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J. Nanotheranostics, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 6 articles

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21 pages, 1562 KiB  
Review
Recent Advancements, Challenges, and Future Prospects in Usage of Nanoformulation as Theranostics in Inflammatory Diseases
by Amit K. Goyal, Manish Ramchandani and Trambak Basak
J. Nanotheranostics 2023, 4(1), 106-126; https://doi.org/10.3390/jnt4010006 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2964
Abstract
As of today, chronic inflammatory diseases are a progressive cause of death worldwide, accounting for more than 50% of all fatalities. These inflammatory conditions are a major concern, ranging from heart disease to cancer, diabetes, to even neurodegenerative conditions. Conventional diagnosis and treatment [...] Read more.
As of today, chronic inflammatory diseases are a progressive cause of death worldwide, accounting for more than 50% of all fatalities. These inflammatory conditions are a major concern, ranging from heart disease to cancer, diabetes, to even neurodegenerative conditions. Conventional diagnosis and treatment for these problems are often challenging and limited due to complex pathophysiology. To improve upon current treatment and diagnostic strategies, theranostic nanomaterials have been developed. Theranostics is an amalgamation of diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic medicines that have a shared target in damaged cells or tissues. Different theranostic nanoparticles generate enhanced imaging results for facilities such as MRI, PET scan, and CT scans depending on the site of inflammation in different organs. Furthermore, they can be treated with radiopharmaceuticals and/or medicine in nanoparticles. Following a brief discussion of conventional inflammatory diagnosis and therapeutic strategies, this review will cover the recent progress made in theranostic nanomaterials and nanomedicine tactics for managing inflammatory disorders, covering the preclinical and clinical stages of these advances from the past five years. Furthermore, present challenges with theranostic nanoparticles for inflammatory detection and treatment are discussed, as well as future research possibilities. Full article
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20 pages, 2618 KiB  
Review
Novel Biophotonic Techniques for Phototherapy Enhancement: Cerenkov Radiation as a Bridge between Ionizing and Non-Ionizing Radiation Treatment
by Ellas Spyratou, Kyriakos Kokkinogoulis, Georgios Tsigaridas, Georgios Kareliotis, Kalliopi Platoni, Mersini Makropoulou and Efstathios P. Efstathopoulos
J. Nanotheranostics 2023, 4(1), 86-105; https://doi.org/10.3390/jnt4010005 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2848
Abstract
In oncology, tremendous research has been conducted on the use of alternative minimally invasive techniques for cancer treatment and diagnosis. The use of biophotonic techniques as a standalone treatment or together with conventional imaging techniques has gained interest among researchers in recent years, [...] Read more.
In oncology, tremendous research has been conducted on the use of alternative minimally invasive techniques for cancer treatment and diagnosis. The use of biophotonic techniques as a standalone treatment or together with conventional imaging techniques has gained interest among researchers in recent years, while biophotonic therapies such as photothermal and photodynamic therapies tend to bring the use of non-ionizing radiation in therapy back into the spotlight due to the progressive development of optical instrumentation, enhancement agents, molecular probes, light sources and nanocarriers. Thus, the coupling of non-ionizing with ionizing radiation (IR) and the combination of nanomedicine with nuclear medicine procedures are considered to be revolutionary strategies to optimize the therapeutic efficacy of biophotonic modalities and to develop theranostic applications for the better diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Recently, the low-intensity Cerenkov light emitted by tissues as a byproduct of the IR–biostructure interaction has been suggested as an effective internal light source that can trigger phototherapy and guide radiotherapy dosimetry using Cerenkov imaging. This review also provides an overview of in vitro and in vivo studies regarding the use of Cerenkov radiation produced by X-rays or radionucleotides and combined with nanoparticles as a hybrid method to induce enhanced photothermal and photodynamic therapies. Full article
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31 pages, 5861 KiB  
Review
Responsive Nanostructure for Targeted Drug Delivery
by Vaishali Pawar, Priyanka Maske, Amreen Khan, Arnab Ghosh, Roshan Keshari, Mahek Bhatt and Rohit Srivastava
J. Nanotheranostics 2023, 4(1), 55-85; https://doi.org/10.3390/jnt4010004 - 8 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3579
Abstract
Currently, intelligent, responsive biomaterials have been widely explored, considering the fact that responsive biomaterials provide controlled and predictable results in various biomedical systems. Responsive nanostructures undergo reversible or irreversible changes in the presence of a stimulus, and that stimuli can be temperature, a [...] Read more.
Currently, intelligent, responsive biomaterials have been widely explored, considering the fact that responsive biomaterials provide controlled and predictable results in various biomedical systems. Responsive nanostructures undergo reversible or irreversible changes in the presence of a stimulus, and that stimuli can be temperature, a magnetic field, ultrasound, pH, humidity, pressure, light, electric field, etc. Different types of stimuli being used in drug delivery shall be explained here. Recent research progress in the design, development and applications of biomaterials comprising responsive nanostructures is also described here. More emphasis will be given on the various nanostructures explored for the smart stimuli responsive drug delivery at the target site such as wound healing, cancer therapy, inflammation, and pain management in order to achieve the improved efficacy and sustainability with the lowest side effects. However, it is still a big challenge to develop well-defined responsive nanostructures with ordered output; thus, challenges faced during the design and development of these nanostructures shall also be included in this article. Clinical perspectives and applicability of the responsive nanostructures in the targeted drug delivery shall be discussed here. Full article
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18 pages, 7491 KiB  
Article
Fluorescent Gold Nanoparticles in Suspension as an Efficient Theranostic Agent for Highly Radio-Resistant Cancer Cells
by Sarah Vogel, Alice O’Keefe, Léa Seban, Michael Valceski, Elette Engels, Abass Khochaiche, Carolyn Hollis, Michael Lerch, Stéphanie Corde, Christophe Massard, Komla Oscar Awitor and Moeava Tehei
J. Nanotheranostics 2023, 4(1), 37-54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jnt4010003 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2691
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles are a promising candidate for developing new strategies of therapy against cancer. Due to their high atomic number and relative biocompatibility, they are commonly investigated as radiosensitizers to locally increase the dose of radiotherapy. In order to optimize this radiosensitizing effect, [...] Read more.
Gold nanoparticles are a promising candidate for developing new strategies of therapy against cancer. Due to their high atomic number and relative biocompatibility, they are commonly investigated as radiosensitizers to locally increase the dose of radiotherapy. In order to optimize this radiosensitizing effect, it is necessary to control the positioning of the nanoparticles in the cells. The purpose of this study is to investigate, by means of fluorescent gold nanoparticles in suspension, the dose enhancement on highly radio-resistant cancer cells. These nanoparticles were successfully produced using modern click-chemistry methods, first by attaching a chelating agent Diethylenetriamine pentaacetate benzylamine to L-cysteine, bonding the resulting ligand to a gold core, grafting propargylamine and then utilizing copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) to fuse AlexaFluor 647 to the ligands. The results of this study prove the success of the reactions to produce a minimally cytotoxic and highly stable nanoparticle suspension that increases the radiosensitivity of gliosarcoma 9L tumor cells, with a 35% increase in cell death using 5 Gy kilovoltage radiation. Their fluorescent functionalization allowed for their simple localization within living cells and detection in vivo post-mortem. Full article
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2 pages, 186 KiB  
Editorial
Development of Advanced Nanomaterials for Multifunctional Devices: Insights into a Novel Concept of Personalized Medicine
by Chiara Martinelli and Emanuela Jacchetti
J. Nanotheranostics 2023, 4(1), 35-36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jnt4010002 - 18 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1249
Abstract
The application of biocompatible nanomaterials to simultaneously detect and provide treatment of a disease is referred to as nanotheranostics [...] Full article
34 pages, 9783 KiB  
Review
Role of Tunable Gold Nanostructures in Cancer Nanotheranostics: Implications on Synthesis, Toxicity, Clinical Applications and Their Associated Opportunities and Challenges
by Akash Kumar, Nabojit Das and Raja Gopal Rayavarapu
J. Nanotheranostics 2023, 4(1), 1-34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jnt4010001 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3578
Abstract
The existing diagnosis and treatment modalities have major limitations related to their precision and capability to understand several stages of disease development. A superior therapeutic system consists of a multifunctional approach in early diagnosis of the disease with a simultaneous progressive cure, using [...] Read more.
The existing diagnosis and treatment modalities have major limitations related to their precision and capability to understand several stages of disease development. A superior therapeutic system consists of a multifunctional approach in early diagnosis of the disease with a simultaneous progressive cure, using a precise medical approach towards complex treatment. These challenges can be addressed via nanotheranostics and explore suitable approaches to improve health care. Nanotechnology in combination with theranostics as an unconventional platform paved the way for developing novel strategies and modalities leading to diagnosis and therapy for complex disease conditions, ranging from acute to chronic levels. Among the metal nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles are being widely used for theranostics due to their inherent non-toxic nature and plasmonic properties. The unique optical and chemical properties of plasmonic metal nanoparticles along with theranostics have led to a promising era of plausible early detection of disease conditions, and they enable real-time monitoring with enhanced non-invasive or minimally invasive imaging of several ailments. This review aims to highlight the improvement and advancement brought to nanotheranostics by gold nanoparticles in the past decade. The clinical use of the metal nanoparticles in nanotheranostics is explained, along with the future perspectives on addressing the key applications related to diagnostics and therapeutics, respectively. The scope of gold nanoparticles and their realistic potential to design a sophisticated theranostic system is discussed in detail, along with their implications in clinical advancements which are the needs of the hour. The review concluded with the challenges, opportunities, and implications on translational potential of using gold nanoparticles in nanotheranostics. Full article
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