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High-Throughput, Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Asbestos fibres are widely present in the environment. Exposure to these fibres is associated with [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview The Cytoscan HD Array in the Diagnosis of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
High-Throughput 2018, 7(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/ht7030028
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Submicroscopic chromosomal copy number variations (CNVs), such as deletions and duplications, account for about 15–20% of patients affected with developmental delay, intellectual disability, multiple congenital anomalies, and autism spectrum disorder. Most of CNVs are de novo or inherited rearrangements with clinical relevance, but
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Submicroscopic chromosomal copy number variations (CNVs), such as deletions and duplications, account for about 15–20% of patients affected with developmental delay, intellectual disability, multiple congenital anomalies, and autism spectrum disorder. Most of CNVs are de novo or inherited rearrangements with clinical relevance, but there are also rare inherited imbalances with unknown significance that make difficult the clinical management and genetic counselling. Chromosomal microarrays analysis (CMA) are recognized as the first-line test for CNV detection and are now routinely used in the clinical diagnostic laboratory. The recent use of CMA platforms that combine classic copy number analysis with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping has increased the diagnostic yields. Here we discuss the application of the Cytoscan high-density (HD) SNP-array for the detection of CNVs. We provide an overview of molecular analyses involved in identifying pathogenic CNVs and highlight important guidelines to establish pathogenicity of CNV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Microarrays in Diagnostics)
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Open AccessReview Obesity Proteomics: An Update on the Strategies and Tools Employed in the Study of Human Obesity
High-Throughput 2018, 7(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/ht7030027
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
Proteomics has become one of the most important disciplines for characterizing cellular protein composition, building functional linkages between protein molecules, and providing insight into the mechanisms of biological processes in a high-throughput manner. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic advances have made it possible to study
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Proteomics has become one of the most important disciplines for characterizing cellular protein composition, building functional linkages between protein molecules, and providing insight into the mechanisms of biological processes in a high-throughput manner. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic advances have made it possible to study human diseases, including obesity, through the identification and biochemical characterization of alterations in proteins that are associated with it and its comorbidities. A sizeable number of proteomic studies have used the combination of large-scale separation techniques, such as high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or liquid chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry, for high-throughput protein identification. These studies have applied proteomics to comprehensive biochemical profiling and comparison studies while using different tissues and biological fluids from patients to demonstrate the physiological or pathological adaptations within their proteomes. Further investigations into these proteome-wide alterations will enable us to not only understand the disease pathophysiology, but also to determine signature proteins that can serve as biomarkers for obesity and related diseases. This review examines the different proteomic techniques used to study human obesity and discusses its successful applications along with its technical limitations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Transcriptional Identification of Related Proteins in the Immune System of the Crayfish Procambarus clarkii
High-Throughput 2018, 7(3), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/ht7030026
Received: 4 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
The freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii is an animal model employed for physiological and immunological studies and is also of great economic importance in aquaculture. Although it is a species of easy husbandry, a high percentage of its production is lost annually as a
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The freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii is an animal model employed for physiological and immunological studies and is also of great economic importance in aquaculture. Although it is a species of easy husbandry, a high percentage of its production is lost annually as a result of infectious diseases. Currently, genetic information about the immune system of crustaceans is limited. Therefore, we used the abdominal nerve cord from P. clarkii to obtain its transcriptome using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) to identify proteins that participate in the immune system. The reads were assembled de novo and consensus sequences with more than 3000 nucleotides were selected for analysis. The transcripts of the sequences of RNA were edited for annotation and sent to the GenBank database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). We made a list of accession numbers of the sequences which were organized by the putative role of the immune system pathway in which they participate. In this work, we report on 80 proteins identified from the transcriptome of crayfish related to the immune system, 74 of them being the first reported for P. clarkii. We hope that the knowledge of these sequences will contribute significantly to the development of future studies of the immune system in crustaceans. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Molecular Characterization of Histamine-Producing Psychrotrophic Bacteria Isolated from Red Octopus (Octopus maya) in Refrigerated Storage
High-Throughput 2018, 7(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/ht7030025
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 29 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
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Abstract
The present study aimed at determining the histamine production capacity of Gram (+) and Gram (−) bacteria isolated from Octopus maya, along with identifying the presence of amino acid decarboxylase genes. Of the total 80 psychrotrophic microorganisms, 32 strains were identified as
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The present study aimed at determining the histamine production capacity of Gram (+) and Gram (−) bacteria isolated from Octopus maya, along with identifying the presence of amino acid decarboxylase genes. Of the total 80 psychrotrophic microorganisms, 32 strains were identified as histamine-forming bacteria. The recombinant DNA technique was used for genotypic identification of histidine (hdc), ornithine (odc), and lysine decarboxylases (ldc) genes. Thirty-two strains were able to produce 60–100 ppm in trypticase soy broth with 1.0% l-histidine after 6 h at 20 °C. NR6B showed 98% homology with Hafnia alvei. NR73 represented 18.8% of the total isolates and showed 98% homology with Enterobacter xianfengensis and Enterobacter cloacae. NR6A represented 6% of the total isolates, which were identified as Lactococcus sp. The hdc gen from NR6B showed 100% identity with hdc from Morganella morganii; ldc showed 97.7% identity with ldc from Citrobacter freundii. The Odc gene was detected only in NR73 and showed 100% identity with Enterobacter sp. All the isolated were identified as weak histamine–former. The ingestion of a food containing small amounts of histamine has little effect on humans; however, the formation of biogenic amines is often considered as an indicator of hygienic quality; this emphasizes the importance of improving good management practices and storage. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Oral Biofilms: Development, Control, and Analysis
High-Throughput 2018, 7(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/ht7030024
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 27 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
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Abstract
The oral cavity harbors hundreds of microbial species that are present either as planktonic cells or incorporated into biofilms. The majority of the oral microbes are commensal organisms. Those that are pathogenic microbes can result in oral infections, and at times can initiate
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The oral cavity harbors hundreds of microbial species that are present either as planktonic cells or incorporated into biofilms. The majority of the oral microbes are commensal organisms. Those that are pathogenic microbes can result in oral infections, and at times can initiate systemic diseases. Biofilms that contain pathogens are challenging to control. Many conventional antimicrobials have proven to be ineffective. Recent advances in science and technology are providing new approaches for pathogen control and containment and methods to characterize biofilms. This perspective provides (1) a general understanding of biofilm development; (2) a description of emerging chemical and biological methods to control oral biofilms; and (3) an overview of high-throughput analytical approaches to analyze biofilms. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle p-Value Histograms: Inference and Diagnostics
High-Throughput 2018, 7(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/ht7030023
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 26 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
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Abstract
It is increasingly common for experiments in biology and medicine to involve large numbers of hypothesis tests. A natural graphical method for visualizing these tests is to construct a histogram from the p-values of these tests. In this article, we examine the
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It is increasingly common for experiments in biology and medicine to involve large numbers of hypothesis tests. A natural graphical method for visualizing these tests is to construct a histogram from the p-values of these tests. In this article, we examine the shapes, both regular and irregular, that these histograms can take on, as well as present simple inferential procedures that help to interpret the shapes in terms of diagnosing potential problems with the experiment. We examine potential causes of these problems in detail, and discuss potential remedies. Throughout, examples of irregular-looking p-value histograms are provided and based on case studies involving real biological experiments. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle New Developments in the Synthesis of EMICORON
High-Throughput 2018, 7(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/ht7030022
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
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Abstract
This paper reports on the modification of two synthetic steps in the usual protocol used for obtaining EMICORON. EMICORON is a benzo[ghi]perylen-diimide, which was synthesized for the first time in our laboratory in 2012, and has shown to have in vivo
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This paper reports on the modification of two synthetic steps in the usual protocol used for obtaining EMICORON. EMICORON is a benzo[ghi]perylen-diimide, which was synthesized for the first time in our laboratory in 2012, and has shown to have in vivo antitumor activities that interferes with the tumor growth and development using a multi-target mechanism of action. The provided modifications, which involved the reaction times, the reaction conditions, and the work-up procedures, allowed the global yield of the process to be increased from 28% to about 40%. Thus, this new procedure may be more suitable for recovering higher amounts of EMICORON to be used in further preclinical studies. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Conformational Design and Characterisation of a Truncated Diamine Oxidase from Arthrobacter globiformis
High-Throughput 2018, 7(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/ht7030021
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 25 August 2018
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Abstract
A functional mini protein can be developed by miniaturising its size. The minimisation technique provides an excellent model system for studying native enzymes, especially in creating an alternative novel biocatalyst. Miniaturised proteins may have enhanced stability, a crucial characteristic for large-scale production and
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A functional mini protein can be developed by miniaturising its size. The minimisation technique provides an excellent model system for studying native enzymes, especially in creating an alternative novel biocatalyst. Miniaturised proteins may have enhanced stability, a crucial characteristic for large-scale production and industrial applications. In this study, a huge enzyme molecule, known as diamine oxidase (DAO, comprising 700 amino acids), was selected to undergo the process. By retaining the arrangement of the original functional sites of DAO in the fourth domain, a mini DAO can be designed via homology modelling. After several downsizing processes, a final configuration of 220 amino acids displayed high binding affinity towards histamine, a short-chain substrate that was catalysed by the parental DAO. The configuration also showed enhanced affinity towards a long-chain substrate known as spermidine. The gene for the designed protein was cloned and expressed in pET102/TOPO vector and overexpressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The new mini DAO had similar temperature tolerance and versatile substrates specificity characteristics as its parental protein. An active mini-protein with these characteristics is potentially useful for several applications such as detecting biogenic amines in the biological fluids and the environment that may give rise to health issues. Full article
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Open AccessReview Genomics and Epigenetics of Malignant Mesothelioma
High-Throughput 2018, 7(3), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/ht7030020
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
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Abstract
Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive and lethal asbestos-related disease. Diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma is particularly challenging and is further complicated by the lack of disease subtype-specific markers. As a result, it is especially difficult to distinguish malignant mesothelioma from benign reactive mesothelial proliferations
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Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive and lethal asbestos-related disease. Diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma is particularly challenging and is further complicated by the lack of disease subtype-specific markers. As a result, it is especially difficult to distinguish malignant mesothelioma from benign reactive mesothelial proliferations or reactive fibrosis. Additionally, mesothelioma diagnoses can be confounded by other anatomically related tumors that can invade the pleural or peritoneal cavities, collectively resulting in delayed diagnoses and greatly affecting patient management. High-throughput analyses have uncovered key genomic and epigenomic alterations driving malignant mesothelioma. These molecular features have the potential to better our understanding of malignant mesothelioma biology as well as to improve disease diagnosis and patient prognosis. Genomic approaches have been instrumental in identifying molecular events frequently occurring in mesothelioma. As such, we review the discoveries made using high-throughput technologies, including novel insights obtained from the analysis of the non-coding transcriptome, and the clinical potential of these genetic and epigenetic findings in mesothelioma. Furthermore, we aim to highlight the potential of these technologies in the future clinical applications of the novel molecular features in malignant mesothelioma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Whole-Genome Approaches to Study Environmental Exposures)
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Open AccessReview Venomics: A Mini-Review
High-Throughput 2018, 7(3), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/ht7030019
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 23 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
Venomics is the integration of proteomic, genomic and transcriptomic approaches to study venoms. Advances in these approaches have enabled increasingly more comprehensive analyses of venoms to be carried out, overcoming to some extent the limitations imposed by the complexity of the venoms and
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Venomics is the integration of proteomic, genomic and transcriptomic approaches to study venoms. Advances in these approaches have enabled increasingly more comprehensive analyses of venoms to be carried out, overcoming to some extent the limitations imposed by the complexity of the venoms and the small quantities that are often available. Advances in bioinformatics and high-throughput functional assay screening approaches have also had a significant impact on venomics. A combination of all these techniques is critical for enhancing our knowledge on the complexity of venoms and their potential therapeutic and agricultural applications. Here we highlight recent advances in these fields and their impact on venom analyses. Full article
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