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Volume 9, June

High-Throughput, Volume 9, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 3 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Recent advances in microbiome studies have revealed much information about how the gut virome, mycobiome, and gut bacteria influence health and disease. Over the years, many studies have reported associations between the gut microflora under different pathological conditions. However, information about the role of gut metabolites and the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota affect health and disease does not provide enough evidence. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and metabolomics coupled with large, randomized clinical trials are helping scientists to understand whether gut dysbiosis precedes pathology or gut dysbiosis is secondary to pathology. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge on the impact of gut bacteria, virome, and mycobiome interactions with the host and how they could be manipulated to promote health. View this paper.
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Review
Health Impact and Therapeutic Manipulation of the Gut Microbiome
High-Throughput 2020, 9(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/ht9030017 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1799
Abstract
Recent advances in microbiome studies have revealed much information about how the gut virome, mycobiome, and gut bacteria influence health and disease. Over the years, many studies have reported associations between the gut microflora under different pathological conditions. However, information about the role [...] Read more.
Recent advances in microbiome studies have revealed much information about how the gut virome, mycobiome, and gut bacteria influence health and disease. Over the years, many studies have reported associations between the gut microflora under different pathological conditions. However, information about the role of gut metabolites and the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota affect health and disease does not provide enough evidence. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and metabolomics coupled with large, randomized clinical trials are helping scientists to understand whether gut dysbiosis precedes pathology or gut dysbiosis is secondary to pathology. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge on the impact of gut bacteria, virome, and mycobiome interactions with the host and how they could be manipulated to promote health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Microbiome and Diseases: Implications for Novel Therapies)
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Article
Influence of the Ovine Genital Tract Microbiota on the Species Artificial Insemination Outcome. A Pilot Study in Commercial Sheep Farms
High-Throughput 2020, 9(3), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/ht9030016 - 06 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1530
Abstract
To date, there is a lack of research into the vaginal and sperm microbiome and its bearing on artificial insemination (AI) success in the ovine species. Using hypervariable regions V3–V4 of the 16S rRNA, we describe, for the first time, the combined effect [...] Read more.
To date, there is a lack of research into the vaginal and sperm microbiome and its bearing on artificial insemination (AI) success in the ovine species. Using hypervariable regions V3–V4 of the 16S rRNA, we describe, for the first time, the combined effect of the ovine microbiome of both females (50 ewes belonging to five herds) and males (five AI rams from an AI center) on AI outcome. Differences in microbiota abundance between pregnant and non-pregnant ewes and between ewes carrying progesterone-releasing intravaginal devices (PRID) with or without antibiotic were tested at different taxonomic levels. The antibiotic treatment applied with the PRID only altered Streptobacillus genus abundance, which was significantly lower in ewes carrying PRID with antibiotic. Mageebacillus, Histophilus, Actinobacilllus and Sneathia genera were significantly less abundant in pregnant ewes. In addition, these genera were more abundant in two farms with higher AI failure. Species of these genera such as Actinobacillus seminis and Histophilus somni have been associated with reproductive disorders in the ovine species. These genera were not present in the sperm samples of AI rams, but were found in the foreskin samples of rams belonging to herd 2 (with high AI failure rate) indicating that their presence in ewes’ vagina could be due to prior transmission by natural mating with rams reared in the herd. Full article
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Article
Dark Proteome Database: Studies on Disorder
High-Throughput 2020, 9(3), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/ht9030015 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1455
Abstract
There is a misconception that intrinsic disorder in proteins is equivalent to darkness. The present study aims to establish, in the scope of the Swiss-Prot and Dark Proteome databases, the relationship between disorder and darkness. Three distinct predictors were used to calculate the [...] Read more.
There is a misconception that intrinsic disorder in proteins is equivalent to darkness. The present study aims to establish, in the scope of the Swiss-Prot and Dark Proteome databases, the relationship between disorder and darkness. Three distinct predictors were used to calculate the disorder of Swiss-Prot proteins. The analysis of the results obtained with the used predictors and visualization paradigms resulted in the same conclusion that was reached before: disorder is mostly unrelated to darkness. Full article
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