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Acoustics, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 20 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): How did the UK House of Commons sound before it was destroyed by the Great Fire of 1834? This is a historically important site of political performance, debating and governing in a period of political changes and agitation. An acoustic model has been designed to present the intangible principles of the House of Commons. We discuss the designing process of the acoustic model based on historical evidence and further experimentation on the acoustic characteristics and settings of the software. The model’s validity has been confirmed by comparing the results with acoustic measurements of spaces of similar historical importance. Auralization results are also available for a subjective evaluation of the results. View this paper
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11 pages, 2465 KiB  
Article
Visual Speech Recognition for Kannada Language Using VGG16 Convolutional Neural Network
by Shashidhar Rudregowda, Sudarshan Patil Kulkarni, Gururaj H L, Vinayakumar Ravi and Moez Krichen
Acoustics 2023, 5(1), 343-353; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5010020 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3012
Abstract
Visual speech recognition (VSR) is a method of reading speech by noticing the lip actions of the narrators. Visual speech significantly depends on the visual features derived from the image sequences. Visual speech recognition is a stimulating process that poses various challenging tasks [...] Read more.
Visual speech recognition (VSR) is a method of reading speech by noticing the lip actions of the narrators. Visual speech significantly depends on the visual features derived from the image sequences. Visual speech recognition is a stimulating process that poses various challenging tasks to human machine-based procedures. VSR methods clarify the tasks by using machine learning. Visual speech helps people who are hearing impaired, laryngeal patients, and are in a noisy environment. In this research, authors developed our dataset for the Kannada Language. The dataset contained five words, which are Avanu, Bagge, Bari, Guruthu, Helida, and these words are randomly chosen. The average duration of each video is 1 s to 1.2 s. The machine learning method is used for feature extraction and classification. Here, authors applied VGG16 Convolution Neural Network for our custom dataset, and relu activation function is used to get an accuracy of 91.90% and the recommended system confirms the effectiveness of the system. The proposed output is compared with HCNN, ResNet-LSTM, Bi-LSTM, and GLCM-ANN, and evidenced the effectiveness of the recommended system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Materials and Acoustics)
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23 pages, 2517 KiB  
Article
An Iterative Ray Tracing Algorithm to Increase Simulation Speed While Maintaining Overall Precision
by Hanna Autio, Nikolaos-Georgios Vardaxis and Delphine Bard Hagberg
Acoustics 2023, 5(1), 320-342; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5010019 - 14 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2971
Abstract
Ray tracing is a frequently used method for acoustic simulations, valued for its calculation speed and ease of use. Although it is fast, there are no fully ray tracing-based real-time simulation methods or engines. Under real-time restrictions, ray tracing simulations lose precision and [...] Read more.
Ray tracing is a frequently used method for acoustic simulations, valued for its calculation speed and ease of use. Although it is fast, there are no fully ray tracing-based real-time simulation methods or engines. Under real-time restrictions, ray tracing simulations lose precision and the variance inherent in the random simulation method has too much impact on the outcome. In this paper, an algorithm called iterative ray tracing is presented that reduces the negative effects of real-time restrictions by iteratively improving the initial calculation and increasing the precision over time. In addition, new estimates of the expected value and variance of ray tracing simulations are presented and used to show the iteration steps in the new algorithm reduce variance, while maintaining the expected value. Simulations using iterative ray tracing are compared to measurements and simulations using the classical ray tracing method, and it is shown that iterative ray tracing can be used to improve precision over time. Although more testing is needed, iterative ray tracing can be used to extend most ray tracing algorithms, in order to decrease the adverse effects of real-time restrictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Featured Position and Review Papers in Acoustics Science)
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21 pages, 3128 KiB  
Article
The Bacinete Main Shelter: A Prehistoric Theatre?
by Lidia Alvarez-Morales, Neemias Santos da Rosa, Daniel Benítez-Aragón, Laura Fernández Macías, María Lazarich and Margarita Díaz-Andreu
Acoustics 2023, 5(1), 299-319; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5010018 - 06 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2571
Abstract
In the last few years, archaeoacoustic studies of rock art sites and landscapes have undergone significant growth as a result of renewed interest in the intangible aspects of the archaeological record. This article focuses on the acoustic study carried out in the rock [...] Read more.
In the last few years, archaeoacoustic studies of rock art sites and landscapes have undergone significant growth as a result of renewed interest in the intangible aspects of the archaeological record. This article focuses on the acoustic study carried out in the rock art complex of Bacinete, Cádiz (Spain). After describing the archaeological site and its importance, a representative set of monaural and spatial IRs gathered onsite is thoroughly analysed to explore the hypothesis that the sonic component of the site played an important role in how prehistoric people interacted with it. Additionally, we briefly discuss the challenges of analysing the acoustics of open-air spaces following the recommendations of the ISO 3382-1 guidelines, a standard developed not for open-air spaces, but for room acoustics. The results obtained confirm the favourable acoustic conditions of the Bacinete main shelter for speech transmission. The different subjective acoustic impressions obtained in a somewhat similar shelter located nearby, Bacinete III, are also explained, alluding to a lesser degree of intimacy felt in the latter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustics, Soundscapes and Sounds as Intangible Heritage)
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19 pages, 6098 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Sound Absorbers to Improve Acoustical Comfort in Atria: A Methodological Approach
by Chiara Rubino, Stefania Liuzzi and Francesco Martellotta
Acoustics 2023, 5(1), 280-298; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5010017 - 06 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2258
Abstract
Resource-efficient buildings are one of the most important challenges of the construction industry, which could be achieved by limiting the extraction of natural resources and by replacing them with industrial residues. The present work proposes innovative panels made from textile wastes as an [...] Read more.
Resource-efficient buildings are one of the most important challenges of the construction industry, which could be achieved by limiting the extraction of natural resources and by replacing them with industrial residues. The present work proposes innovative panels made from textile wastes as an efficient solution for making the semi-open atrium in the Polytechnic University of Bari, acoustically suitable for use as an area of study. Several measurements were carried out in the atrium under empty and occupied conditions in order to characterize the sound field of the space (i.e., the reverberation time and the sound pressure level) and the actual sound sources (i.e., the sound power level of the students occupying the space). The on-site measurement results were useful to calibrate a geometrical acoustic model implemented in CATT-Acoustic software and used to predict the effect of the proposed treatments. About 700 m2 of absorbent panels were distributed, leading to a predicted reduction in the reverberation time from 2.4 s to 1.4 s at 500 Hz, and consequently to an estimated 3 dB reduction in sound pressure level, resulting in a reduction in the background noise level due to speech. Furthermore, as a consequence of the “Lombard effect”, a decrease in the background noise level will likely reduce the sound power level of the speakers by 2 dB, with an expected overall reduction of 5 dB. Full article
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12 pages, 2143 KiB  
Article
All Acoustical Excitation of Spin Waves in High Overtone Bulk Acoustic Resonator
by Sergey Alekseev, Natalia Polzikova and Valery Luzanov
Acoustics 2023, 5(1), 268-279; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5010016 - 01 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2245
Abstract
The hybrid high overtone bulk acoustic wave resonators (HBARs) consisting of a piezoelectric film transducers and gallium gadolinium garnet substrates with yttrium iron garnet films (YIG-GGG-YIG) are used for experimental excitation and detection of acoustically driven spin waves (ADSWs). Two types of HBAR [...] Read more.
The hybrid high overtone bulk acoustic wave resonators (HBARs) consisting of a piezoelectric film transducers and gallium gadolinium garnet substrates with yttrium iron garnet films (YIG-GGG-YIG) are used for experimental excitation and detection of acoustically driven spin waves (ADSWs). Two types of HBAR transducers made of Al-ZnO-Al films (differed through the electrodes’ geometry) were deposited onto YIG-GGG-YIG trilayers with different YIG film thicknesses and doping levels and served for excitation of multimode HBAR at gigahertz frequencies. ADSWs were detected by measuring the shifts of resonant HBAR modes in a tangential external magnetic field when the conditions for magnetoelastic resonance (MER) were satisfied. It was shown that the design of the transducer with a continuous bottom electrode provides all acoustical excitation of spin waves (pure ADSWs), suppressing the additional inductive magnetic dynamics excitation due to the electrodes’ geometry. The theoretical study of the HBAR spectrum in a magnetic field showed that the resonance harmonics in the MER region can either almost continuously transfer from one to another, or decay and form an evident magnetoelastic gap. In this case, the shift of resonant frequencies can achieve several intermodal distances. The results obtained are important for applications of HBAR-based devices in spintronics and magnonics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resonators in Acoustics)
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14 pages, 3864 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Head Related Transfer Functions Using Machine Learning Approaches
by Roberto Fernandez Martinez, Pello Jimbert, Eric Michael Sumner, Morris Riedel and Runar Unnthorsson
Acoustics 2023, 5(1), 254-267; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5010015 - 01 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2282
Abstract
The generation of a virtual, personal, auditory space to obtain a high-quality sound experience when using headphones is of great significance. Normally this experience is improved using personalized head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) that depend on a large degree of personal anthropometric information on [...] Read more.
The generation of a virtual, personal, auditory space to obtain a high-quality sound experience when using headphones is of great significance. Normally this experience is improved using personalized head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) that depend on a large degree of personal anthropometric information on pinnae. Most of the studies focus their personal auditory optimization analysis on the study of amplitude versus frequency on HRTFs, mainly in the search for significant elevation cues of frequency maps. Therefore, knowing the HRTFs of each individual is of considerable help to improve sound quality. The following work proposes a methodology to model HRTFs according to the individual structure of pinnae using multilayer perceptron and linear regression techniques. It is proposed to generate several models that allow knowing HRTFs amplitude for each frequency based on the personal anthropometric data on pinnae, the azimuth angle, and the elevation of the sound source, thus predicting frequency magnitudes. Experiments show that the prediction of new personal HRTF generates low errors, thus this model can be applied to new heads with different pinnae characteristics with high confidence. Improving the results obtained with the standard KEMAR pinna, usually used in cases where there is a lack of information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Featured Position and Review Papers in Acoustics Science)
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12 pages, 1744 KiB  
Article
Effects of Conventional and Musician-Specific Hearing Protection Devices on Speech Intelligibility
by Giovanna Cardoso Pinto, Clayton Henrique Rocha, Carla Gentile Matas and Alessandra Giannella Samelli
Acoustics 2023, 5(1), 242-253; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5010014 - 27 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1845
Abstract
(1) Background: To assess and compare speech intelligibility with conventional and universal musician-specific hearing protection devices (HPD); (2) Methods: The sample comprised 15 normal-hearing musicians of both sexes who had been professionals for more than 5 years. They underwent thorough audiological assessment and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: To assess and compare speech intelligibility with conventional and universal musician-specific hearing protection devices (HPD); (2) Methods: The sample comprised 15 normal-hearing musicians of both sexes who had been professionals for more than 5 years. They underwent thorough audiological assessment and free-field audiometry to measure the attenuation levels of three HPD models (musician-specific, silicone, and foam devices). The sentence recognition thresholds in quiet (SRTQ) and noise (SRTN) were assessed with the Lists of Sentences in Portuguese. User satisfaction with musician HPD was assessed after 2 months; (3) Results: Conventional HPD had higher pure-tone mean attenuation levels than musician HPD. No statistically significant differences were found in SRTQ and SRTN between the three HPD types. However, the musician HPD had higher mean signal-to-noise ratios and percentages of correct words from sentences presented in noise than the other HPD. The answers also indicated a positive trend toward satisfaction with the musician-specific HPD; (4) Conclusions: Despite the lack of significant differences in speech intelligibility while wearing the three HPD models in either quiet or noise, the musician-specific HPD provided greater musical sound quality. This reinforces the possibility of an effective and adequate use of protection to preserve musicians’ hearing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibration and Noise)
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26 pages, 2269 KiB  
Article
Extra-Auditory Effects from Noise Exposure in Schools: Results of Nine Italian Case Studies
by Franco Cotana, Francesco Asdrubali, Giulio Arcangeli, Sergio Luzzi, Giampietro Ricci, Lucia Busa, Michele Goretti, Alfonso Antonio Vincenzo Tortorella, Paola Pulella, Piergiovanni Domenighini, Valeria Gambacorta, Claudia Guattari, Federica Cirimbilli, Andrea Nicolini, Pietro Nataletti, Diego Annesi, Filippo Sanjust and Luigi Cerini
Acoustics 2023, 5(1), 216-241; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5010013 - 24 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2310
Abstract
Noise exposure may cause auditory and extra-auditory effects. School teachers and students are exposed to high noise levels which have an impact on perceptual-cognitive and neurobehavioral aspects. The latter influence teaching conditions and student school performance. A Protocol was defined and parameters to [...] Read more.
Noise exposure may cause auditory and extra-auditory effects. School teachers and students are exposed to high noise levels which have an impact on perceptual-cognitive and neurobehavioral aspects. The latter influence teaching conditions and student school performance. A Protocol was defined and parameters to be investigated were identified for acoustic characterization of unoccupied and occupied school environments, assessment of users by means of questionnaires completed by teachers and students, and vocal effort evaluation. Classrooms, laboratories, auditoriums, gymnasiums, common areas, canteens and outdoor areas were analysed in terms of acoustic features and identification of the origin of noise. The Protocol was tested in three kindergartens, three primary schools and three secondary schools placed in Rome, Florence and Perugia. Results of nine case studies are presented, including comparisons of objective and subjective investigations. Generally, the acoustic performances of the spaces under investigation do not meet the requirements of current Italian legislation. In particular, student activity determines high noise levels in laboratories, gymnasiums, and canteens. Students notice that noise mainly causes loss of concentration, fatigue, boredom, and headache. The outcomes of this research will be the starting point to define strategies and solutions for noise control and mitigation in schools and to draft guidelines for the acoustical school design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Classroom Acoustics: Creating Efficient Learning Environments)
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23 pages, 35718 KiB  
Article
An Acoustic Reconstruction of the House of Commons, c. 1820–1834
by Aglaia Foteinou, Damian Murphy and J. P. D. Cooper
Acoustics 2023, 5(1), 193-215; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5010012 - 24 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2606
Abstract
This paper presents an acoustic reconstruction of the UK House of Commons between c. 1820 and 1834. Focusing on a historically important site where political decisions were debated over the centuries, we aim to simulate and present the intangible principles of the acoustic [...] Read more.
This paper presents an acoustic reconstruction of the UK House of Commons between c. 1820 and 1834. Focusing on a historically important site where political decisions were debated over the centuries, we aim to simulate and present the intangible principles of the acoustic properties and sounds heard within the space. The acoustic model was created based on available historical evidence with the aid of commercial acoustic simulation software. We discuss the decisions made for this reconstruction based on further experimentation with the acoustic characteristics of the constituent materials and settings of the available software. An additional comparison of the achieved acoustic results with spaces of similar historical importance and layout is presented, as a calibration of the model with in situ measurements was not possible in this case study. The values of T30, EDT, C50 and Ts are presented, while auralization examples are also available for a subjective evaluation of the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustics, Soundscapes and Sounds as Intangible Heritage)
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16 pages, 9268 KiB  
Article
The Recycling and Reuse of Natural Materials: Sound Absorbing Box Patterns That Use Waste from Olive Tree Pruning
by Rossella Cottone, Louena Shtrepi, Valentina Serra and Simonetta Lucia Pagliolico
Acoustics 2023, 5(1), 177-192; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5010011 - 05 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2778
Abstract
The agricultural activity of pruning olive trees generates waste which, due to long-standing practices and unawareness of the consequences, are burned on site, thereby producing CO2 emissions in the atmosphere. Therefore, in order to prevent environmental pollution and a waste of resources, [...] Read more.
The agricultural activity of pruning olive trees generates waste which, due to long-standing practices and unawareness of the consequences, are burned on site, thereby producing CO2 emissions in the atmosphere. Therefore, in order to prevent environmental pollution and a waste of resources, the aim of this research investigation was to highlight some alternative uses of the pruning of olive trees waste. This work focuses on recycled and reused by-products as a secondary raw material for the implementation of interior components that can be used for indoor acoustic correction purposes and evaluates their potential as absorbing materials, without overlooking the aesthetic dimension. In this paper, different configurations based on plywood frames with loose olive pruning chips used as a filler, namely, modules and sub-modules, were investigated. Moreover, other technological details, that is, the influence of a Tissue-Non-Tissue (TNT) layer and a spray film coating applied over the external surface of the loose material, were measured. Sound absorption measurements were conducted inside a small-scale reverberation room (SSRR) and the experimental results demonstrated that the samples, for the given thickness, have weighted sound absorption values (αw) of between 0.15 and 0.35 and single third-octave band values that can reach higher values than 0.50 above 500 Hz. The frequency curves and weighted values of the samples in which the influence of TNT and the spray film coating were tested remained unchanged. This is a design aspect that allows absorbing surfaces to be modeled and integrated with existing walls, while maintaining the acoustic performance and the specific aesthetic features of the loose material. Full article
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12 pages, 6249 KiB  
Article
FEM-BEM Vibroacoustic Simulations of Motion Driven Cymbal-Drumstick Interactions
by Evaggelos Kaselouris, Stella Paschalidou, Chrisoula Alexandraki and Vasilis Dimitriou
Acoustics 2023, 5(1), 165-176; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5010010 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2502
Abstract
The transient acoustic dynamics of a splash cymbal are investigated via the Finite Element Method-Boundary Element Method. Real three-dimensional motion data recorded from the interaction of drummer–drumstick–cymbal provide the initial and the loading conditions to the simulated interaction of the drumstick–cymbal Finite Element [...] Read more.
The transient acoustic dynamics of a splash cymbal are investigated via the Finite Element Method-Boundary Element Method. Real three-dimensional motion data recorded from the interaction of drummer–drumstick–cymbal provide the initial and the loading conditions to the simulated interaction of the drumstick–cymbal Finite Element Models. Progressively intensified free strokes are used as loading conditions for both experiment and simulation. The velocity values of the moving drumstick in various drumming conditions are monitored, recorded, and analysed to provide input data into the time domain simulations. The synergy of motion capturing and numerical methods allows computing the sound generated by the combined interaction of the vibroacoustic behaviour of the cymbal with the motor-interaction of the performer. The proposed methodology promotes a novel perspective in musical instrument design, optimization, and manufacturing considering performance discrepancies intentionally introduced by performers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibration and Noise)
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29 pages, 12600 KiB  
Article
The Guided Ultrasonic Wave Oscillation Phase Relation between the Surfaces of Plate-like Structures of Different Material Settings
by Liv Rittmeier, Natalie Rauter, Andrey Mikhaylenko, Rolf Lammering and Michael Sinapius
Acoustics 2023, 5(1), 136-164; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5010009 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1836
Abstract
Lamb waves occur in thin-walled structures in two wave modes—the symmetric and the antisymmetric mode. Their oscillation on the structures‘ surfaces is either in phase (symmetric) or shifted by a phase angle of π (antisymmetric). In this work, a method is developed by [...] Read more.
Lamb waves occur in thin-walled structures in two wave modes—the symmetric and the antisymmetric mode. Their oscillation on the structures‘ surfaces is either in phase (symmetric) or shifted by a phase angle of π (antisymmetric). In this work, a method is developed by which to compare the surfaces’ oscillation phase relation to answer the question of whether fiber metal laminates show the same surface oscillation behavior as described for metals. The evaluation of time signals regarding the instantaneous phase angle is performed by using the continuous wavelet transformation and the short-time Fourier transformation. Numerical simulations utilizing the finite element method provide time signals from the top and bottom surface of different thin-walled structures of different material settings and configurations. The numerically obtained time signals are evaluated by the developed methods with respect to the oscillation phase. Subsequently, the oscillation phase is evaluated experimentally for the wave propagation in a fiber metal laminate. It is shown that the method based on the continuous wavelet transformation is suitable for the evaluation of oscillation phase relations in time signals. Additionally, it is proven that fiber metal laminates show only two phase relations, which indicates the occurrence of Lamb waves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Featured Position and Review Papers in Acoustics Science)
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14 pages, 3843 KiB  
Article
Design and Manufacturing of the Multi-Layered Metamaterial Plate with Interfacial Crack-like Voids and Experimental-Theoretical Study of the Guided Wave Propagation
by Mikhail V. Golub, Ilya A. Moroz, Yanzheng Wang, Artur D. Khanazaryan, Kirill K. Kanishchev, Evgenia A. Okoneshnikova, Alisa N. Shpak, Semyon A. Mareev and Chuanzeng Zhang
Acoustics 2023, 5(1), 122-135; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5010008 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2219
Abstract
A novel kind of acoustic metamaterials (AMMs) with unit cells composed of two layers made of dissimilar materials with a crack-like void situated at the interface between bars is considered. Recently, the authors showed numerically that this novel kind of AMMs can provide [...] Read more.
A novel kind of acoustic metamaterials (AMMs) with unit cells composed of two layers made of dissimilar materials with a crack-like void situated at the interface between bars is considered. Recently, the authors showed numerically that this novel kind of AMMs can provide unidirectional propagation of guided waves. Several AMM specimens (the finite stack of periodic elastic layers with and without voids) have been manufactured using additive manufacturing techniques and regular gluing. The details of the manufacturing process are discussed. In the experiment, the elastic waves have been excited by a rectangular piezoelectric wafer active transducer bonded at the surface of the specimen. Vibrations of the opposite side of the AMM specimen are measured via a piezoelectric sensor. The band gaps are observed in the experiment and values of their width and location correlate with numerically predicted ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Ultrasound Applications)
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2 pages, 136 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Acoustics in 2022
by Acoustics Editorial Office
Acoustics 2023, 5(1), 120-121; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5010007 - 20 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1333
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
33 pages, 9560 KiB  
Article
GIS Based Road Traffic Noise Mapping and Assessment of Health Hazards for a Developing Urban Intersection
by Md Iltaf Zafar, Rakesh Dubey, Shruti Bharadwaj, Alok Kumar, Karan Kumar Paswan, Anubhav Srivastava, Saurabh Kr Tiwary and Susham Biswas
Acoustics 2023, 5(1), 87-119; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5010006 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4272
Abstract
Determination of health hazards of noise pollution is a challenge for any developing city intersection. The people working at roadside open-air shops or near the congested roads of any intersection face intense noise pollution. It becomes very difficult to efficiently determine the hazards [...] Read more.
Determination of health hazards of noise pollution is a challenge for any developing city intersection. The people working at roadside open-air shops or near the congested roads of any intersection face intense noise pollution. It becomes very difficult to efficiently determine the hazards of noise on the health of people living near the intersection. An attempt was made to determine the noise-induced health hazards of the developing city of Bahadurpur, UP, India. The noise levels were monitored over 17 station points of the intersection for three months at different times of the day. Equivalent noise level (Leq) maps were determined within an accuracy of ±4dB. Areas adjacent to intersections indicated noise exposure levels close to 100 dB. Health hazards for the people of the intersection were determined through the testing of auditory and non-auditory health parameters for 100 people. A total of 75–92% of the people who work/live near the noisy intersection were found to be suffering from hearing impairment, tinnitus, sleep disturbance, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, etc. Whether the recorded health hazards were indeed related to noise exposure was confirmed by testing the health parameters of people from the nearby and less noisy area of Pure Ganga. The nearby site reported mild hazards to the health of the population. An alarming level of hearing impairment was prevalent in the noisy Bahadurpur intersection (79–95%) compared to the same in Pure Ganga (13–30%). The estimated noise-induced health hazards were also compared for noisy and less-noisy study sites using ANOVA statistics. The results suggested that the health hazards reported in the two sites are not similar. Further, the severe hazards to people’s health at the underdeveloped intersection were found to be primarily caused by the intense exposure to noise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibration and Noise)
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15 pages, 9317 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Stimuli Level on Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission in Normal Hearing Adults
by Maryam Naghibolhosseini
Acoustics 2023, 5(1), 72-86; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5010005 - 10 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1845
Abstract
The goal of this study is to compare three of the most commonly used primary-level relation paradigms (i.e., Scissors, Boys Town ‘Optimal’, and Equal-Level) in generation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in normal hearing adults. The generator and reflection components were extracted [...] Read more.
The goal of this study is to compare three of the most commonly used primary-level relation paradigms (i.e., Scissors, Boys Town ‘Optimal’, and Equal-Level) in generation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in normal hearing adults. The generator and reflection components were extracted from DPOAEs in each paradigm. The generator and reflection component levels and input/output (I/O) functions were compared across paradigms and primary-tone levels. The results showed a different I/O function growth behavior across frequency and levels among paradigms. The Optimal paradigm showed a systematic change in the generator and reflection component levels and I/O slopes across primary levels among subjects. Moreover, the levels and slopes in the Optimal paradigm were more distinct across levels with less variations across frequency leading to a systematic change in the DPOAE fine structure across levels. The I/O functions were found to be more sensitive to the selected paradigm; especially the I/O function for the reflection component. The I/O functions of the reflection components showed large variability across frequencies due to different frequency shifts in their microstructure depending on the paradigm. The findings of this study suggested the Optimal paradigm as the proper primary-level relation to study cochlear amplification/compression. The findings of this study shows that care needs to be taken in comparing the findings of different studies that generated DPOAEs with a different level-relation paradigm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustics in Biomedical Engineering)
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15 pages, 16625 KiB  
Article
Study of Tire–Pavement Noise Acoustic Performance in Resilient Road Pavement Made of Strain-Hardening Cementitious Composites
by Ali Aryo Bawono, Nen NguyenDinh, Janaki Thangaraj, Maximilian Ertsey-Bayer, Christoph Simon, Bernhard Lechner, Stephan Freudenstein and En-Hua Yang
Acoustics 2023, 5(1), 57-71; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5010004 - 09 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2013
Abstract
A modified strain-hardening cementitious composite (SHCC) material, fabricated using corundum aggregates (SHCC-Cor), has been proposed for roadway applications as it offers high structural performance and high skid resistance. However, the acoustic performance of SHCC is unclear and has not been well studied in [...] Read more.
A modified strain-hardening cementitious composite (SHCC) material, fabricated using corundum aggregates (SHCC-Cor), has been proposed for roadway applications as it offers high structural performance and high skid resistance. However, the acoustic performance of SHCC is unclear and has not been well studied in the past. Theoretically, SHCC may not provide the optimum solution in acoustic performance as it provides a low texture profile, high density, and low porosity. In this study, the acoustic performance of pavement slabs made of SHCC and modified SHCC-Cor are investigated using a nondestructive method to determine the surface roughness (macro texture) of slab surfaces. The pavement–tire noise level was then simulated using SPERoN software. As result, the noise level coming from the pavement made of SHCC could be up to 65 dB(A), while the noise level for SHCC-Cor increased up to 69.2 dB(A) because of the lower shape factor (G) due to a rougher surface as a result of the existence of corundum aggregate on the SHCC surface. The aeroacoustics were also increased compared to the SHCC slab. The modification of SHCC-Cor by introducing grooves (SHCC-Cor-Gro) successfully reduced the sound level coming from the vibration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibration and Noise)
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11 pages, 2101 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Change of Acoustic Pressure in an Element of Acoustic Barrier with an Elliptical Shape
by Krasimir Nedelchev, Elitsa Gieva, Ivan Kralov and Ivelina Ruskova
Acoustics 2023, 5(1), 46-56; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5010003 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2371
Abstract
In the presented article we have investigated the variation of the sound pressure level in characteristic areas around an element of an acoustic barrier with an elliptical shape at different frequencies (from 100 Hz to 2000 Hz). The variation of the sound pressure [...] Read more.
In the presented article we have investigated the variation of the sound pressure level in characteristic areas around an element of an acoustic barrier with an elliptical shape at different frequencies (from 100 Hz to 2000 Hz). The variation of the sound pressure level in four characteristic areas located on the axis of symmetry of the acoustic barrier element is investigated. The purpose of the research is to determine in which of the areas it is most efficient to place devices for generating electrical energy from acoustic noise. The results were analyzed and relevant conclusions were drawn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibration and Noise)
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18 pages, 5761 KiB  
Review
Intangible Mosaic of Sacred Soundscapes in Medieval Serbia
by Zorana Đorđević, Dragan Novković and Marija Dragišić
Acoustics 2023, 5(1), 28-45; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5010002 - 27 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2482
Abstract
Religious practice in Serbia has taken place using both indoors and outdoors sacred sites ever since the adoption of Christianity in medieval times. However, previous archaeoacoustic research was focused on historic church acoustics, excluding the open-air soundscapes of sacred sites. The goal of [...] Read more.
Religious practice in Serbia has taken place using both indoors and outdoors sacred sites ever since the adoption of Christianity in medieval times. However, previous archaeoacoustic research was focused on historic church acoustics, excluding the open-air soundscapes of sacred sites. The goal of this review paper is to shed light on the varieties of sacred soundscapes that have supported the various needs of Orthodox Christian practice in medieval Serbia. First, in relation to the acoustic requirements of the religious service, we compare the acoustic properties of masonry and wooden churches based on the published archaeoacoustic studies of medieval churches and musicological studies of the medieval art of chanting. Second, we provide an overview of the ethnological and historical studies that address the outdoor sacred soundscapes and investigate the religious sound markers of large percussion instruments, such as bells and semantra, the open-air litany procession that has been practiced during the annual celebration of a patron saint’s day in rural areas, and the medieval assemblies that took place on the sacred sites. This paper finally points out that the archaeoacoustic studies of sacred soundscapes should not be limited to church acoustics but also include open-air sacred sites to provide a complete analysis of the aural environment of religious practice and thus contribute to understanding the acoustic intention of medieval builders, as well as the aural experience of both clergy and laity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustics, Soundscapes and Sounds as Intangible Heritage)
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27 pages, 5416 KiB  
Article
A Hybrid Multistep Procedure for the Vibroacoustic Simulation of Noise Emission from Wind Turbines
by Marc Zarnekow, Thomas Grätsch and Frank Ihlenburg
Acoustics 2023, 5(1), 1-27; https://doi.org/10.3390/acoustics5010001 - 22 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2527
Abstract
This paper proposes an efficient hybrid analytical-computational approach for the simulation of mechanical vibrations and sound radiation in wind turbine drive trains.The computational procedure encompasses the detailed modeling of vibrational sources and structural sound paths as well as the major panels of airborne [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an efficient hybrid analytical-computational approach for the simulation of mechanical vibrations and sound radiation in wind turbine drive trains.The computational procedure encompasses the detailed modeling of vibrational sources and structural sound paths as well as the major panels of airborne noise radiation. The angle-varying mesh stiffness is obtained from a series of quasi-static finite element simulations. A novel procedure is proposed to obtain the time-varying mesh stiffness at fluctuating speed. The varying mesh stiffness is introduced as a parametric excitation in an analytical gear model, and the Fourier-transformed results are used as vibrational sources in a finite-element-based harmonic response analysis of the drive train. The present paper focuses on the modeling of gear contact and gearbox vibrations. The models and procedures are outlined, and computational results are compared to physical measurements on a 2.5 MW wind turbine. The results are in good qualitative agreement at tonal frequencies. This is particularly the case at fluctuating speed, where both the simulation and the measurement show the characteristic effect of frequency modulation. The computational procedure has been expanded to the whole drive train and is effectively applied in the conception and evaluation of design measures for the reduction of tonal amplitudes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vibration and Noise)
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