the corresponding time histories of loads (shear force, bending moment) on the aircraft components (wing, horizontal tail, vertical tail, fuselage) are obtained, which are required for the preliminary structural design of the aircraft. The loads tool can be used to implement the design loads requirements established in “NATO RTO-45” for control configured fighter aircraft. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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5 pages, 1073 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluating the Effect of Process Parameters on the Mechanical Properties of an AA7075-Cu Overcast Joint Using the Taguchi Method
by Muhammad Waqas Hanif, Ahmad Wasim and Muhammad Sajid
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023003 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 851
Abstract
The present study aims to evaluate the effect of process parameters such as melt temperature (MT), squeeze pressure (SP) and insert pre-heating temperature (IPT) on the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of an AA7075-Cu overcast joint using an orthogonal array (L8) of Taguchi techniques. [...] Read more.
The present study aims to evaluate the effect of process parameters such as melt temperature (MT), squeeze pressure (SP) and insert pre-heating temperature (IPT) on the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of an AA7075-Cu overcast joint using an orthogonal array (L8) of Taguchi techniques. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test results showed that SP is the most significant process parameter due to the significant reduction in air gaps between aluminum and copper. The optimal value of UTS (39.33 MPa) was attained at higher levels of SP (90 MPa), MT (800 °C) and IPT (300 °C). The confirmation test validated the significance of process parameters in optimizing the UTS of an AA7075-Cu overcast joint due to the low percentage error. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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5 pages, 414 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Minimizing a Just-In-Time Objective on a Single-Batch-Processing Machine Using a Hybrid Differential Evolution Algorithm
by Chen Wang, Yarong Chen, Fuh-Der Chou and Shenquan Huang
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023004 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 665
Abstract
A hybrid differential evolution (HDE) algorithm that minimizes the total earliness and tardiness time (ET), a just-in-time objective, is studied for a single-batch-processing machine (SBPM) scheduling problem with different processing times, release times, sizes and delivery times. A hybrid differential evolution algorithm with [...] Read more.
A hybrid differential evolution (HDE) algorithm that minimizes the total earliness and tardiness time (ET), a just-in-time objective, is studied for a single-batch-processing machine (SBPM) scheduling problem with different processing times, release times, sizes and delivery times. A hybrid differential evolution algorithm with an integrated Tabu search (TS) algorithm is proposed to improve the capacity of the neighborhood search of a differential evolution algorithm (DE). The experimental results show that the proposed HDE can obtain better an objective value than the basic DE can. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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5 pages, 459 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Mathematical Modelling to Predict the Best Inclination Angle for Maximum Distillate Output of A Solar Still
by Nawaf Mehmood Malik, Mansoor Ali Zaheer, Asif Ali and Abdul Haseeb
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023005 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1466
Abstract
Solar stills are generally used to obtain fresh and clean water from saline water sources using solar energy. This technique is very economical, as only the source of energy is solar energy. Many factors affect the efficiency of the solar stills, such as [...] Read more.
Solar stills are generally used to obtain fresh and clean water from saline water sources using solar energy. This technique is very economical, as only the source of energy is solar energy. Many factors affect the efficiency of the solar stills, such as altitude, location, wind velocity, thickness, the inclination angle of the glass, etc. In this paper, mathematical modelling of three different solar stills with glass inclination angles of 15°, 30°, and 45° has been carried out to calculate the total radiation falling on these solar stills in addition to the calculation of the total heat transfer inside of them. These parameters are further utilized to compute the distilled water output from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. by considering the location of the Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan, on the 22nd of June. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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4 pages, 1090 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Study of Steam Jet Condensation for CD Spray Nozzle Exhausting into Quiescent Water
by Haseeb Afzal, Ajmal Shah, Abdul Quddus, Noman Arif Khan, Shumail Hassan, Muhammad Khawar Ayub and Mazhar Iqbal
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023006 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 716
Abstract
Direct contact condensation (DCC) has achieved a well-known significance because of exceptional reasons such as efficient heat and mass transfer characteristics. The current experimental investigation involves considering the steam cavity shape characteristics with varying steam pressure, when the saturated steam is condensed into [...] Read more.
Direct contact condensation (DCC) has achieved a well-known significance because of exceptional reasons such as efficient heat and mass transfer characteristics. The current experimental investigation involves considering the steam cavity shape characteristics with varying steam pressure, when the saturated steam is condensed into the one-phase water atmosphere using a converging-diverging (CD) nozzle. The results indicate the four different shapes of steam jet (oscillatory, conical, ellipsoidal and double expansion–contraction). It is observed that the penetration length and the maximum expansion ratio increase with the increase in steam saturated pressure and are found in the range of 1.8–2.8 and 1–1.13, respectively. Furthermore, the current results for jet length are compared with previously developed jet length predicting models which are found to be in good agreement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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5 pages, 1407 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Computational Investigation of the Flow Structure through an Over-Expanded Nozzle
by Muhammad Haroon, Shummaila Rasheed, Muhammad Irfan, Manzar Masud and Muhammad Arsalan Munawar
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023007 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 941
Abstract
Flow separation is a complex phenomenon that occurs in many internal and external flows. In internal flows, flow separation produces so-called side loads that are undesirable. This study aims to investigate the effect of the nozzle-pressure ratio on flow structures in a non-axisymmetric [...] Read more.
Flow separation is a complex phenomenon that occurs in many internal and external flows. In internal flows, flow separation produces so-called side loads that are undesirable. This study aims to investigate the effect of the nozzle-pressure ratio on flow structures in a non-axisymmetric sub-scale two-dimensional (2D) convergent divergent type and in a three-dimensional axisymmetric nozzle, computationally. State-of-the-art ANSYS CFX software is used for the numerical flow analysis at two different pressure ratios: 3.0 and 3.4. Computational analysis shows that the flow is dominated by induced shock-wave boundary-layer separation. The computational results are in good agreement with the available experimental data. A considerable difference between the flow structure is observed from 3.0 to 3.4 NPRs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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4 pages, 2117 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Investigation and Prioritization of Manpower Activities and Strategic Human Resource Management Factors in Human Resource Information System
by Laraib Habib and Muhammad Sajid
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023008 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1089
Abstract
Human Resource (HR) is one of the main departments in an organization that foresees all the manpower of a company. HR trends are changing rapidly. One such advancement in the field of HR is the human resource information system (HRIS). This paper aims [...] Read more.
Human Resource (HR) is one of the main departments in an organization that foresees all the manpower of a company. HR trends are changing rapidly. One such advancement in the field of HR is the human resource information system (HRIS). This paper aims to investigate and prioritize the factors of manpower activities and strategic HRM in HRIS. For this purpose, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) has been used. The result showed that HRs use HRIS for basic purposes such as training, hiring, and forming HR policies. This paper provides an insight into the investigation of the most important factors while implementing HRIS in an organization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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5 pages, 3330 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Investigating the Effect of Crack’s Inclination on Strain Energy and Stress Intensity under Uniaxial Loading
by Salman Khan, Massab Junaid and Fahd Nawaz Khan
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023009 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 889
Abstract
The component’s strength and reliability are greatly influenced by the occurrence of cracks and flaws. Material surfaces or internal defects can create stress concentration, which causes failure of the materials. To quantify the stress intensity factor (SIF) and strain energy release rate (SERR) [...] Read more.
The component’s strength and reliability are greatly influenced by the occurrence of cracks and flaws. Material surfaces or internal defects can create stress concentration, which causes failure of the materials. To quantify the stress intensity factor (SIF) and strain energy release rate (SERR) around the tips of the crack, numerical simulation has been performed on a plate of central crack with Comsol Multiphysics. The SIF and SERR with varying uniaxial stress loading (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 MPa) and crack’s angle (0°–180°) were determined using the J-integral method. The results show that the crack’s maximum opening and sliding displacement occurred at an angle of 90° and 45° respectively. For mode I, the SIFs were maximum at the crack’s inclination of 90° and for mode II, it was maximum at an angle of 45°. Similarly, the SERR was also found to be maximum when the crack was normal to the applied stress and observed to increase with the increase in applied stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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4 pages, 308 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Driving Parameters for Technology Penetration in Pakistan: A Case Study for Indoor LED Lighting
by Ubaid Zia, Saleha Qureshi, Hina Aslam and Muhammad Zulfiqar
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023010 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1115
Abstract
This study aims to analyze the existing market status of lighting technologies in Pakistan, the existing policy and regulatory framework, and the key driving factors which have led to the market growth of LED technology in both rural and urban areas. The results [...] Read more.
This study aims to analyze the existing market status of lighting technologies in Pakistan, the existing policy and regulatory framework, and the key driving factors which have led to the market growth of LED technology in both rural and urban areas. The results obtained from an extensive survey backed by the literature on the policy landscape of energy efficiency showed that LED technology has penetrated approximately 95% of the existing market. With a low payback period and high return rates, the entire transition toward LED lighting can lower mercury pollution by 700 kg, lower carbon dioxide by 33,000 kt, and save USD 6.5 billion in the form of electricity bills. This transition has been mainly driven by the low cost of technology resulting from regulatory support in the form of the Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPs), labeling schemes, and reduced taxation on both sales and manufacturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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5 pages, 1600 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design and Airflow Analysis of 20 kW Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Blade
by Muhammad Hamza, Ahmad Ali, Saqlain Abbas and Zulkarnain Abbas
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023011 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1056
Abstract
The key objective of the research is to calculate and design the Small Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) that can meet Pakistan’s energy needs. This is the plan for producing approximately 20 kW of electricity to distribute the load used by common household [...] Read more.
The key objective of the research is to calculate and design the Small Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) that can meet Pakistan’s energy needs. This is the plan for producing approximately 20 kW of electricity to distribute the load used by common household appliances. This study will focus on Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan, where a wind turbine is considered to generate electricity. The appropriate design is required to make the turbine more efficient and decreases the cost. Q-blade wind turbine software verifies the design parameters. The maximum power factor is achieved at the design speed of 8 m/s. Design analysis is also performed in Q-blade wind turbine simulation software. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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5 pages, 1819 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design of an Indoor Setup for Experimental Investigation of Thermosiphoning Heat Transfer Using Water and Nanofluid for Application in Compound Parabolic Solar Collectors
by Muhammad Taimoor Jahangir, Muzaffar Ali, Ozair Ghufran Bhatti, Muhammad Arbaz, Muhammad Irfan and Muhammad Hassan Haider
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023012 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1368
Abstract
The world is moving towards renewable energy sources because of fossil fuel depletion and its adverse environmental impacts. To study the thermosiphoning process using water and nanofluids at different angles of receiver tubes, an indoor experimental setup was designed. The maximum flow rate [...] Read more.
The world is moving towards renewable energy sources because of fossil fuel depletion and its adverse environmental impacts. To study the thermosiphoning process using water and nanofluids at different angles of receiver tubes, an indoor experimental setup was designed. The maximum flow rate achieved at a 35° angle was 6.30 mL/s and the maximum outlet temperature achieved was 82.8 °C at a 45° angle using water. The flow rate achieved using Al2O3 nanofluid was 8.20 mL/s. The results show that the time to achieve the thermosiphoning was greatly reduced with an enhanced flow rate of 30.1% using nanofluids as compared with water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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5 pages, 943 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Thermo-Fluid Performance Enhancement Using NACA Aerofoil Cross-Sectional Tubes
by Muhammad Hasnain Tariq, Farooq Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan and Taqi Ahmad Cheema
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023013 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 826
Abstract
Industrial heat exchange applications encounter flow across a bank of tubes in an aligned or staggered configuration. The former arrangement causes boundary layer separation and wake formation in the trailing part of the first tube leading to poor heat exchange. Alternatively, the staggered [...] Read more.
Industrial heat exchange applications encounter flow across a bank of tubes in an aligned or staggered configuration. The former arrangement causes boundary layer separation and wake formation in the trailing part of the first tube leading to poor heat exchange. Alternatively, the staggered arrangement is used for heat transfer improvement, accompanied by a rise in the pressure drop. The present study uses tubes of NACA airfoil cross-sections as an alternative solution. The pressure drop and heat transfer rates in aligned aero tubes are improved by 36% and 3% more than in the circular tubes with a staggered arrangement, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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5 pages, 914 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Experimental Investigation of Runner Design Parameters on the Performance of Vortex Turbine
by Rizwan Ullah and Taqi Ahmad Cheema
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023014 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 969
Abstract
The vortex turbine (VT) is a micro-hydro turbine that extracts power from a water vortex that is artificially generated in a conical or cylindrical cross-section basin. The former cross-section gives rise to a stronger vortex than the latter, meaning it has more potential [...] Read more.
The vortex turbine (VT) is a micro-hydro turbine that extracts power from a water vortex that is artificially generated in a conical or cylindrical cross-section basin. The former cross-section gives rise to a stronger vortex than the latter, meaning it has more potential for power generation. For this reason, the present study experimentally analyzed the effect of sensitive geometric parameters on the VT performance, i.e., the rotor to basin diameter ratio (RB) and runner’s position in the conical basin (CB). The results show that the ideal runner in terms of RB for the best performance of VT is a runner with RB = 0.6, which has a maximum potential for the utilization of the forced vortex region of the Rankine vortex. Moreover, the best position for the installation of a VT runner is the location at the bottom near the orifice, as the strong vortex tangential velocity and maximum head drop at the mid-position is not a feasible option. Blades with a tilt in the vertical plane are suggested for use in the power extraction at the bottom of CB whereas crossflow blades suit the rotational flow region near the top of CB, i.e., the surface vortex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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5 pages, 603 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Multi-Objective Scheduling Optimization Method for PCB Assembly Lines Based on the Improved Spider Monkey Algorithm
by Jingyan Zhong, Yarong Chen and Jabir Mumtaz
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023015 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 752
Abstract
For assembly lines of circuit printing board (PCBs), this study investigated an integrated scheduling problem of the component allocation problem (CAP) and component placement sequence problem (CPSP) with the fixed interval preventive maintenance to minimize the maximum completion time (Cmax), [...] Read more.
For assembly lines of circuit printing board (PCBs), this study investigated an integrated scheduling problem of the component allocation problem (CAP) and component placement sequence problem (CPSP) with the fixed interval preventive maintenance to minimize the maximum completion time (Cmax), the total energy consumption (TEC), and the total maintenance time (TMT) simultaneously. An improved spider monkey optimization (ISMO) algorithm is proposed with selecting the local leader (LL) and the global leader (GL) using a parallel lattice coordinate system. We compared the proposed ISMO algorithm with the classical optimizations, including SMO, NSGA-Ⅲ, DE, and PSO, by the production data of an enterprise; the results showed that the ISMO algorithm can obtain pareto solutions with better convergence and diversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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5 pages, 1112 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Joint Optimization of Maintenance and Scheduling for Unrelated Parallel Machine Problem Based on Hybrid Discrete Spider Monkey Optimization Algorithm
by Ke Ke and Yarong Chen
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023016 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 700
Abstract
In general, the parallel machine scheduling problem that minimizes maximum completion time is NP-hard in a strong sense; a lot of heuristics have been proposed for this kind of problem. In this paper, the unrelated parallel machine scheduling problem with maintainability (UPMSPM) is [...] Read more.
In general, the parallel machine scheduling problem that minimizes maximum completion time is NP-hard in a strong sense; a lot of heuristics have been proposed for this kind of problem. In this paper, the unrelated parallel machine scheduling problem with maintainability (UPMSPM) is studied, in which the reliability of machines obeys exponential distribution. A hybrid algorithm HDSMO, which combines the discrete spider monkey algorithm (SMO) with the crossover and mutation operation, is proposed to solve UPMSPM. In view of the lack of local search capability in the later iteration of the traditional SMO algorithm, inertial weights are introduced to update the local leader and the global leader. Computational experiments with randomly generated instances demonstrate that the proposed HDSMO algorithm can obtain significantly better solutions in a shorter time than GA and SMO algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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4 pages, 651 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Passive Temperature Excursion of Electronic Devices Using Ionic Wind
by Muhammad Mubashir Iqbal and Abid Hussain
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023017 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 811
Abstract
Keeping the temperature within safe limits and overcoming the component failures are highly dependent upon heat dissipation in electronic devices. Temperature reduction is a critical factor to be improved in electronic devices due to their compactness in size. Here, a nail-to-cylinder ionic wind [...] Read more.
Keeping the temperature within safe limits and overcoming the component failures are highly dependent upon heat dissipation in electronic devices. Temperature reduction is a critical factor to be improved in electronic devices due to their compactness in size. Here, a nail-to-cylinder ionic wind generator was constructed for heat reduction. Ionic wind generation represents a new type of cooling for electronic devices. We measured the discharge current and ionic wind speed for various electrode temperatures, electrode distances, and applied voltages. The electrode space and voltage were changed under different conditions; ionic wind velocity was examined within the device. According to the experiments, the installed ionic wind generators represent an effective method of cooling for electronic devices. The experimental results showed that an electrode space of 10.0 mm, a diameter of 25.4 mm, and a voltage of 5 kV led to the maximum ionic wind velocity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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4 pages, 2223 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Numerical Investigation of Impact and Compression after Impact Performance of 45° Biaxial Composite Laminates
by Manzar Masud, Muhammad Daud Ali, Muhammad Irfan, Shummaila Rasheed and Muhammad Haroon
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023018 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 665
Abstract
A meso-micro analysis technique established on the basis of micro-mechanics of failure in combination with progressive-based damage criteria of the composite material constituents (i.e., fiber and matrix) is demonstrated to predict the impact and compression after impact (CAI) performance of biaxial composite laminates. [...] Read more.
A meso-micro analysis technique established on the basis of micro-mechanics of failure in combination with progressive-based damage criteria of the composite material constituents (i.e., fiber and matrix) is demonstrated to predict the impact and compression after impact (CAI) performance of biaxial composite laminates. Damages in the composite material constituents are calculated using different failure models. The analysis technique is then used to investigate the impact and CAI behavior of 45° biaxial composite laminates, for both thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems. The results were presented in the form of damage propagation contours for both impact and compression after impact and a comparison of graphs showing displacement-time, internal energy-time, velocity-time, and contact force-time for both thermoset and thermoplastic resin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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4 pages, 1198 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Hydrodynamic and Thermal Energy Characteristics of a Gravitational Water Vortex
by Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan, Taqi Ahmad Cheema, Muhammad Hasnain Tariq and Atif Muzaffar
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023019 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 670
Abstract
In the present study, a numerical analysis has been conducted to investigate the hydrodynamic and thermal energy transfer capacity of a vortex formed under the effect of gravity. For this purpose, the study uses a gravitational water vortex heat exchanger (GWVHE), which includes [...] Read more.
In the present study, a numerical analysis has been conducted to investigate the hydrodynamic and thermal energy transfer capacity of a vortex formed under the effect of gravity. For this purpose, the study uses a gravitational water vortex heat exchanger (GWVHE), which includes baffles around a cylindrical basin in which a water vortex is formed under the effect of gravity. The results have been examined for different inlet boundary conditions based on flow and temperature to determine the strength of vortex formation and comparative energy transfer rate for both fluid domains. A strong vortex is formed in the basin at a height to diameter ratio between 0.41 and 0.54 with a minimum inlet mass flow rate of 0.005 kg/s, which effectively increases the energy exchange potential due to the centrifugal effect. The reasonable energy agreement has been obtained for the minimum flow rates of both fluid domains; however, the thermal energy losses are increased with the increase in the inlet mass rate of the hot domain, due to the reduction in the time of contact. The existence of an acceptable energy balance and strong vortex formation at a minimum flow rate sparks the need for a new configuration to enhance the thermal performance of GWVHE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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4 pages, 30849 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Thermal Stability Analysis of a PCM-Based Energy Storage System
by Muhammad Umar Munir and Abid Hussain
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023020 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
A key factor for increasing the life of electronic devices and preventing early failure is the implementation of thermal management techniques. In thermal management, phase change materials (PCMs) are generally used. There have been a few studies conducted on PCM stability. Using thermal [...] Read more.
A key factor for increasing the life of electronic devices and preventing early failure is the implementation of thermal management techniques. In thermal management, phase change materials (PCMs) are generally used. There have been a few studies conducted on PCM stability. Using thermal cycle tests, PCM (RT 42)-based energy storage systems with and without pin fins were evaluated for thermal stability. The material used for the pin fins and the heat sink was Aluminum 2024-T851. During the thermal cycle tests, the PCM-based heat sinks at 10 W had a maximum temperature difference of 1.088 °C. This leads to the PCM-based heat sink being stable during charging and discharging. According to the results of the thermal cycle tests conducted on the PCM and triangular pin-fin-based heat sink, the maximum temperature difference between the tests was 0.58 °C at 10 W. Based on the results, the PCM triangular pin-fin heat sink is stable during charging and discharging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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5 pages, 2092 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design and Simulation of Thermoelectric Generator to Enhance the Cooling Rate and Power Generation from Waste Heat of Chimney by Employing Different Angles of Flaps
by Asif Ali, Mansoor Ali Zaheer and Nawaf Mehmood Malik
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023021 - 21 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1758
Abstract
This study consists of a modern and economic way to recover the heat wasted from the industrial chimneys which are cooled down by natural sources by using thermal electric generator heat sinks. A flap with altered heat sink (which is attached at the [...] Read more.
This study consists of a modern and economic way to recover the heat wasted from the industrial chimneys which are cooled down by natural sources by using thermal electric generator heat sinks. A flap with altered heat sink (which is attached at the top of thermo-electric generator) is used in place of convectional heat sink base. A 3D model is proposed by using AUTODESK Fusion 360 and is solved by using Workbench 2021 R1 ANSYS. The presented setup fully describes the transfer of heat along the one vertical bar inside the TEGs module which is mounted along the vertical wall of the Chimney. The impact of Flap dimensions (Height, Depth, and Angle) and conductive material performance is studied. The flap angles are 45°, 50° and 60° and depths of the flap are 28 mm, 30 mm and 33 mm. This altered heat sink accomplishes about 28% enhance in the rate of cooling of TEGs module. The maximum output power, i.e., 105 mV of the TEGs module is at 60° and at 33 mm depth. The results show that remodified heat sink maintains the system simple and requires less maintenance and also improves the cooling rate of the thermoelectric generator, which as a result improves its performance and make it reliable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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5 pages, 2887 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Numerical Investigation of Different Configurations of Pin Fin Heat Sinks with and without PCM
by Hamza Fayyaz, Abid Hussain and Talal Bin Irshad
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023022 - 21 Sep 2022
Viewed by 983
Abstract
The miniaturization of electronic components leads to poor heat dissipation, performance, and reliability of the devices. To optimize heat transfer from electrical components, pin fins are the best choice due to their high thermal conductivity. Different configurations of square and triangular pin fins [...] Read more.
The miniaturization of electronic components leads to poor heat dissipation, performance, and reliability of the devices. To optimize heat transfer from electrical components, pin fins are the best choice due to their high thermal conductivity. Different configurations of square and triangular pin fins for heat transfer characteristics were numerically investigated in this study. Three-dimensional numerical simulations were carried out for two different configurations with heat fluxes of 0.82 kW/m2 subjected to the base of the heat sink. The heat transfer coefficients among the numerical simulation study and experimentation results provided a good correlation. To evaluate the overall performance, it was indicated from both numerical and experimental results that the maximum square pin fin configuration reduced the base temperature by up to 17.7% and 19%, respectively. In comparison to other configurations, the square pin fin performed better because of its increased surface area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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4 pages, 578 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Modeling and Simulation of Traditional Single U-Tube Model and Similar Scaled Model of Underground Storage System Based on Similar Scale Function
by Zulkarnain Abbas, Saqlain Abbas, Muhammad Waqas Khalid and Dongwen Chen
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023023 - 21 Sep 2022
Viewed by 608
Abstract
Seasonal thermal energy storage is mostly used to make solar energy more consistent. There are very few research studies available on thermal energy storage mechanisms due to their large size requirements and high computational power. The current research study aims to compare the [...] Read more.
Seasonal thermal energy storage is mostly used to make solar energy more consistent. There are very few research studies available on thermal energy storage mechanisms due to their large size requirements and high computational power. The current research study aims to compare the similar single-tube CFD model with simulation results of the original single-tube model using similarity theory. The temperature field changes before and after the similarity processing of the model are obtained, and the two are compared, so that the accuracy of the similarity functions’ relationship can be verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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5 pages, 981 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Harnessing Ocean Thermal Energy from Offshore Locations in Pakistan Using an Organic Rankine Cycle
by Muhammad Haroon, Abubakr Ayub, Nadeem Ahmed Sheikh, Muhammad Ahmed and Al-Bara Shalaby
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023024 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 866
Abstract
The temperature gradient of the top and bottom layers of sea water can be employed for power generation through ocean thermal energy conversion cycles (OTEC). In this thermodynamic study, an organic Rankine cycle is used to convert the ocean thermal energy of the [...] Read more.
The temperature gradient of the top and bottom layers of sea water can be employed for power generation through ocean thermal energy conversion cycles (OTEC). In this thermodynamic study, an organic Rankine cycle is used to convert the ocean thermal energy of the Arabian sea into useful electrical power. A comparative investigation is carried out between R152a and R1234yf working fluids. Sensitivity analysis is performed at varying condenser saturation temperatures and evaporator saturation temperatures. For the R152a OTEC cycle, 2.8% thermal efficiency, 47.9% exergy efficiency and 9064 W turbine work are obtained at the optimum point. Similarly, for the R1234yf working fluid in the OTEC cycle, 2.8% thermal efficiency, 46.9% exergy efficiency and 4818 W turbine work are obtained at the optimum point. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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4 pages, 998 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Experimental Study of Steam–Water Direct Contact Condensation in a Horizontal Pipe Geometry
by Shumail Hassan, Mazhar Iqbal, Ajmal Shah, Abdul Quddus, Noman Arif Khan, Haseeb Afzal and Muhammad Khawar Ayub
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023025 - 21 Sep 2022
Viewed by 857
Abstract
The phenomenon of direct contact condensation (DCC) has an advantageous feature of high heat, mass, and momentum transfer efficiencies and hence is highly significant for various steam-related industries such as chemical and nuclear industries. The present work investigates the underlying physics of steam [...] Read more.
The phenomenon of direct contact condensation (DCC) has an advantageous feature of high heat, mass, and momentum transfer efficiencies and hence is highly significant for various steam-related industries such as chemical and nuclear industries. The present work investigates the underlying physics of steam plume shapes during steam–water DCC of saturated steam injection into a subcooled water-filled restricted geometry. These experiments have been performed using an orifice-type nozzle for saturated steam injection into a circular, horizontal pipe. To study the effects of pressure and the degree of subcooling of water on the steam plumes, the performed study utilized initial steam pressure and water temperature in the ranges of 1–2 bars and 60–70 °C, respectively. Numerous plume shapes such as conical, elliptical, and divergent are observed under different experimental conditions, which elongate and extend at higher subcooling temperatures. The temperature distribution within the test section as a result of steam injection has also been studied. The condensation-induced water hammer (CIWH) has also been observed under various conditions in terms of a propagating pressure oscillation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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4 pages, 848 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Monthly Average Solar Radiation and Angstrom-Prescott Model for Islamabad, Pakistan
by M. Javed Hyder, Asadullah Nauman and Shams Musheer
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023026 - 21 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1164
Abstract
For any solar energy utilization, it is essential to know the value of radiation on an hourly basis and monthly basis. Generally, for Islamabad, Pakistan, available data are limited, and it is difficult to correctly evaluate the harnessed solar energy. In this paper, [...] Read more.
For any solar energy utilization, it is essential to know the value of radiation on an hourly basis and monthly basis. Generally, for Islamabad, Pakistan, available data are limited, and it is difficult to correctly evaluate the harnessed solar energy. In this paper, the monthly average solar radiation of Islamabad on an hourly basis has been presented, as compared to the available yearly average data in the literature. Moreover, the Angstrom–Prescott constant for Islamabad, Pakistan, has been calculated. The proposed relation has the error of radiation less than 1.5%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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4 pages, 1063 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Model Development for Discharge Data Extension for Ungauged Rivers Channels: A Case Study of the Proposed River Orle Hydropower Plant
by Luqman Muhammed Audu, Nicholas Akhaze Musa, Abdulkarim Nasir and Muhammadu Masin Muhammadu
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023027 - 22 Sep 2022
Viewed by 672
Abstract
The paper presents a model to carry out a short-term flow data extension for a minimum of 30 years using the Gauss–Newton Empirical Regression Algorithm (GNRA) for the determination of the hydropower generation capacity of rivers in ungauged channels. An averaged 2 years [...] Read more.
The paper presents a model to carry out a short-term flow data extension for a minimum of 30 years using the Gauss–Newton Empirical Regression Algorithm (GNRA) for the determination of the hydropower generation capacity of rivers in ungauged channels. An averaged 2 years of precipitation, observed experimental discharged data, and 30 years of historical and predictive precipitation data were used to generate a regression model equation after authentication analysis. A minimum, average, and maximum of 30 years of historical, and predictive discharge data and power characteristics of the river were generated. A discharge predictive accuracy of 96.71% and a Pearson Correlation Coefficient of 0.954 were established between the experimental and model results. The river has minimum, average, and peak power potentials of 5 MW, 10 MW, and 20 MW, respectively, and is capable of yielding power throughout the year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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4 pages, 1002 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Experimental Study on Steam Cavity Characteristics for Swirled Flow Nozzle Exhausting into Quiescent Water
by Abdul Quddus, Ajmal Shah, Kamran Rasheed Qureshi, Muhammad Khawar Ayub, Mazhar Iqbal, Noman Arif Khan, Haseeb Afzal and Shumail Hassan
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023028 - 22 Sep 2022
Viewed by 994
Abstract
The steam–water direct contact condensation (DCC) process is commonly observed in various industries due to its fast heat and mass exchange characteristics. This study investigates steam plume characteristics by experimentally condensing the steam jet issuing from a swirled flow spray nozzle into stagnant [...] Read more.
The steam–water direct contact condensation (DCC) process is commonly observed in various industries due to its fast heat and mass exchange characteristics. This study investigates steam plume characteristics by experimentally condensing the steam jet issuing from a swirled flow spray nozzle into stagnant subcooled water. On the basis of high-speed imaging, the effects of subcooled water temperatures on the cavity shape, its length, and maximum expansion ratio were explored. The existence of three distinct cavity shapes (ellipsoidal, double expansion–contraction and divergent) were identified. The dimensionless steam cavity penetration length and maximum expansion ratio were found to be in the range of 6.28–11.5 and 1.71–3.06, respectively. The results indicate that with the rise in water temperature, plume length and maximum expansion ratio increase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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5 pages, 1600 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Experimental Investigation of Direct Contact Condensation Using a Square Steam Nozzle
by Noman Arif Khan, Ajmal Shah, Abdul Quddus, Haseeb Afzal, Shumail Hassan, Muhammad Khawar Ayub and Mazhar Iqbal
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023029 - 22 Sep 2022
Viewed by 883
Abstract
Direct-contact condensation (DCC) has acquired an important role in the industrial sector due to its high mass and heat transfer rates. In this paper, the influence of steam pressure and water temperature on cavity shapes were studied from symmetrical and diagonal plane views. [...] Read more.
Direct-contact condensation (DCC) has acquired an important role in the industrial sector due to its high mass and heat transfer rates. In this paper, the influence of steam pressure and water temperature on cavity shapes were studied from symmetrical and diagonal plane views. The cavity shapes observed were oscillatory, conical, ellipsoidal, and double expansion–contraction. The recompression shock wave at nozzle corners was found to cause steam cavity compression in the diagonal plane. The dimensionless penetration length was found to increase with the rise in steam pressure and water temperature and lay in the range from 3.38 to 5.55. The experimental data of dimensionless penetration length was in good agreement with previous correlations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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4 pages, 398 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Reinforcement of a Gas Transmission Network
by Muhammad Naveed and Saif Ullah
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023030 - 23 Sep 2022
Viewed by 640
Abstract
There have been many studies performed on the optimal design and expansion of a natural gas transmission network; however, very few works have addressed the problem of the reinforcement of an existing natural gas transmission network with limited application. This study is focused [...] Read more.
There have been many studies performed on the optimal design and expansion of a natural gas transmission network; however, very few works have addressed the problem of the reinforcement of an existing natural gas transmission network with limited application. This study is focused on the reinforcement of an existing natural gas transmission network with the aim to minimize investment cost. The compressor stations have been assumed operational in either direction. A mathematical model was developed for the problem, which is non-convex mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) in nature; therefore, a convex relaxation was formulated to solve the problem easily in General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS, GAMS Development Corp., Fairfax, VA, USA) using DICOPT and CONOPT solvers. The model was applied to a small transmission network for validation and the results proved its efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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5 pages, 2184 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Cellulose Triacetate/Zinc Oxide Membrane for Bioethanol Recovery via Pervaporation
by Asif Shahzad, Meshal Alzaid, Muhammad Ammar, Rizwan Ahmed Malik and Muddassir Ali
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023031 - 23 Sep 2022
Viewed by 683
Abstract
In this study, cellulose triacetate (CTA) hybrid membrane is successfully prepared via the phase-inversion method for bioethanol recovery through pervaporation. Nano zinc oxide (ZnO) particles are mixed into the polymer matrices of CTA to enhance the pervaporation membrane’s performance. The fabricated hybrid membrane [...] Read more.
In this study, cellulose triacetate (CTA) hybrid membrane is successfully prepared via the phase-inversion method for bioethanol recovery through pervaporation. Nano zinc oxide (ZnO) particles are mixed into the polymer matrices of CTA to enhance the pervaporation membrane’s performance. The fabricated hybrid membrane is characterized using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to reveal the surface morphology and thermal resistance, respectively. The pervaporation performance of the hybrid membrane is assessed for recovering bioethanol from its dilute solution. Pervaporation results show that the hybrid membrane prepared with 3 wt.% ZnO achieved a permeation flux of 1065.71 g/m2h, while the separation factor was around 1038 at 50 °C operating temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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4 pages, 630 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Refrigeration Potential Investigation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas under Atmospheric Conditions
by Atif Muzaffar, Muhammad Hasnain Tariq, Ahmad Abbas, Muhammad Tayyab and Taqi Ahmad Cheema
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023032 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 969
Abstract
One of the potential refrigerants for refrigeration systems is liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) that can absorb latent heat from the surrounding and provide cooling, if introduced in liquid state. The present study determines the cooling effect produced in flowing water in coils after [...] Read more.
One of the potential refrigerants for refrigeration systems is liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) that can absorb latent heat from the surrounding and provide cooling, if introduced in liquid state. The present study determines the cooling effect produced in flowing water in coils after exchanging heat with liquid LPG, coming from an inverted cylinder. In an insulated box with a copper coil, the water flow rates were varied while maintaining the amount of surrounding liquid LPG. The results reveal that the cooling effect is proportional to the rate at which water flows, but the time for liquid LPG to evaporate decreases. For smallest water flow rates, the temperature differential across the water inlet and outlet was found to be the largest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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4 pages, 1456 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Flow Control in Paper-Based Microfluidics Using Variable Porosity Channel
by Mubashar Ali, Gohar Hussain, Hamza Abbas, Hammas Ullah and Ali Turab Jafry
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023033 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 998
Abstract
Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices have broadened the scope of microfluidics by offering low-cost, simple, faster fabrication, biodegradability, and environmentally benign devices capable of medical diagnostics, environmental sensing, and food quality control. These devices are incredibly versatile, which is one of their most notable [...] Read more.
Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices have broadened the scope of microfluidics by offering low-cost, simple, faster fabrication, biodegradability, and environmentally benign devices capable of medical diagnostics, environmental sensing, and food quality control. These devices are incredibly versatile, which is one of their most notable features. Despite recent advancements in paper-fluidics, creating slow flow channels in paper still remains a challenge. Herein, we propose viscous barriers of various concentrations embedded along the paper channel to control its flow velocity by altering the pore size. We used sugar concentrations in the range of 0–40% dried in porous media and then recorded flow behaviors of water and castor oil. From experiments, it was observed that by increasing the sugar concentration, delay time also increased. Moreover, changing the type of fluid (w.r.t viscosity) also varies the flow delays as castor oil took a much longer time to cover the same channel length as compared to water. We believe that our proposed method will play an important part in improving flow delays and can be applied for food quality applications such as time–temperature indicators due to its simple fabrication and cost-effective technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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7 pages, 2680 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development and Analysis of a Liquid Piston Stirling Engine
by Abdur Rehman Mazhar, Hassan Zamir Khan, Muhammad Kashif Khan, Adeel Ahmed and Muhammad Hassaan Yousaf
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023034 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1853
Abstract
Stirling engines are a type of reciprocating external combustion engine that uses one or more pistons to perform useful work with the help of some external heat. The Fluidyne design, also known as the liquid piston Stirling engine, uses liquid as pistons contained [...] Read more.
Stirling engines are a type of reciprocating external combustion engine that uses one or more pistons to perform useful work with the help of some external heat. The Fluidyne design, also known as the liquid piston Stirling engine, uses liquid as pistons contained in a cylinder that entraps a working gas. Stirling engines are low efficiency engines that can utilize waste and low-grade thermal energy to pump water or do work at a small scale. Excellent opportunities to address difficulties with energy security, water dissipation, and greenhouse gas emissions are provided by the employment of these low-grade waste heat recovery techniques. This research will cover effects of changing water levels and using a mixture of different working liquids of low heat of vaporization on engine performance. Temperature, pressure, amplitude of oscillation variation with time and pumping volume were determined with Vernier sensors and tracking software. This study confirms correlation between working liquid volume and heat of vaporization on engine performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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5 pages, 3640 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design and Development of a Control Volume Spray Chamber (CVSC) for Fuel Spray Visualization
by Muteeb Ul Haq, Ali Turab Jafry, Saad Ahmad and Atif Muzaffar
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023035 - 27 Sep 2022
Viewed by 867
Abstract
Biofuels have attracted significant attention in recent years as a potential replacement of fossil fuels. In order to test a new fuel, it is necessary to know its physiochemical properties. Fuel spray atomization of any fuel is the most critical process that has [...] Read more.
Biofuels have attracted significant attention in recent years as a potential replacement of fossil fuels. In order to test a new fuel, it is necessary to know its physiochemical properties. Fuel spray atomization of any fuel is the most critical process that has a direct effect on the fuel–air mixing ratio, combustion and emissions. This research presents the design and development of a control volume spray chamber (CVSC) for analyzing macroscopic fuel spray characteristics under varying operating conditions. The spray results reveal that the fuel penetration length (FPL) and spray cone angle (SCA) both decreased with the increase in ambient pressure, but when the injection pressure was increased, a longer FPL and wider SCA were observed. The light intensity levels revealed broader and higher drop densities at the axial distance of 40 mm from the nozzle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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5 pages, 2034 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Acoustic Response of Fully Passive Airfoil under Gust
by Muhammad Arqam, Kashif Ayaz, Muhammad Ebrahem and Shehryar Manzoor
Eng. Proc. 2022, 23(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022023036 - 27 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1001
Abstract
Acoustic response from a freely responding symmetric airfoil subjected to gust is investigated in a two-dimensional numerical environment. Gust model is superimposed on the inlet velocity up till the critical flutter velocity. Second order transient formulation, kω turbulence model and dynamic [...] Read more.
Acoustic response from a freely responding symmetric airfoil subjected to gust is investigated in a two-dimensional numerical environment. Gust model is superimposed on the inlet velocity up till the critical flutter velocity. Second order transient formulation, kω turbulence model and dynamic meshing technique were adopted. By employing the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) acoustic methodology, the acoustic signature generated by the airfoil for the range of velocities (0.85 ≤ U/Uc ≤ 1 near the critical flutter velocity is quantified over a range of acoustic receivers in the surrounding of the airfoil. Sound pressure levels (SPLs) are determined, and directionalities have been studied. It is revealed that the distribution of sound pressure level at the exciting frequency is affected by the gust profile. Scales of these sound pressure levels, however, relied on the Reynolds number and the dynamics of the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 2nd International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering)
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