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Eng. Proc., 2022, ICEC 2022

The 12th International Civil Engineering Conference (ICEC-2022)

Karachi, Pakistan | 13–14 May 2022

Volume Editors: Dr. Sarosh H. Lodi, Engr. Sohail Bashir, Prof. Dr. Abdul Jabbar Sangi and Dr. Shamsoon Fareed

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Cover Story (view full-size image): The International Civil Engineering Conference (ICEC) is a regular feature in the calendar of events for the Institution of Engineers Pakistan and NED University of Engineering and Technology, [...] Read more.
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Editorial
Statement of Peer Review
Eng. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022022022 - 04 Nov 2022
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Abstract
In submitting conference proceedings to Engineering Proceedings, the volume editors of the proceedings certify to the publisher that all papers published in this volume have been subjected to peer review administered by the volume editors [...] Full article
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Proceeding Paper
Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Columns with External Steel Bars
Eng. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022022001 - 22 Sep 2022
Viewed by 206
Abstract
The column is the most important structural element that transfers load from floors to the foundation, and its proper strength is of utmost importance. Failure of the column may lead to the collapse of the whole framed structure. The focus of this study [...] Read more.
The column is the most important structural element that transfers load from floors to the foundation, and its proper strength is of utmost importance. Failure of the column may lead to the collapse of the whole framed structure. The focus of this study is to check the effectiveness of the strengthening technique for a column. This research was carried out by designing and constructing a total of four column specimens, two circular columns and two square columns. Two columns from each combination were then strengthened by removing their clear cover, and steel bars were welded to the ties of existing main bars and the clear cover was cast again. The columns were subjected to axial compressive loads. The load-carrying capacity of the strengthened circular and square columns was increased by 50% and 58%, respectively, compared to that of control columns. Moreover, the deformation capacity of the strengthened columns was enhanced significantly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 12th International Civil Engineering Conference)
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Proceeding Paper
Impact of Window Configurations on Heating and Cooling Demands of Building in a Regional Climate—A Case Study
Eng. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022022002 - 22 Sep 2022
Viewed by 411
Abstract
The energy consumed by building is more than the energy consumed by transportation. The windows are found to be a weak thermal link through which heat is gained in the summer and lost in the winter, consequently increasing the building’s energy consumption. This [...] Read more.
The energy consumed by building is more than the energy consumed by transportation. The windows are found to be a weak thermal link through which heat is gained in the summer and lost in the winter, consequently increasing the building’s energy consumption. This study focuses on the impact of window to wall area ratio (WWR) and orientation of the building on energy consumption under typical Karachi climate conditions. The energy analysis is conducted using Green Building Studio (GBS). The space cooling consumption is observed considerably higher than space heating consumption. It is found that WWR and orientation have a significant influence on the heating and cooling demands of the building. Large openings have been shown to have a negative impact on energy consumption. The north-south axis orientation is determined as the most optimal orientation of the building in this specific climate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 12th International Civil Engineering Conference)
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Proceeding Paper
Fiber Reinforced Concrete: A Review
Eng. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022022003 - 22 Sep 2022
Viewed by 401
Abstract
Concrete is the most widely used constituent in the construction industry as a construction material due to its wide range of applications to civil infrastructure works. However, the use of concrete has been limited due to its certain deficiencies such as brittleness, low [...] Read more.
Concrete is the most widely used constituent in the construction industry as a construction material due to its wide range of applications to civil infrastructure works. However, the use of concrete has been limited due to its certain deficiencies such as brittleness, low tensile strength, proneness to crack opening and propagation and low durability. To subdue these drawbacks, researchers have modified concrete by adding various synthetic and natural fibers to upgrade the nature of concrete. The demand for high strength and cracks resistant concrete led to the development of fiber-reinforced concrete. This paper reviews the effects of fibers inclusion on the performance of concrete. Generally, the addition of fibers improves tensile strength, flexural strength, and durability performance. Moreover, incorporating fibers reduces the shrinkage cracks of concrete. However, incorporating fibers in concrete has some negative effects like low workability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 12th International Civil Engineering Conference)
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Proceeding Paper
Experimental Study on Bond Strength of Locally Manufactured GFRP Bar
Eng. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022022004 - 22 Sep 2022
Viewed by 292
Abstract
GFRP rebar is found corrosion resistant and has a greater tensile strength. GFRP rebars are being explored as an alternative way to preventing the degradation of civil infrastructures. GFRP materials, as opposed to steel reinforcement, have anisotropic, non-homogeneous, linearly elastic properties and having [...] Read more.
GFRP rebar is found corrosion resistant and has a greater tensile strength. GFRP rebars are being explored as an alternative way to preventing the degradation of civil infrastructures. GFRP materials, as opposed to steel reinforcement, have anisotropic, non-homogeneous, linearly elastic properties and having different surface deformation patterns (e.g., ribs, thread wrapped, sand coated etc.), which may lead to a unique force transfer mechanism between the reinforcement and the concrete. In order to investigate the bond strength of steel and GFRP bars, total twelve (12) cube specimens (200 mm × 200 mm × 200 mm) were cast. The effect of bar material, diameter, and embedded length was examined on bond strength. The bond strength of GFRP bar to concrete was shown to be 42 percent less than the bond strength of steel rebar to concrete. It was also found that the bond strength of GFRP bar to concrete reduced as bar diameter and embedded length increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 12th International Civil Engineering Conference)
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Proceeding Paper
Performance of Fibre Reinforced Self Compacting Concrete against Chloride Attack
Eng. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022022005 - 23 Sep 2022
Viewed by 229
Abstract
This paper presents the combined effect of polypropylene fibres (PPF), silica fume (SF), and fly ash (FA) on the characteristics of normal strength self-compacting concrete (NSSCC). NSSCC is proposed to be prepared by several combinations of PPF and class C FA as partial [...] Read more.
This paper presents the combined effect of polypropylene fibres (PPF), silica fume (SF), and fly ash (FA) on the characteristics of normal strength self-compacting concrete (NSSCC). NSSCC is proposed to be prepared by several combinations of PPF and class C FA as partial replacement of cement. NSSCC was prepared by incorporation of SF at 10% and PPF at 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% by mass of Portland cement. Cohesion and adhesion properties of concrete become much better, along with increased tightness and excellent deformability due to the binding strength of PPF. These fibres inhibit the formation of pores in the concrete matrix and prevent the crack formation and its spread along with the matrix. The chloride migration coefficient was determined in accordance with NT Build 492. Mass diffusivity of chloride ions reduces with increasing concentrations of fly ash in concrete. Results indicate that fibre-reinforced concrete has the improved durability compared to other methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 12th International Civil Engineering Conference)
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Proceeding Paper
Mechanical Properties of Steel-Fiber-Reinforced Concrete
Eng. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022022006 - 23 Sep 2022
Viewed by 249
Abstract
The rapid increase in a vehicle’s use leads to tire waste, the management of which is of social and environmental concern. The steel wires in a tire have good application in concrete if the proper amount and distribution of steel fiber in the [...] Read more.
The rapid increase in a vehicle’s use leads to tire waste, the management of which is of social and environmental concern. The steel wires in a tire have good application in concrete if the proper amount and distribution of steel fiber in the concrete matrix is ensured. This experimental setup evaluates the dosage effect of steel fiber with different ratios on the compressive, splitting tensile, and flexure strength of concrete. The relationship of flexure and compressive strength vs. the dosage of steel fiber is also investigated. A significant enhancement in compressive and flexure strength was found with the use of steel fiber. Moreover, the effect of the length of steel fiber on the mechanical properties of concrete is checked. A 2% dosage of steel fiber with a 3′ length showed excellent performance in compression and flexure. The first crack appeared at a 10% greater load than the control specimen. Based on detailed analysis, a 2% dosage with a 3′ fiber length can be used for the commercial production of structural concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 12th International Civil Engineering Conference)
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Proceeding Paper
Behaviour of Concrete Column Reinforced with Steel Bars Exhibiting Uncertain Yield Strength
Eng. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022022007 - 23 Sep 2022
Viewed by 238
Abstract
In Pakistan, raw material from several sources is utilized in the production of steel bars; consequently, the chemical and mechanical properties of locally manufactured bars differ drastically. According to the reviewed literature, there is a significant amount of variation in the data on [...] Read more.
In Pakistan, raw material from several sources is utilized in the production of steel bars; consequently, the chemical and mechanical properties of locally manufactured bars differ drastically. According to the reviewed literature, there is a significant amount of variation in the data on rebar yield strength. This unintentionally higher yield strength might have serious consequences on a reinforced concrete (RC) column, as the failure mode could shift from ductile to brittle. The purpose of this study is to investigate the repercussions of an unintentionally higher rebar yield strength on an RC column. In order to mitigate the effects of an unintentionally higher rebar yield strength on the behaviour of the RC column, some modifications to the design approach are recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 12th International Civil Engineering Conference)
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Proceeding Paper
Case Study: Rapid Seismic Assessment of Existing Hospitals in Karachi
Eng. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022022008 - 23 Sep 2022
Viewed by 364
Abstract
Hospitals are considered to be safe havens as they have to remain functional during an earthquake or any other natural calamity. However, in past, the performance of the hospitals in high seismic regions is seen to be poor, raising the intensity of life [...] Read more.
Hospitals are considered to be safe havens as they have to remain functional during an earthquake or any other natural calamity. However, in past, the performance of the hospitals in high seismic regions is seen to be poor, raising the intensity of life lost in such calamities. To prevent disruption in functionality or any damage to the infrastructure of the hospital, it is mandatory to perform pre and post-earthquake assessments and evaluate the integrity of structural as well as functional aspects of the hospital. This research paper outlines a modified Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) procedure with FE analytical method similar to ASCE41-17. The developed procedure is a three-tier process that is tested on three major hospital buildings in the city of Karachi, a metropolitan city known as the financial hub of Pakistan. The developed procedure begins with the RVS process that considers the structural elements and their vulnerability either at full structure or at the element level. This process then further combines with the evaluation of Demand-Capacity Ratios (DCR) for the entire structure to obtain a physical model with the vulnerabilities that need further non-linear evaluation or physical interventions are developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 12th International Civil Engineering Conference)
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Proceeding Paper
Impact of Carbon Fibers on Mechanical and Durability Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete
Eng. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022022009 - 23 Sep 2022
Viewed by 303
Abstract
Self-compacting concrete is known for its performance in construction, as it minimizes the energy required to compact concrete, providing high strength. Improving the strength and durability parameters of self-compacting concrete is the main priority of modern research. The purpose of this research was [...] Read more.
Self-compacting concrete is known for its performance in construction, as it minimizes the energy required to compact concrete, providing high strength. Improving the strength and durability parameters of self-compacting concrete is the main priority of modern research. The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal percentage addition of carbon fiber in self-compacting concrete with respect to the maximum positive variation that occurs in concrete strength and durability. Experimental results show that less carbon fiber in the slump affects the workability of the concrete as the slump diameter diminishes. Adding 0.8 percent carbon fiber reduces droop diameter. Addition of carbon fiber to self-compacting concrete decreases slump. The maximum carbon fiber content reduces the blockage ratio, meaning the concrete hardens as lumps emerge. Carbon fiber in concrete increases strength over time. The tensile strength of self-compacting concrete without carbon fiber is poor. The split test is comparable to the compression test. If just 0.6 percent of self-compacting concrete is reinforced with carbon fiber, the effect is positive. Concrete requires water absorption to develop. However, adding carbon fibers to self-compacting concrete limits water absorption. Adding carbon fiber minimizes absorption and hence increases concrete durability. The reported results also illustrate how carbon fiber might improve the resilience and resistance of self-compacting concrete in response to acid attacks, which can limit its service life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 12th International Civil Engineering Conference)
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Proceeding Paper
Quality Attributes for Supplier Selection in the Construction Industry of Pakistan: The Contractors’ Perspective
Eng. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022022010 - 26 Sep 2022
Viewed by 351
Abstract
In order to ensure quality work, the main contractor chooses suppliers based upon various quality attributes. The key to quality work on mega projects is to select best-quality suppliers. This research shows the data analysis results of preference rating of quality factors for [...] Read more.
In order to ensure quality work, the main contractor chooses suppliers based upon various quality attributes. The key to quality work on mega projects is to select best-quality suppliers. This research shows the data analysis results of preference rating of quality factors for supplier selection in Pakistan’s construction industry as per the importance accorded to each factor by the contractors. After thorough literature review and qualitative content analysis, a total of 25 factors were finalized and, then, a survey was conducted targeting well-known contractors in Pakistan. The weighted sum model (WSM) technique was used to analyze the overall preference of quality attributes through literature and respondent scores. Correlation analysis was also performed to select the most reliable weight split. After significant analysis, ten crucial attributes were identified for supplier selection in the construction quality domain. Quality management system certification, Product reliability and Capability of handling abnormal quality problems were the top three selection criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 12th International Civil Engineering Conference)
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Proceeding Paper
An Analysis of Employee Motivation in the Construction Industry: The Case of Hong Kong
Eng. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022022011 - 26 Sep 2022
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Hong Kong is a top-tier region in terms of technological advancement, globalization, and competitiveness. One of the drivers of the global relevance of any region is the attitude or motivation of its employees towards their jobs, as it determines their productivity, which directly [...] Read more.
Hong Kong is a top-tier region in terms of technological advancement, globalization, and competitiveness. One of the drivers of the global relevance of any region is the attitude or motivation of its employees towards their jobs, as it determines their productivity, which directly impacts the economy. This study is conducted to identify the factors contributing to employees’ motivation in the construction industry in Hong Kong. A questionnaire survey is administered to experienced professionals/workers in the construction industry to examine the significance of the motivators. “Monetary incentive” is found as the most correlated factor with the level of employees’ motivation in Hong Kong, while “Job security” is found as the least motivating factor. Furthermore, ten hypotheses are developed based on the identified motivators using the literature. These hypotheses are validated by analyzing the responses to the questionnaire using ANOVA. Subsequently, an employee motivation model based on Porter and Lawler’s model is developed, showing the complete relationships between the factors, and recommendations are presented to improve the state-of-the-art of employee motivations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 12th International Civil Engineering Conference)
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Proceeding Paper
Conceptual Approach for the Use of Artificial Intelligence for Contractual Risk Assessment in Infrastructure Projects
Eng. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022022012 - 27 Sep 2022
Viewed by 251
Abstract
Globally and locally, projects continue to miss their cost and schedule targets. It is largely because risks that occur in the construction industry are not addressed at the contract development stage. These risks may be divided into three basic categories, which are organizational [...] Read more.
Globally and locally, projects continue to miss their cost and schedule targets. It is largely because risks that occur in the construction industry are not addressed at the contract development stage. These risks may be divided into three basic categories, which are organizational risk, contractual risks, and allied risks. Although reviews of the literature show a large number of risks as already having been identified across the globe, organizations do not benefit from this worldwide experience and continue to derail their projects on multiple occasions. Two key reasons observed are the lack of a knowledge management process and key stakeholders working in isolation with no single point of ownership in the tendering process and contract development within many organizations. The solution lies in developing an AI-based framework that effectively addresses this lack of knowledge management and stakeholder integration within companies. The AI aspect brings speed and magnitude in reviewing contract development by pre-identifying risk factors and suggesting possible risk mitigation strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 12th International Civil Engineering Conference)
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Proceeding Paper
A Review on Fiber-Reinforced Foam Concrete
Eng. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022022013 - 27 Sep 2022
Viewed by 398
Abstract
Cost-effectiveness and affordability are important factors in the selection of construction material. To achieve this cost-effectiveness, new materials must be brought into use. One such material is foam concrete, which seems to be affordable and economical. Foam concrete has the best thermal insulation [...] Read more.
Cost-effectiveness and affordability are important factors in the selection of construction material. To achieve this cost-effectiveness, new materials must be brought into use. One such material is foam concrete, which seems to be affordable and economical. Foam concrete has the best thermal insulation and fire resistance properties. However, using foam concrete as a construction material is a major challenge because of its low tensile strength and brittle nature. To improve the properties of foam concrete, researchers have added various fibers. This paper reviews the effects of various synthetic and natural fibers on the mechanical and physical properties of foam concrete. Incorporating fibers into foam concrete slightly increases its compressive strength, while increasing its tensile strength up to three times, its flexural strength up to four times, and its impact strength up to six times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 12th International Civil Engineering Conference)
Proceeding Paper
Short-Term and Long-Term Needs for Sustainable Concrete—An Overview
Eng. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022022014 - 28 Sep 2022
Viewed by 416
Abstract
The world’s population is increasing rapidly, which has increased the demand for the construction of new structures. The need for increased construction is not only creating a shortage of natural resources but is also depleting the environment. Not only this, but waste materials [...] Read more.
The world’s population is increasing rapidly, which has increased the demand for the construction of new structures. The need for increased construction is not only creating a shortage of natural resources but is also depleting the environment. Not only this, but waste materials such as plastic, glass wastes, etc., are not disposed of properly, which are putting flora and fauna at risk, to the point of extinction. In light of such conditions, ecologists suggested the world opt for “sustainable development”, with the aim of developing the world in such a way that natural resources and the environment are conserved, because concrete is one of the leading contributors of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. This approach is about making sustainable concrete by utilizing wastes such as PVC and glass mix as replacements for fine aggregate, i.e., sand. This will help decrease the CO2 emissions from concrete by a considerable level. This will be done by replacing the PVC–glass mix in different ratios with sand. Thus, this will contribute to the usage of waste materials, which will help in preserving the environment along with flora and fauna that are at the risk of extinction. Additionally, the world’s sustainable concrete demand will be met without compromising concrete strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 12th International Civil Engineering Conference)
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Proceeding Paper
Utilization of Acacia Modesta Gum Powder as Viscosity-Modifying Agent in Self-Compacting Paste Systems
Eng. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022022015 - 28 Sep 2022
Viewed by 318
Abstract
The properties of self-compacting concrete mainly depend upon the properties of the cement paste phase. Some published literature exists on the use of acacia gums in self-compacting cementitious systems, but no previous work has reported the utilization of AM gum powder as viscosity-modifying [...] Read more.
The properties of self-compacting concrete mainly depend upon the properties of the cement paste phase. Some published literature exists on the use of acacia gums in self-compacting cementitious systems, but no previous work has reported the utilization of AM gum powder as viscosity-modifying agent in self-compacting paste systems (SCPs). This study focuses on the utilization of Acacia Modesta (AM) gum powder as viscosity-enhancing agent in SCPs. AM gum powder with average particle size (D50) of 135 microns is used with variable Acacia Modesta (AM) gum powder dosages in the range of 0.25% to 1% by weight of the cement. Superplasticizer demand, flow and viscosity, apparent viscosity, air content, fresh density, hardened density, and compressive strength tests are performed. The result indicates that super-plasticizer demand, flow and viscosity, apparent viscosity, and air content of SCPs containing AM gum powder increases with the increase in the percentage of the AM gum powder. While, fresh density, hardened density, and compressive strength decrease with the increase in the percentage of the AM gum powder. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that AM gum powder can be used as viscosity-modifying agent in SCPs by changing the amount of AM gum powder in such systems due to nature and composition of the AM gum powder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 12th International Civil Engineering Conference)
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Proceeding Paper
Corrosion Effect in Underground LV Distribution Networks in Domestic and Commercial Buildings
Eng. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022022016 - 28 Sep 2022
Viewed by 329
Abstract
The underground distribution network is an essential part of our domestic and commercial area buildings. PVC cables are mostly used for household wiring, including underground cables installation in LV distribution networks. Small cracks in cable insulation or gaps in connectors during or after [...] Read more.
The underground distribution network is an essential part of our domestic and commercial area buildings. PVC cables are mostly used for household wiring, including underground cables installation in LV distribution networks. Small cracks in cable insulation or gaps in connectors during or after installation can cause water to seep through onto the conductor. Heated conductors in the presence of water causes corrosion of the conductor and eventual failure. These are the most common causes of emerging faults in underground networks. Such faults occur frequently and result into a permanent failure soon after the occurrence. Failures mostly arise in low voltage levels in distribution systems and have a large impact on their durability. In addition to the fact that the majority of customers are affected, the impact to annual customer minutes lost is significant and the annual expenses of resolving the outages can become large. Al/PVC/PVC cables are mostly used for commercial installation, including four different sizes: 10 mm2 (2-core, 4-core), 120 mm2 (4-core) and 240 mm2 (4-core). In this research, the effect of corrosion on these sizes was studied under electric stress. Deterioration of an Aluminum conductor was used to investigate the effects of heat and voltage. Such parameters highly influence the rate of corrosion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 12th International Civil Engineering Conference)
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Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of Mechanical and Durability Aspects of Self-Compacting Concrete by Using Thermo-Mechanical Activation of Bentonite
Eng. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022022017 - 28 Sep 2022
Viewed by 338
Abstract
With rapid developments in the construction industry, it has become vital to develop structures and materials that are both cost-effective and environmentally sustainable in order to reduce carbon footprints. This research work aimed to inspect mechanical as well as durability aspects of self-compacting [...] Read more.
With rapid developments in the construction industry, it has become vital to develop structures and materials that are both cost-effective and environmentally sustainable in order to reduce carbon footprints. This research work aimed to inspect mechanical as well as durability aspects of self-compacting concrete (SCC) using thermo-mechanical activation and mechanical activation of bentonite as a partial replacement of cement by weight. Incorporating supplemental cementitious materials (SCMs), many researchers found that the mechanical and durability characteristics of SCC can be enhanced. Activation treatments can improve the binding capacity of bentonite and enhance its substitution level. Bentonite was replaced by weight with ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in proportions of 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%. By introducing bentonite, the fresh characteristics of SCC were reduced but remained within the limitation given by the EFNARC. The use of thermo-mechanical activation can significantly increase both hardened and durability properties. Compressive and split tensile strength yielded the best results at 15% substitution level and were comparable at 25%. Water absorption and resistance to acid attack showed better results with an increase in bentonite content at 56 days. These findings indicate that the use of bentonite can cut CO2 emissions while also producing long-lasting SCC at a reasonable price. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 12th International Civil Engineering Conference)
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Proceeding Paper
Incorporation of Bokashi Fermented Leaves (BFL) to Improve the Algal Growth on Concrete Surface
Eng. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022022018 - 28 Sep 2022
Viewed by 422
Abstract
Through the bokashi process, fermented leaves were incorporated as a partial alternative to sand in concrete to produce a concrete type that could be a prospective artificial reef material. The specimens were checked in small pools where algae—Chlorella vulgaris—was added and checked for [...] Read more.
Through the bokashi process, fermented leaves were incorporated as a partial alternative to sand in concrete to produce a concrete type that could be a prospective artificial reef material. The specimens were checked in small pools where algae—Chlorella vulgaris—was added and checked for growth. The results showed that the concrete with 20% bokashi fermented leaves (BFL) by weight of cement had 40 times higher algal coverage on the surface by the end of 35 days. Concrete with 2% bokashi fermented leaves (BFL), however, tended to increase the algal coverage by only 3 times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 12th International Civil Engineering Conference)
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Proceeding Paper
Optimization of Resources of a Building Project
Eng. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022022019 - 29 Sep 2022
Viewed by 352
Abstract
The construction of building projects consists of interlinking and diverse activities which have to be completed within a yardstick cost and specific deadline. For this, a project manager needs to optimally render the planning and to schedule tasks simultaneously in such cases due [...] Read more.
The construction of building projects consists of interlinking and diverse activities which have to be completed within a yardstick cost and specific deadline. For this, a project manager needs to optimally render the planning and to schedule tasks simultaneously in such cases due to limitations of resources; for example, availability at the right place and at the right time is a big problem. Such a problem can be resolved using resource leveling. This research presents how to practice resource leveling via Microsoft (MS) Project using a case study. A three-story building is selected as a case study. The basement was allocated for parking and there were flats on the rest of the two stories. Upon different dependencies, all the activities of the project were taken in an interconnected manner, and resource leveling was brought out. Different flow charts such as cost flow, cost distribution over resources, resource scheme, etc., were drawn in MS project. MS project was found to be very productive and efficient especially in small industries, i.e., where there are fewer activities and complexities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 12th International Civil Engineering Conference)
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Proceeding Paper
Estimation of Suspended Sediment Concentration of Keenjhar Lake through Remote Sensing
Eng. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022022020 - 29 Sep 2022
Viewed by 625
Abstract
Water quality is one of the most concerning issues in megacities. Karachi is the world’s third most populated city, with poor water supply and management. The city obtains more than 80 percent of its water from Keenjhar Lake, the second-largest freshwater lake in [...] Read more.
Water quality is one of the most concerning issues in megacities. Karachi is the world’s third most populated city, with poor water supply and management. The city obtains more than 80 percent of its water from Keenjhar Lake, the second-largest freshwater lake in the country. Keenjhar Lake and all other water bodies currently lack a water quality monitoring system. This study provides a solution to monitor water quality by remote sensing by calculating the lake’s suspended sediment concentration and other quality parameters. To calculate the surface reflectance values, satellite images from Landsat 8 are analyzed in ENVI 5.3 and QGIS 3.10. The reflectance values from different sampling points are compared with spectral signatures to calculate the concentration and validated with several regression equations and standard established relations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 12th International Civil Engineering Conference)
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Proceeding Paper
Performance Evaluation of Jute-Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Walls with GFRP Reinforcement for Impact Energy Dissipation
Eng. Proc. 2022, 22(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022022021 - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 255
Abstract
Structures are often exposed to dynamic loading in the case of accidental impacts. Such scenarios require special precautionary measures to counteract forces induced by these impacts. The goal of this research is to investigate the effect of the addition of jute fibers (JF) [...] Read more.
Structures are often exposed to dynamic loading in the case of accidental impacts. Such scenarios require special precautionary measures to counteract forces induced by these impacts. The goal of this research is to investigate the effect of the addition of jute fibers (JF) in the glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) rebar-reinforced concrete wall for possible absorption of impact energy. Concrete was prepared for the testing of mechanical, dynamic, and impact properties of specimens. Mix design was 1:3:2 with a 0.6 water–cement ratio. Jute fibers measuring 50 mm in length were added as a replacement of 5% of cement mass. Wall panels were reinforced with a mesh of 350-mm-long GFRP rebars measuring 6 mm in diameter. A 2.925 kg hammer was used to perform impact strikes at the center of a three-edge supported wall panel in a modified pendulum impact apparatus. The failure criterion was defined as penetration above 25 mm for impact strike quantification. Dynamic properties were evaluated at regular intervals. Accelerometers were mounted at three different locations to assess dissipated energy through wall. Energy dissipation turned out to be greater in jute-fiber-reinforced concrete (JFRC) than plain cement concrete (PC). Monitoring of internal fracturing at regular intervals could be utilized for further investigation of energy dissipation phases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 12th International Civil Engineering Conference)
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