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Eng. Proc., 2022, E-Textiles 2021

The 3rd International Conference on the Challenges, Opportunities, Innovations and Applications in Electronic Textiles

Manchester, UK | 3–4 November 2021

Volume Editors:
Steve Beeby, University of Southampton, UK
Kai Yang, University of Southampton, UK
Russel Torah, University of Southampton, UK

Number of Papers: 23

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Cover Story (view full-size image): E-Textiles 2021: International Conference on the Challenges, Opportunities, Innovations and Applications in Electronic Textiles is the third conference held by the E-Textiles Network. E-Textiles 2021 [...] Read more.
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1 pages, 170 KiB  
Editorial
Statement of Peer Review
by Russel Torah, Kai Yang and Stephen Beeby
Eng. Proc. 2022, 15(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022015023 - 01 Aug 2022
Viewed by 680
Abstract
In submitting conference proceedings to Engineering Proceedings, the volume editors of the proceedings certify to the publisher that all papers published in this volume have been subjected to peer review administered by the volume editors [...] Full article

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5 pages, 1820 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
E-Textile Haptic Feedback Gloves for Virtual and Augmented Reality Applications
by Joash Chan and Russel Torah
Eng. Proc. 2022, 15(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022015001 - 08 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3228
Abstract
This paper outlines the development of e-textile haptic feedback gloves for virtual and augmented reality (VR/AR) applications. The prototype e-textile glove contains six Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) flexible circuits embroidered on the fabric and seven screen-printed electrodes connected to a miniaturised flexible-circuit-based Transcutaneous [...] Read more.
This paper outlines the development of e-textile haptic feedback gloves for virtual and augmented reality (VR/AR) applications. The prototype e-textile glove contains six Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) flexible circuits embroidered on the fabric and seven screen-printed electrodes connected to a miniaturised flexible-circuit-based Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulator (TENS). The IMUs allow motion tracking feedback to the PC, while the electrodes and TENS provide electro-tactile feedback to the wearer in response to events in a linked virtual environment. The screen-printed electrode tracks result in haptic feedback gloves that are much thinner and more flexible than current commercial devices, providing additional dexterity and comfort to the user. In addition, all electronics are either printed or embroidered onto the fabric, allowing for greater compatibility with standard textile industry processes, making them simpler and cheaper to produce. Full article
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5 pages, 1131 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Finite-Element Analysis of the Mechanical Stresses on the Core Structure of Electronically Functional Yarns
by Mohamad Nour Nashed, Arash M. Shahidi, Theodore Hughes-Riley and Tilak Dias
Eng. Proc. 2022, 15(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022015002 - 09 Mar 2022
Viewed by 993
Abstract
Electronic yarns (E-yarns) are a type of electronic textile where the electronics are embedded within the yarn structure, resulting in a yarn with normal textile properties. This is achieved by soldering thin copper wires onto electronic components, encapsulating the component within a UV-curable [...] Read more.
Electronic yarns (E-yarns) are a type of electronic textile where the electronics are embedded within the yarn structure, resulting in a yarn with normal textile properties. This is achieved by soldering thin copper wires onto electronic components, encapsulating the component within a UV-curable resin micro-pod, and covering the component with reinforcing yarns. The resin micro-pod protects both the component and the solder joints, providing the final yarn strength along its main axis: this is critical for its reliability after post-processing and during use. This work explored the use of Finite-Element Analysis to evaluate the mechanical stresses at the soldered joints of the core structure of E-yarns under axial loading before and after the encapsulation of the component. The results of this analysis were compared to the tensile test results of the core structure of the E-yarn. Full article
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9 pages, 2585 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development of Smart Kneecap with Electrical Stimulation
by Jitheesh V R, Rashmi Thakur and Prabir Jana
Eng. Proc. 2022, 15(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022015003 - 09 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1916
Abstract
This research was conducted to develop a textile electrode-based TENS module, as an alternative to overcome the shortcomings of current conventional electrodes used in TENS enabled pain therapy products, such as kneecaps. The existing TENS devices were studied to carry out a comparative [...] Read more.
This research was conducted to develop a textile electrode-based TENS module, as an alternative to overcome the shortcomings of current conventional electrodes used in TENS enabled pain therapy products, such as kneecaps. The existing TENS devices were studied to carry out a comparative analysis of their features and shortcomings. Three sets of textile electrodes were developed using conductive yarn knitted structure, conductive yarn embroidered fabric, and coated conductive fabric. In addition, the smart kneecap was developed with the aim of providing an electrical stimulation to the knee using a TENS module. The TENS module was actuated using a switching circuit of MOSFET and textile electrodes for the smooth conduction of electric stimulation into the body. These electro stimulations have been proven to be helpful in relieving the pain in the knee, as well as in giving the knee, thigh, and leg a sense of relaxation. Testing was conducted and subjective feedback was collected for the developed prototype. Full article
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5 pages, 2410 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Sensing of Body Movement by Stretchable Triboelectric Embroidery Aimed at Healthcare and Sports Activity Monitoring
by Hasan Riaz Tahir, Benny Malengier, Granch Berhe Tseghai and Lieva Van Langenhove
Eng. Proc. 2022, 15(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022015004 - 09 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1206
Abstract
In this work, we introduced an embroidery-based stretchable (up to 60–70%) triboelectric nano-generator that could be attached to different parts of the human body such as fingers, knee, elbow, back, or shoulders, to sense the body movement. It can be used as activity [...] Read more.
In this work, we introduced an embroidery-based stretchable (up to 60–70%) triboelectric nano-generator that could be attached to different parts of the human body such as fingers, knee, elbow, back, or shoulders, to sense the body movement. It can be used as activity recognition for health care and sport activity monitoring. The sensor was composed of different yarns embroidered on a stretchable conductive substrate, allowing it to sense diverse mechanical deformation of different body parts. Different stitching styles, patterns, stitch lengths, and shapes have been selected to cater to the unidirectional, bidirectional, and multidirectional force and obtain the maximum movement flexibility. In order to do embroidery on a stretchable substrate, a non-stretchable water-soluble second substrate has been added before embroidering, and is afterwards removed by application of steam. A sample of 1.5 × 6 cm2 was used for sensing finger movement and generated a peak to peak voltage of 274.5 mV. The amount of generated voltage depended upon the application area on the body and its deformation, thread type, stitch type, stitch length, and shape of embroidery. A stitch length of more than 2 mm with a line density of 1 line per mm resulted in a stretchable sample. The state of the art of the developed sensors is their low price, flexibility, and low weight. They are all obtained with commercially available embroidery yarns and commercially available technology for their development. Full article
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5 pages, 2129 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Knitted Graphene Supercapacitor and Pressure-Sensing Fabric
by Yi Zhou, Chunyan Zhang, Connor Myant and Rebecca Stewart
Eng. Proc. 2022, 15(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022015005 - 09 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1550
Abstract
This research utilizes a simple and effective dip coating/ultrasonication method to prepare porous graphene-coated sensing fabrics made with commercially produced acrylic/spandex yarn with multifunctional performance. We examine the electrochemical performance of graphene-coated fabrics and explore their potential in applications involving pressure sensors. The [...] Read more.
This research utilizes a simple and effective dip coating/ultrasonication method to prepare porous graphene-coated sensing fabrics made with commercially produced acrylic/spandex yarn with multifunctional performance. We examine the electrochemical performance of graphene-coated fabrics and explore their potential in applications involving pressure sensors. The results show that our graphene-coated fabric demonstrates a maximum specific capacitance value of 17.4 F/g. When applied as a pressure sensor, the capacitance change rate of our sensor increases linearly with the increase in pressure applied to the fabrics. Our sensor also shows a fast response in a pressure loading–unloading test, which indicates an outstanding sensing property and shows promising capabilities as a supercapacitor. Full article
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5 pages, 1395 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Ambulatory Monitoring Using Knitted 3D Helical Coils
by Kristel Fobelets and Christoforos Panteli
Eng. Proc. 2022, 15(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022015006 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 919
Abstract
We present a highly sensitive wearable angular position sensor to measure joint movement. The sensor is a 3D helical coil knitted in the sleeve of a garment by circularly knitting thin insulated metal wire and yarn simultaneously. The sensing mechanism is based on [...] Read more.
We present a highly sensitive wearable angular position sensor to measure joint movement. The sensor is a 3D helical coil knitted in the sleeve of a garment by circularly knitting thin insulated metal wire and yarn simultaneously. The sensing mechanism is based on the variation of the mutual inductance between windings. A 167 μH change is measured for knee movement from fully stretched to completely bent. A double cross coupled FET pair transforms the low-Q coils into a high-Q system giving a maximum frequency variation of 145 kHz for knee bending. Full article
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5 pages, 2154 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Respiratory Inductive Plethysmography System for Knitted Helical Coils
by Kevin Kiener, Aishwarya Anand, William Fobelets and Kristel Fobelets
Eng. Proc. 2022, 15(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022015007 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 985
Abstract
Three-dimensional knitted helical coils are very sensitive inductive sensors that can be used to monitor breathing. Their inductance is high and the quality factor relatively low. A read-out circuit is designed and tested to track the inductance variations during circumference changes of a [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional knitted helical coils are very sensitive inductive sensors that can be used to monitor breathing. Their inductance is high and the quality factor relatively low. A read-out circuit is designed and tested to track the inductance variations during circumference changes of a phantom chest. The challenge of the low-quality factors of the coil is resolved by designing a double cross-coupled FET pair with low capacitance. A digital counter records the frequency. A microprocessor samples the signal every 250 ms to minimize power consumption. Full article
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5 pages, 2474 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Textile Tactile Senor Based on Ferroelectret for Gesture Recognition
by Junjie Shi and Mahmoud Wagih
Eng. Proc. 2022, 15(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022015008 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1031
Abstract
Ferroelectret is a charged polymer with cellular void structures that create giant dipole moments across the material’s thickness. In this work, we present the first realization of a wearable textile substrate tactile sensor based on Polypropylene (PP) ferroelectret material for gesture recognition. As [...] Read more.
Ferroelectret is a charged polymer with cellular void structures that create giant dipole moments across the material’s thickness. In this work, we present the first realization of a wearable textile substrate tactile sensor based on Polypropylene (PP) ferroelectret material for gesture recognition. As a result, the sensitivity of the fabricated sensor is 0.21 V/kPa in the pressure range of 0–20 kPa. The ferroelectret tactile sensor adheres to a glove’s surface for detecting human movements such as bending or the relaxation motion of the palm and the bending or stretching motion of each finger, enabling the successful detection of small finger gestures around a 400 mV output. Full article
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4 pages, 1940 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
E-Textile Breathing Sensor Using Fully Textile Wearable Antennas
by Mahmoud Wagih, Obaid Malik, Alex S. Weddell and Steve Beeby
Eng. Proc. 2022, 15(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022015009 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1621
Abstract
E-textile sensor networks enable a variety of applications including pervasive monitoring for distributed healthcare. While commercial wearables can now measure various quantities such as heart rate and activities in a real-time, robust, and pervasive manner, breathing sensors remain an ongoing research challenge. In [...] Read more.
E-textile sensor networks enable a variety of applications including pervasive monitoring for distributed healthcare. While commercial wearables can now measure various quantities such as heart rate and activities in a real-time, robust, and pervasive manner, breathing sensors remain an ongoing research challenge. In this paper, the use of wearable antennas for respiration monitoring is investigated based on a low-profile broadband fully textile antenna. It is demonstrated that the antenna, suitable for operation on different substrates and body parts, exhibits over 2 dB wireless gain sensitivity to normal breathing. Unlike recent wearable breathing sensors, the proposed antenna has a very simple structure and does not rely on active mechanical sensing elements or specific materials. A simple peak-detection algorithm is investigated showing a nearly 100% breath detection accuracy in line-of-sight. Based on the experimental results, it can be concluded that e-textile antennas can be utilized as highly accurate sensors for respiration monitoring, without the need for specific sensing elements or materials. Full article
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5 pages, 409 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessing the Validity of a Kinematic Knee Sleeve in a Resistance-Trained Population
by Nathan Toon, Simon McMaster, Tom Outram and Mark Faghy
Eng. Proc. 2022, 15(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022015010 - 15 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1545
Abstract
The current study assessed the validity of a Kinematic Knee Sleeve (KiTT) against a gold-standard motion-capture system (Vicon, Oxofrd, UK). The relative knee angle, measured in the sagittal plane (RKA), was measured across a range of sporting movements to allow for comparisons and [...] Read more.
The current study assessed the validity of a Kinematic Knee Sleeve (KiTT) against a gold-standard motion-capture system (Vicon, Oxofrd, UK). The relative knee angle, measured in the sagittal plane (RKA), was measured across a range of sporting movements to allow for comparisons and agreement between systems. The results demonstrate a high degree of validity of KiTT during a squat, deadlift, and leg curl, with partial validity of a leg extension (0.98, 0.97, 1.01, 1.31, respectively). KiTT serves as a valid method to collect information on the RKA. The KiTT appears to serve as a practical alternative to Vicon without sacrificing the quality of the data. Full article
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4 pages, 821 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design of Textile Antenna for Moisture Sensing
by Irfan Ullah, Mahmoud Wagih and Steve P. Beeby
Eng. Proc. 2022, 15(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022015011 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1318
Abstract
This study reports a design of an e-textile microstrip patch antenna for wireless sensing of the moisture content of a fabric substrate. The microstrip patch antenna with a proximity coupled feeding line is implemented on two layers of polyester felt substrate. The performance [...] Read more.
This study reports a design of an e-textile microstrip patch antenna for wireless sensing of the moisture content of a fabric substrate. The microstrip patch antenna with a proximity coupled feeding line is implemented on two layers of polyester felt substrate. The performance of the antennas in terms of the reflection coefficient S11 is measured, indicating that the resonance frequency of the antenna shifts to a lower frequency for moisture contents ranging from 20% to 100%. This is the result of a change in the dielectric constant and the loss tangent of the substrate material caused by the presence of moisture. The proposed moisture sensor exhibits high linearity and higher sensitivity than state-of-the-art textile-based antenna sensors, and is suitable for a variety of applications such as sweat and wound monitoring. Full article
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5 pages, 1621 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Image Detection and Responsivity Analysis of Embroidered Fabric Markers Using Augmented Reality Technology
by Anuja Pathak, Ian Mills and Frances Cleary
Eng. Proc. 2022, 15(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022015012 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 994
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate the use of augmented reality technology within an E-textile environment. We place particular emphasis on the analysis of key performance and responsiveness metrics when utilizing augmented reality (AR) applications for embroidery-based logo/design image detection and recognition. To support [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate the use of augmented reality technology within an E-textile environment. We place particular emphasis on the analysis of key performance and responsiveness metrics when utilizing augmented reality (AR) applications for embroidery-based logo/design image detection and recognition. To support this analysis and validation, we designed and created four test embroidered images, a fabric quilt with embroidered marker images, and a supporting augmented reality application. From an E-textile point of view, we explore the effects of high/low contrast thread colors, diverse light levels (lux measurements), and the range of angles at which the mobile device/camera, with the associated AR application, can be pointed towards the fabric-embroidered marker. This allows us to assess the level of functionality and responsiveness of the AR application and the overall performance in the testing environment, enabling more fluid usability of the AR-enabled E-textile application. Full article
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4 pages, 935 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
5G-Enabled E-Textiles Based on a Low-Profile Millimeter-Wave Textile Antenna
by Mahmoud Wagih, Geoff S. Hilton, Alex S. Weddell and Steve Beeby
Eng. Proc. 2022, 15(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022015013 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1161
Abstract
Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are a key application underpinned by advances in electronic textiles (e-textiles). Achieving higher throughput, data-rate, network capacity, and delivering wireless power to miniaturized devices requires WBANs to operate at millimeter-wave 5G+ frequencies. This, however, imposes significant challenges on [...] Read more.
Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are a key application underpinned by advances in electronic textiles (e-textiles). Achieving higher throughput, data-rate, network capacity, and delivering wireless power to miniaturized devices requires WBANs to operate at millimeter-wave 5G+ frequencies. This, however, imposes significant challenges on the antenna design to cope with the additional losses introduced by textile substrates. In this paper, the performance of a novel, high-efficiency, textile-based millimeter-wave antenna is investigated for wireless links with a wearable device. Indoor “real-world” channel gain measurements are used to evaluate the antenna’s performance compared to anechoic gain measurements. Based on the measured channel gain between textile antennas, it is concluded that high-speed wireless links in the 24–30 GHz 5G+ spectrum could be realized with over one meter range using e-textile antennas. Full article
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5 pages, 696 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Can Design for Disassembly Principles Inform Policy for E-Textiles Waste?
by Jessica Saunders
Eng. Proc. 2022, 15(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022015014 - 19 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1810
Abstract
The adoption of circular principles by the EU and UK have led to greater focus on waste streams and the recoverability of materials and components. This has translated into regulations such as WEEE for electronic waste. Textiles and nanomaterials lag behind with no [...] Read more.
The adoption of circular principles by the EU and UK have led to greater focus on waste streams and the recoverability of materials and components. This has translated into regulations such as WEEE for electronic waste. Textiles and nanomaterials lag behind with no definitive waste legislation. As e-textiles are generally made up of a combination of these three components, it means e-textile products end up in electrical recycling facilities where textile components are disposed of in landfill or incinerated together with embedded nanomaterials. Consultations with recycling facilities indicate product design is key in preparing for disassembly and recycling. By embedding design for disassembly thinking into the research and development of new e-textiles, this study aims to test whether e-waste policy can be informed by design for disassembly principles. The motivation for this research is to find an anticipatory legislative solution for future e-textiles waste. Full article
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5 pages, 763 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Green Synthesised Silver Nanocomposite for Thermoregulating E-Textiles
by Ashleigh Naysmith, Naeem S. Mian and Sohel Rana
Eng. Proc. 2022, 15(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022015015 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1165
Abstract
Personal thermal management devices provide a behaviourally aligned route to address dependence on energy-intensive heating and cooling systems. E-textiles form an ideal foundation for these devices. In this study, a Joule heating e-textile has been developed using green synthesised silver nanoparticles and polypyrrole, [...] Read more.
Personal thermal management devices provide a behaviourally aligned route to address dependence on energy-intensive heating and cooling systems. E-textiles form an ideal foundation for these devices. In this study, a Joule heating e-textile has been developed using green synthesised silver nanoparticles and polypyrrole, which can easily be dip-coated onto an environmentally benign linen fabric. A Plackett–Burman design was used to optimise the nanoparticle synthesis. Characterisation and electrothermal analysis were carried out to confirm the successful synthesis of silver nanoparticles (40–80 nm, polydispersity index (pdi): 0.25) and an electrical resistance of 28.5 Ω. Joule heating of 66 °C at 6 V applied DC voltage was attained. Full article
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5 pages, 1600 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An All Dispenser Printed Electrode Structure on Textile for Wearable Healthcare
by Meijing Liu, Zeeshan Ahmed, Neil Grabham, Stephen Beeby, John Tudor and Kai Yang
Eng. Proc. 2022, 15(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022015016 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
This paper presents a dispenser printed electrode array on polyester/cotton fabric. The fabrication details needed to achieve the array, including the materials and printer set-up, are reported. The array consists of ten electrode elements for functional electrical stimulation (FES), including nine active electrodes [...] Read more.
This paper presents a dispenser printed electrode array on polyester/cotton fabric. The fabrication details needed to achieve the array, including the materials and printer set-up, are reported. The array consists of ten electrode elements for functional electrical stimulation (FES), including nine active electrodes and one common return electrode. The minimum gap between conductive tracks of 1 mm required for the design was achieved. The fabrication method can be used to tailor the electrode array to fit a wide variety of healthcare applications and an individual’s requirements for personalized healthcare. Full article
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5 pages, 9224 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Investigating the Mechanical Failures at the Bonded Joints of Screen-Printed E-Textile Circuits
by Abiodun Komolafe and Russel Torah
Eng. Proc. 2022, 15(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022015017 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
It is often necessary to connect e-textile devices with power supplies and other peripherals using electrical wires. This connection is usually achieved with the use of wires that are consequently bonded to the e-textile circuit using conductive epoxies or solders. This paper reports [...] Read more.
It is often necessary to connect e-textile devices with power supplies and other peripherals using electrical wires. This connection is usually achieved with the use of wires that are consequently bonded to the e-textile circuit using conductive epoxies or solders. This paper reports the mechanical failures that arise from this bonded joint during bending by considering the connection of textile-based Litz wires to screen-printed silver conductors using a combination of conductive epoxies and tapes as bonding adhesives. Cyclic bending results of the conductors around a 5 mm bending diameter rod show that conductors with bonded joints degrade after 3500 cycles with the formation of cracks and fractures around the bonded joints. Conductors without bonded joints achieve more than 10,000 bending cycles without the formation of cracks in the conductors. Full article
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3 pages, 813 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Optimization of Knitted Structures for E-Textiles Applications
by Sultan Ullah, Khubab Shaker and Syed Talha Ali Hamdani
Eng. Proc. 2022, 15(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022015018 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1063
Abstract
The findings of this research attempt to evaluate the electrical and compression features of electrically conductive yarns (ECY) as well as the structure of sensor systems, such as single jersey and double jersey knit designs, for healthcare applications and wearing technologies. The tensile [...] Read more.
The findings of this research attempt to evaluate the electrical and compression features of electrically conductive yarns (ECY) as well as the structure of sensor systems, such as single jersey and double jersey knit designs, for healthcare applications and wearing technologies. The tensile properties and electrical properties of conductive yarns were optimized basis of the findings. Owing to the knit-tuck stitches arrangement, which gives density to the fabric, the double lacoste, popcorn, and milano ribs were proven to have adequate compressive resilience. The developed knitted structures kinds of sensors were noticed and may easily be applied to global smart socks manufacture as well as other technologies. Full article
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5 pages, 2782 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Textile Manufacturing Compatible Triboelectric Nanogenerator with Alternating Positive and Negative Woven Structure
by Watcharapong Paosangthong, Mahmoud Wagih, Russel Torah and Steve Beeby
Eng. Proc. 2022, 15(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022015019 - 02 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1093
Abstract
This paper reports the novel design of a textile-based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) with alternate woven strips of positive and negative triboelectric material operating in freestanding triboelectric-layer mode (woven TENG). It was fabricated using processes that are compatible with standard textile manufacturing, including plain [...] Read more.
This paper reports the novel design of a textile-based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) with alternate woven strips of positive and negative triboelectric material operating in freestanding triboelectric-layer mode (woven TENG). It was fabricated using processes that are compatible with standard textile manufacturing, including plain weaving and doctor blading. In contrast to the conventional grating structure TENGs, which can operate only in one moving direction, this new design allows the woven TENG to operate in all planar directions. The implementation of the positive and negative triboelectric material also significantly improves the performance of the woven TENG compared to the conventional all-direction TENGs. Full article
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5 pages, 1116 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Flexible Water-Activated Battery on a Polyester–Cotton Textile
by Sheng Yong, Nick Hillier and Stephen Beeby
Eng. Proc. 2022, 15(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022015020 - 10 Jun 2022
Viewed by 979
Abstract
This work presents a simple, scalable and flexible water activated primary battery, fabricated on top of a textile substrate. The textile-based battery was fabricated with inexpensive screen-printed materials to form the functional battery electrodes, novel polymer separator and buffer layers. Upon activating the [...] Read more.
This work presents a simple, scalable and flexible water activated primary battery, fabricated on top of a textile substrate. The textile-based battery was fabricated with inexpensive screen-printed materials to form the functional battery electrodes, novel polymer separator and buffer layers. Upon activating the device with water, the battery demonstrated an areal capacity of 88 µAh·cm−2 between 1 and 0.6 V. Full article
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5 pages, 812 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Solution-Processed Organic Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells (OLECs) with Blue Colour Emission via Silver-Nanowires (AgNWs) as Cathode
by Katie Court, Sasikumar Arumugam, Yi Li, Martin D. B. Charlton, John Tudor, David Harrowven and Steve Beeby
Eng. Proc. 2022, 15(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022015021 - 24 Jun 2022
Viewed by 885
Abstract
Organic light-emitting polymers can be formulated into solutions that can be printed in ambient atmospheres and cured at low temperatures of <120 °C. The deposition techniques that can be employed include spin coating, spray coating and ink-jet printing. This provides the possibility of [...] Read more.
Organic light-emitting polymers can be formulated into solutions that can be printed in ambient atmospheres and cured at low temperatures of <120 °C. The deposition techniques that can be employed include spin coating, spray coating and ink-jet printing. This provides the possibility of fabricating OLECs onto to a range of flexible substrates including textiles, hence enabling wearable electronics. In addition, the utilization of different polymers could produce light-emitting textiles in a range of colors. This work details the optimisation steps and challenges involved in the fabrication of OLECs on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) glass prior to the transfer of the process onto a textile. A blue-emitting polymer Merck (NCMP) is used for the active layer and the device fabrication process is carried out at low temperatures in an ambient atmosphere. Working devices have been created on ITO glass to achieve the top blue emission with the next phase being the transfer onto textile. Blue LECs emission peak is captured at 520 nm with brightness of ~25 cd·m−2. Full article
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5 pages, 1975 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Functioning E-Textile Sensors for Car Infotainment Applications
by Pouya M. Khorsandi, Alaa Nousir and Sara Nabil
Eng. Proc. 2022, 15(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2022015022 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1334
Abstract
Car interiors are envisioned to be living spaces that support a variety of non-driving-related activities. Previous work focuses on enhancing driving-related functions, performance and safety. By developing textile-based sensors, we focus on enabling non-driving activities integrated in the car interior and supporting a [...] Read more.
Car interiors are envisioned to be living spaces that support a variety of non-driving-related activities. Previous work focuses on enhancing driving-related functions, performance and safety. By developing textile-based sensors, we focus on enabling non-driving activities integrated in the car interior and supporting a richer user experience. In this paper, we introduce an array of new applications using e-textile sensors to the design space of car interiors. Our functional prototypes implement hand interactions (such as press and double tap gestures) on the leather or fabric of the steering wheel and back of the head rest. We then propose applications for these sensors to control media, car windows, and air-conditioning. Overall, the paper contributes a novel tactile input modality to support drivers and empower backseat passengers. Full article
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