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Hearts, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 4 articles

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10 pages, 536 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Sickle Cell Disease on Acute Coronary Syndrome and PCI Outcomes: A Retrospective Observational Study
by Abdulmajeed Alharbi, Clarissa Pena, Mohammed Mhanna, Caleb Spencer, Masharib Bashar, Michelle Cherian, Ahmad Abdulrahman, Halah Alfatlawi, Eun Seo Kwak, Mohammad Siddique and Ragheb Assaly
Hearts 2024, 5(2), 236-245; https://doi.org/10.3390/hearts5020016 - 27 May 2024
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Abstract
Introduction: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder that is widely observed on a global scale and known for its substantial negative impact on health and mortality. The purpose of this research was to explore how SCD influences the outcomes of acute [...] Read more.
Introduction: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder that is widely observed on a global scale and known for its substantial negative impact on health and mortality. The purpose of this research was to explore how SCD influences the outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI). Methods: A retrospective observational analysis was conducted using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) data for the year 2020. Adult patients with concurrent ACS and SCD diagnoses were included in the study. Demographic information, clinical characteristics, in-hospital outcomes, and PCI complications were examined and compared between ACS patients with and without SCD. Results: Among a total of 779,895 ACS patients, 1495 had coexisting SCD. SCD patiets exhibited distinct demographic features, such as younger age (mean age: 59 vs. 66 years), predominantly female (53% vs. 35%), and primarily African American (91% vs. 11%). Comorbid conditions such as hypertension and chronic lung disease were more prevalent in SCD patients. While inpatient mortality odds did not significantly differ, SCD patients demonstrated slightly shorter lengths of stay in cases of STEMI and NSTEMI/UA. Notably, SCD patients faced a statistically significant increased risk of coronary dissection, highlighting a unique complication in this population. Although an increased incidence of atrial fibrillation and acute heart failure was observed in SCD patients, statistical significance was not achieved. Conclusions: This study provides valuable insight into the intricate interplay between SCD and ACS outcomes. SCD patients presented with distinctive demographic and clinical profiles that influenced their experience with ACS. The elevated risk of coronary dissection emphasizes the necessity for tailored interventions and careful management in SCD patients. These findings underscore the need for further research to elucidate underlying mechanisms and optimize treatment strategies for individuals with both SCD and ACS. Full article
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11 pages, 527 KiB  
Article
Prognostic Value and Limits of Heart Rate and QT—Corrected in A Large Population
by Paolo Giovanardi, Cecilia Vernia, Sara Roversi, Enrico Tincani, Giuseppe Spadafora, Federico Silipo and Claudio Giberti
Hearts 2024, 5(2), 225-235; https://doi.org/10.3390/hearts5020015 - 27 May 2024
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Abstract
Background: The study aimed to compare the prognostic importance of the heart rate (HR) and QT—corrected (QTc) according to Fridericia, Framingham, and Bazett with respect to all-cause mortality in a large non-selected population. Methods: The analysis of digital electrocardiograms archived from 2008 to [...] Read more.
Background: The study aimed to compare the prognostic importance of the heart rate (HR) and QT—corrected (QTc) according to Fridericia, Framingham, and Bazett with respect to all-cause mortality in a large non-selected population. Methods: The analysis of digital electrocardiograms archived from 2008 to 2022 in the metropolitan area of Modena, Italy, was carried out. The population under study was divided into three groups based on age, and survival analysis was performed. Results: 131,627 patients were enrolled and, during the follow-up (mean 1641.4 days), all-cause mortality was 8.9%. Both HR and QTc were associated with mortality. All-cause mortality significantly increased with HR values greater than 81 BPM and QTc values greater than 440 msec in young subjects and 455 msec in old subjects (values of the 75th percentiles/optimal operating point). A Cox analysis confirmed the better prognostic value of Bazett’s QTc and HR in the whole population and in the three age-groups. Conclusion: Bazett’s method performed better than the others, but, unexpectedly, the HR had the same or an even better correlation with all-cause mortality. Since the HR is simple and readily available, its evaluation should be improved. However, QTC and HR values are difficult to define, causing many confounding factors, and further population studies are required. Full article
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Article
Arterial Stiffness Is an Important Predictor of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF)—The Effects of Phosphate Retention
by Yuji Mizuno, Toshifumi Ishida, Kenichi Tsujita and Michihiro Yoshimura
Hearts 2024, 5(2), 211-224; https://doi.org/10.3390/hearts5020014 - 17 May 2024
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Abstract
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a major health concern. There is a growing recognition of the causal interplay between arterial stiffness and HFpEF. We recently reported that phosphate retention is a trigger for arterial stiffness. This study focuses on whether [...] Read more.
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a major health concern. There is a growing recognition of the causal interplay between arterial stiffness and HFpEF. We recently reported that phosphate retention is a trigger for arterial stiffness. This study focuses on whether arterial stiffness due to phosphate retention could be a predictor for HFpEF. Methods: The subjects of this study were 158 patients (68 males and 90 females, mean age 74.8 ± 11.2). HFpEF was defined according to the guidelines of the ESC 2019. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and central systolic blood pressure (CSBP) were used as markers for arterial stiffness and afterload, respectively. We measured serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) as a marker of phosphate retention. Results: The serum levels of FGF23 had a significant relationship with PWV. PWV had significant relationships with LV mass index, plasma BNP levels, and relative wall thickness, e′, and E/e′ (p < 0.001, respectively). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that higher PWV values and hypertension were significant predictors for the dependent factor (HFpEF). Arterial stiffness amplified afterload, leading to LV concentric hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. This study presents that arterial stiffness is a key predictor of HFpEF, and that phosphate retention is involved in the pathology of HFpEF. Full article
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15 pages, 262 KiB  
Article
Dietary Fatty Acids Predicting Long Term Cardiovascular Mortality in a Cohort of Middle-Aged Men Followed-Up until Extinction
by Alessandro Menotti and Paolo Emilio Puddu
Hearts 2024, 5(2), 196-210; https://doi.org/10.3390/hearts5020013 - 23 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Objectives: To report the relationships of major dietary fatty acids with major cardiovascular disease mortality groups in a cohort of middle-aged men followed up with until extinction. Material and Methods: In the early 1960s, a cohort of men aged 40 to 59 years [...] Read more.
Objectives: To report the relationships of major dietary fatty acids with major cardiovascular disease mortality groups in a cohort of middle-aged men followed up with until extinction. Material and Methods: In the early 1960s, a cohort of men aged 40 to 59 years was enrolled and examined within the Italian Rural Areas section of the Seven Countries Study including dietary history that allowed for the estimation of major fatty acid (FA) intake (saturated FAs: SAFAs; mono-unsaturated FAs: MUFAs; and poly-unsaturated FAs: PUFAs), their ratios, and the production of a dietary score derived from 18 food groups, the high levels of which corresponded to a Mediterranean diet profile. Results: During a follow-up of 61 years, the intake of SAFAs was directly while that of MUFAs was inversely and significantly associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality (the hazard ratio for one standard deviation was 1.28 and 0.84, respectively) but not with other cases of Heart Disease of Uncertain Etiology (HDUE) and stroke mortality. The hazard ratio for SAFAs remained significant after factoring into the multivariate models the dietary score and other classical cardiovascular risk factors (age, smoking habits, cholesterol levels, and systolic blood pressure). The role of the dietary score was inverse and significant (hazard ratio of 0.73). Again, this was true for CHD but not for HDUE and stroke mortality. Conclusions: Both SAFAs and MUFAs predict long-term CHD mortality, together with a dietary score, but not HDUE and stroke, which represent different diseases also in relation to dietary habits. Full article
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