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Quantum Beam Sci., Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Single crystal gold nanowires were mechanically bent using the custom-built scanning force [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle New Structural Insight into Interface-Controlled α–σ Phase Transformation in Fe-Cr Alloys
Quantum Beam Sci. 2018, 2(4), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs2040027
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 25 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
Synchrotron Laue microdiffraction scanning is used for the ex situ study of the body-centered, cubic-to-tetragonal phase transformation that occurs in equiatomic polycrystalline Fe-Cr alloys at temperatures between 550 and 800 °C. Grain orientation and grain strains were scanned with a micron step resolution [...] Read more.
Synchrotron Laue microdiffraction scanning is used for the ex situ study of the body-centered, cubic-to-tetragonal phase transformation that occurs in equiatomic polycrystalline Fe-Cr alloys at temperatures between 550 and 800 °C. Grain orientation and grain strains were scanned with a micron step resolution after annealing at 700 °C for 12 h. Further microstructural details on the early stage of the transformation, and more particularly on the cubic-to-tetragonal phase interface, were achieved. Only the α and ordered σ phases were detected. The crystallographic relationships at the interface between the two phases did not follow the predicted rules; this result is discussed in relation to the measured microstrains. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Concentration Fluctuations on Relaxation Processes in Spin Glasses
Quantum Beam Sci. 2018, 2(4), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs2040026
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 28 November 2018
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Using the unique combination of atomically resolved atom probe tomography (APT) and volume averaged neutron (resonance) spin echo (NRSE and NSE) experiments, the influence of nano-scaled clusters on the spin relaxation in spin glasses was studied. For this purpose, the phase transition from [...] Read more.
Using the unique combination of atomically resolved atom probe tomography (APT) and volume averaged neutron (resonance) spin echo (NRSE and NSE) experiments, the influence of nano-scaled clusters on the spin relaxation in spin glasses was studied. For this purpose, the phase transition from the paramagnetic phase to the spin glass phase in an Fe-Cr spin glass with a composition of Fe 17.8 Cr 82.2 was studied in detail by means of NRSE. The microstructure was characterised by APT measurements, which show local concentration fluctuations of Fe and Cr on a length scale of 2 to 5 nm, which lead (i) to the coexistence of ferro- and anti-ferromagnetic clusters and (ii) a change of the magnetic properties of the whole sample, even in the spin glass phase, where spins are supposed to be randomly frozen. We show that a generalized spin glass relaxation function, which was successfully used to describe the phase transition in diluted spin glasses, can also be used for fitting the spin dynamics in spin glasses with significant concentration fluctuations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Materials and Magnetism)
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Open AccessComment Overview of Applications of Laser-Driven Particle Acceleration (Editors Paul R. Bolton, Katia Parodi, and Jörg Schreiber) by CRC Press (Taylor and Francis Group) ISBN 9781498766418—5 June 2018
Quantum Beam Sci. 2018, 2(4), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs2040025
Received: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
We briefly describe the new book, Applications of Laser-Driven Particle Acceleration, which was published in June of 2018 by CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group. Written by the book editors, this article is appropriately an overview. The rationale for developing a book [...] Read more.
We briefly describe the new book, Applications of Laser-Driven Particle Acceleration, which was published in June of 2018 by CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group. Written by the book editors, this article is appropriately an overview. The rationale for developing a book about applications for laser-driven energetic particle and photon sources is given and the content of its two parts (Parts I and II) is described. Part I addresses the current understanding of physical mechanisms and capabilities for acceleration of electrons and ions, as well as for associated generation of energetic photons and neutrons. Part II brings the focus back to potential applications in which the laser-driven source is distinguished from the more fully developed integrated laser-driven accelerator system. For applications of laser-driven sources and systems, a uniqueness strategy is recommended that particularly emphasizes what conventional (not laser-driven) accelerators cannot do. In the context of overall accelerator advancement, this strategy for the laser case highlights the potential for offering new beam configurations and research options that can uniquely augment accelerator capability in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser-driven Quantum Beams)
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Open AccessArticle In Situ Coherent X-ray Diffraction during Three-Point Bending of a Au Nanowire: Visualization and Quantification
Quantum Beam Sci. 2018, 2(4), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs2040024
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
The three-point bending behavior of a single Au nanowire deformed by an atomic force microscope was monitored by coherent X-ray diffraction using a sub-micrometer sized hard X-ray beam. Three-dimensional reciprocal-space maps were recorded before and after deformation by standard rocking curves and were [...] Read more.
The three-point bending behavior of a single Au nanowire deformed by an atomic force microscope was monitored by coherent X-ray diffraction using a sub-micrometer sized hard X-ray beam. Three-dimensional reciprocal-space maps were recorded before and after deformation by standard rocking curves and were measured by scanning the energy of the incident X-ray beam during deformation at different loading stages. The mechanical behavior of the nanowire was visualized in reciprocal space and a complex deformation mechanism is described. In addition to the expected bending of the nanowire, torsion was detected. Bending and torsion angles were quantified from the high-resolution diffraction data. Full article
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Open AccessReview EMuS Muon Facility and Its Application in the Study of Magnetism
Quantum Beam Sci. 2018, 2(4), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs2040023
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
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Abstract
A muon facility—EMuS (Experimental Muon Source)—at China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) has been studied since 2007. CSNS, which is designed to deliver a proton beam power of 100 kW at Phase-I, and will serve multidisciplinary research based on neutron scattering techniques, has just [...] Read more.
A muon facility—EMuS (Experimental Muon Source)—at China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) has been studied since 2007. CSNS, which is designed to deliver a proton beam power of 100 kW at Phase-I, and will serve multidisciplinary research based on neutron scattering techniques, has just completed construction, and is ready to open to general users from September 2018. As an additional platform to CSNS, EMuS aims to provide different muon beams for multiple applications, among which, magnetism study by μSR techniques is a core part. By using innovative designs, such as a long target in conical shape situating in superconducting capture solenoids and forward collection method, EMuS can provide very intense muon beams with a proton beam of 5 kW and 1.6 GeV, from surface muons, decay muons, and high momentum muons to slow muons. In this article, the design aspects of EMuS, including general design, target station, muon beamlines, and μSR spectrometer, as well as prospects for applications on magnetism studies, will be reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Materials and Magnetism)
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Open AccessReview Real-Space Description of Dynamics of Liquids
Quantum Beam Sci. 2018, 2(4), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs2040022
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 28 October 2018
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Abstract
In strongly disordered matter, such as liquids and glasses, atomic and magnetic excitations are heavily damped and partially localized by disorder. Thus, the conventional descriptions in terms of phonons and magnons are inadequate, and we have to consider spatially correlated atomic and spin [...] Read more.
In strongly disordered matter, such as liquids and glasses, atomic and magnetic excitations are heavily damped and partially localized by disorder. Thus, the conventional descriptions in terms of phonons and magnons are inadequate, and we have to consider spatially correlated atomic and spin dynamics in real-space and time. Experimentally this means that the usual representation of dynamics in terms of the dynamic structure factor, S(Q, E), where Q and E are the momentum and energy exchanges in scattering, is insufficient. We propose a real-space description in terms of the dynamic pair-density function (DyPDF) and the Van Hove function (VHF) as an alternative, and discuss recent results on superfluid 4He by inelastic neutron scattering and water by inelastic X-ray scattering. Today much of the objects of research in condensed-matter physics and materials science are highly complex materials. To characterize the dynamics of such complex materials, the real-space approach is likely to become the mainstream method of research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Reviews in Quantum Beam Science)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Residual Stress Relaxation in a Rolled Joint by Neutron Diffraction
Quantum Beam Sci. 2018, 2(4), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs2040021
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract
The rolled joint of a pressure tube, consisting of three axial symmetric parts, modified SUS403 stainless steel as an inner extension, Zr–2.5Nb as the pressure tube and an Inconel-718 outer sleeve has been examined by neutron diffraction for residual stresses. It was heat [...] Read more.
The rolled joint of a pressure tube, consisting of three axial symmetric parts, modified SUS403 stainless steel as an inner extension, Zr–2.5Nb as the pressure tube and an Inconel-718 outer sleeve has been examined by neutron diffraction for residual stresses. It was heat treated to 350 °C for 30, 130 and 635 h to simulate thermal aging over the lifetime of an advanced thermal reactor respectively for 1, 5 and 30 years at an operating temperature of 288 °C. The crystallographic texture has been investigated from cylindric disks cut from the heat treated Zr–2.5Nb pressure tube to determine the proper sample-orientation-dependent hkl reflections for reliable residual strain measurements. Corresponding in situ tensile deformation was carried out to obtain the necessary diffraction elastic constants for the residual stress evaluation. Three-dimensional crystal lattice strains at various locations in the rolled joint before and after the aging treatments for various times were non-destructively measured by neutron diffraction and the residual stress distribution in the rolled joint was evaluated by using the Kröner elastic model and the generalized Hooke’s law. In the crimp region of the rolled joint, it was found that the aging treatment had a much weaker effect on the residual stresses in the Inconel outer sleeve and the modified SUS403 stainless steel extension. In the non-aged Zr–2.5Nb pressure tube, the highest residual stresses were found near its interface with the modified SUS430 stainless steel extension. In the crimp region of the Zr–2.5Nb pressure tube near its interface with the modified SUS430 stainless steel, the average compressive axial stress was −440 MPa, having no evident change during the long-time aging. In the Zr–2.5Nb pressure tube outside closest to the crimp region, the tensile axial and hoop stresses were relieved during the 30 h of aging. The hoop stresses in the crimp region evolved from an average tensile stress of 80 MPa to an average compressive stress of 230 MPa after the 635 h of aging, suggesting that the rolled joint had a good long-term sealing ability against leakage of high temperature water. In the Zr–2.5Nb pressure tube close to the reactor core and far away from the modified SUS403 stainless steel extension, the residual stresses near the inside surface of the pressure tube were almost zero, helping to keep a good neutron irradiation resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strain, Stress and Texture Analysis with Quantum Beams)
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Open AccessArticle In Situ X-ray Diffraction Analysis of Stresses during Deep Rolling of Steel
Quantum Beam Sci. 2018, 2(4), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/qubs2040020
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
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Abstract
Residual stresses originating from elasto-plastic deformation during mechanical processing can be analyzed post-process with various known methods. A new measurement method to measure and evaluate the strain and stress fields in situ under the contact point during a deep rolling process was developed [...] Read more.
Residual stresses originating from elasto-plastic deformation during mechanical processing can be analyzed post-process with various known methods. A new measurement method to measure and evaluate the strain and stress fields in situ under the contact point during a deep rolling process was developed to describe the dependence of the residual stresses from the internal material load. Using synchrotron radiation at European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) (ID11), diffraction measurements were performed in transmission geometry during dynamical loading with different process parameters. The strain and stress fields were analyzed with high spatial resolution in an 8 mm × 4 mm area around the contact point during the process using a 13-mm tungsten carbide roller on samples of AISI 4140H steel. Fast data acquisition allowed the reconstruction of full two-dimensional (2D) strain and stress maps. These could be used to determine the response from the initial material state in front of the roller to the mechanically loaded region with plastic deformation up to the processed material with the resulting residual stresses. This comprehensive analysis was then used to link the internal material load with the resulting residual stresses in the final material state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strain, Stress and Texture Analysis with Quantum Beams)
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Quantum Beam Sci. EISSN 2412-382X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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