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Infrastructures, Volume 5, Issue 1 (January 2020) – 10 articles

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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Infrastructures in 2019
Infrastructures 2020, 5(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5010009 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 367
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not Full article
Open AccessTechnical Note
Resistance Assessment of Service-Proven Aging Bridges Incorporating Deterioration-Load Dependency
Infrastructures 2020, 5(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5010010 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 423
Abstract
The historical vehicles passed through an existing bridge can be regarded as proof-loading tests for the bridge, and, as a result, are evident of the bridge’s performance. Such service history information has been utilized to update the estimate of bridge resistance in previous [...] Read more.
The historical vehicles passed through an existing bridge can be regarded as proof-loading tests for the bridge, and, as a result, are evident of the bridge’s performance. Such service history information has been utilized to update the estimate of bridge resistance in previous studies with the help of a Bayesian method, where the resistance deterioration process was assumed to be independent of the vehicle load process. This assumption is, however, untenable in many cases where the deterioration stochastic process is statistically correlated with the load process (e.g., a greater load intensity may affect/accelerate the deterioration of structural resistance and the accumulation of structural fragility). With this regard, this paper investigates the effect of correlation between the resistance deterioration and load processes on updating the resistance of aging bridges with prior service load information. The copula function is employed to model the joint distribution of the correlated deterioration and load processes, with which the correlation is measured by the Kendall’s tau. A new method is developed in this paper to assess the updated bridge resistance taking into consideration the deterioration-load dependency in an explicit form. The applicability of the proposed method is illustrated using an existing RC beam bridge. The sensitivity analysis is conducted to examine how the deterioration-load dependency affects the updated resistance of service-proven aging bridges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Performances of Bridges)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study on Cast-In-Situ Masonry Cavity Walls Subjected to In-Plane Cyclic Loading
Infrastructures 2020, 5(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5010008 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 451
Abstract
This study investigates the behavior of cast-in-situ masonry cavity walls subjected to in-plane quasi-static loading. Thirteen cast-in-situ masonry cavity walls and one solid wall were tested under combined axial and quasi-static lateral loads. Test parameters included the tie shape, tie layout, thickness of [...] Read more.
This study investigates the behavior of cast-in-situ masonry cavity walls subjected to in-plane quasi-static loading. Thirteen cast-in-situ masonry cavity walls and one solid wall were tested under combined axial and quasi-static lateral loads. Test parameters included the tie shape, tie layout, thickness of the insulating layer, and the level of axial compression. The problems related to shear capacity and failure mechanisms of cast-in-situ masonry cavity walls were analyzed. Experimental results indicate that failure of most wall specimens occurred via crushing at corners, accompanied by flexural and diagonal cracks in the inner leaves. The shape and layout of the ties had a limited effect on the shear strength of cast-in-situ masonry cavity walls, while axial compression had a positive influence on shear strength. The relative displacement between the inner and outer leaves was nearly zero before walls cracked and reached less than 2 mm at the ultimate load. The shape and layout of the ties had a slight influence on the coordination of inner and outer leaves, while the insulating layer thickness and axial compression had a negative effect. Hysteretic loops under quasi-static loading were spindle-like, and wall specimens exhibited large nonlinear deformation capacity, indicating adequate aseismic capability. A new formula for calculating the shear capacity of the cast-in-situ cavity masonry walls was proposed and was demonstrated to be accurate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infrastructures and Structural Engineering)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Toward the Development of Load Transfer Efficiency Evaluation of Rigid Pavements by a Rolling Wheel Deflectometer
Infrastructures 2020, 5(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5010007 - 14 Jan 2020
Viewed by 585
Abstract
The jointed rigid pavement is currently evaluated by the Falling weight deflectometer which is rather slow for the testing of the jointed pavements. Continuous nondestructive evaluation of rigid pavements with a rolling wheel deflectometer can be used to measure the load transfer and [...] Read more.
The jointed rigid pavement is currently evaluated by the Falling weight deflectometer which is rather slow for the testing of the jointed pavements. Continuous nondestructive evaluation of rigid pavements with a rolling wheel deflectometer can be used to measure the load transfer and is investigated. Load transfer is an important indicator of the rigid pavement’s condition and this is the primary factor which is studied. Continuous data from experimental measurements across a joint allows for the determination of not only the load transfer efficiency provided parameters characterizing the pavement is known. A three-dimensional semi-analytical model was implemented for simulating the pavement response near a joint and used for interpretation and verification of the experimental data. Results show that this development is promising for the use of a rolling wheel deflectometer for rapid evaluation of joints. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exploiting Low-Cost 3D Imagery for the Purposes of Detecting and Analyzing Pavement Distresses
Infrastructures 2020, 5(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5010006 - 14 Jan 2020
Viewed by 474
Abstract
Road pavement conditions have significant impacts on safety, travel times, costs, and environmental effects. It is the responsibility of road agencies to ensure these conditions are kept in an acceptable state. To this end, agencies are tasked with implementing pavement management systems (PMSs) [...] Read more.
Road pavement conditions have significant impacts on safety, travel times, costs, and environmental effects. It is the responsibility of road agencies to ensure these conditions are kept in an acceptable state. To this end, agencies are tasked with implementing pavement management systems (PMSs) which effectively allocate resources towards maintenance and rehabilitation. These systems, however, require accurate data. Currently, most agencies rely on manual distress surveys and as a result, there is significant research into quick and low-cost pavement distress identification methods. Recent proposals have included the use of structure-from-motion techniques based on datasets from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and cameras, producing accurate 3D models and associated point clouds. The challenge with these datasets is then identifying and describing distresses. This paper focuses on utilizing images of pavement distresses in the city of Palermo, Italy produced by mobile phone cameras. The work aims at assessing the accuracy of using mobile phones for these surveys and also identifying strategies to segment generated 3D imagery by considering the use of algorithms for 3D Image segmentation to detect shapes from point clouds to enable measurement of physical parameters and severity assessment. Case studies are considered for pavement distresses defined by the measurement of the area affected such as different types of cracking and depressions. The use of mobile phones and the identification of these patterns on the 3D models provide further steps towards low-cost data acquisition and analysis for a PMS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fraction Factorial Design of a Novel Semi-Transparent Layer for Applications on Solar Roads
Infrastructures 2020, 5(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5010005 - 04 Jan 2020
Viewed by 655
Abstract
Solar roads are transportation infrastructures able both to generate electricity thanks to solar cells placed under a semi-transparent layer and to ensure heavy traffic circulation. In this paper, a novel transparent top layer made of glass aggregates bonded together using a polyurethane glue [...] Read more.
Solar roads are transportation infrastructures able both to generate electricity thanks to solar cells placed under a semi-transparent layer and to ensure heavy traffic circulation. In this paper, a novel transparent top layer made of glass aggregates bonded together using a polyurethane glue is presented. The goal is to design a composite material able to support traffic load, guarantee vehicle skid-resistance, allow the passage of sunlight, and protect the solar cells. For this purpose, the authors investigated the effect of different variables (thickness, glue content, and glass aggregate distribution) on the mechanical and optical performances of the material applying the factorial design method. The semi-transparent layer was characterized by performing the three-point bending test and measuring the power loss. Regarding the vehicle friction, experimental tests with the British Pendulum were conducted in order to measure the skid resistance of the surface and compare it with the specifications of a typical road infrastructure. According to the fraction factorial design and the British Pendulum test, the following mixture was developed: 42.8% of 4/6 mm; 42.8% of 2/4 mm, 14.4% of glue in volume, and a thickness of 0.6 cm. The first results are encouraging, and they demonstrate the feasibility of a semi-transparent layer for future applications in full scale. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Towards More Sustainable Pavement Management Practices Using Embedded Sensor Technologies
Infrastructures 2020, 5(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5010004 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 839
Abstract
Road agencies are constantly being placed in difficult situations when making road maintenance and rehabilitation decisions as a result of diminishing road budgets and mounting environmental concerns for any chosen strategies. This has led practitioners to seek out new alternative and innovative ways [...] Read more.
Road agencies are constantly being placed in difficult situations when making road maintenance and rehabilitation decisions as a result of diminishing road budgets and mounting environmental concerns for any chosen strategies. This has led practitioners to seek out new alternative and innovative ways of monitoring road conditions and planning maintenance routines. This paper considers the use of innovative piezo-floating gate (PFG) sensors and conventional strain gauges to continuously monitor the pavement condition and subsequently trigger maintenance activities. These technologies can help develop optimized maintenance strategies as opposed to traditional ad-hoc approaches, which often lead to poor decisions for road networks. To determine the environmental friendliness of these approaches, a case study was developed wherein a life cycle assessment (LCA) exercise was carried out. Observations from accelerated pavement testing over a period of three months were used to develop optimized maintenance plans. A base case is used as a guide for comparison to the optimized systems to establish the environmental impacts of changing the maintenance workflows with these approaches. On the basis of the results, the proposed methods have shown that they can, in fact, produce environmental benefits when integrated within the pavement management maintenance system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Geometric and Operational Features of Horizontal Curves with Specific Regard to Skidding Proneness
Infrastructures 2020, 5(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5010003 - 28 Dec 2019
Viewed by 601
Abstract
(1) Run-off-road (ROR) crashes are a crucial issue worldwide, resulting in a disproportionate number of traffic deaths. In safety research, macro-level analysis on large datasets is usually conducted by linking explanatory variables to ROR crash frequency/severity. Micro-analysis approaches, like the one used in [...] Read more.
(1) Run-off-road (ROR) crashes are a crucial issue worldwide, resulting in a disproportionate number of traffic deaths. In safety research, macro-level analysis on large datasets is usually conducted by linking explanatory variables to ROR crash frequency/severity. Micro-analysis approaches, like the one used in this study, are instead less frequent. (2) A comprehensive Italian Fatal + Injury (FI) crash dataset was filtered to identify two-way two-lane rural road curves on the national road network on which more than one ROR FI crash (i.e., at least two crashes) in the observation period of four years had occurred. The typical features of the ROR FI crashes and the recurrent geometric (characteristics of tangents and curves) and operational features (inferred speeds, acceleration/decelerations) of the crash sites were reconstructed. (3) The main contributory factors in ROR FI crashes are: wet pavements, speeding, and distraction. Sites with a relevant history of ROR FI crashes present recurrent safety issues such as inadequate horizontal curve coordination, an insufficient tangent length for decelerating, and inferred operating speeds comparable/higher than the inferred design speeds. (4) Based on findings, some practical suggestions for road safety management and maintenance are proposed through specific indicators and countermeasures (speed, perception, and friction related). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Model Calibration Methodology to Assess the Actual Lighting Conditions of a Road Infrastructure
Infrastructures 2020, 5(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5010002 - 27 Dec 2019
Viewed by 648
Abstract
Street lighting plays an important role in the comfort and safety of drivers and pedestrians, so the control and management of the lighting systems operation and consumption is an essential service for a city. In this document, a methodology is presented to calibrate [...] Read more.
Street lighting plays an important role in the comfort and safety of drivers and pedestrians, so the control and management of the lighting systems operation and consumption is an essential service for a city. In this document, a methodology is presented to calibrate lighting models in order to assess the lighting performance through simulation techniques. The objective of this calibration is to identify the maintenance factor of the street lamps, determine the real average luminance coefficient of the road pavement and adapt the reflection properties of the road material. The method is applied in three stages and is based on the use of Radiance and GenOpt software suits for the modeling, simulation, and calibration of lighting scenes. The proposed methodology achieves errors as low as 13% for the calculation of illuminance and luminance, evincing its potential to assess the actual lighting conditions of a road. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilience of Inland Transport Networks to Extreme Events)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Data Compression Approach for Long-Term Monitoring of Pavement Structures
Infrastructures 2020, 5(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5010001 - 22 Dec 2019
Viewed by 888
Abstract
Pavement structures are designed to withstand continuous damage during their design life. Damage starts as soon as the pavement is open to traffic and increases with time. If maintenance activities are not considered in the initial design or considered but not applied during [...] Read more.
Pavement structures are designed to withstand continuous damage during their design life. Damage starts as soon as the pavement is open to traffic and increases with time. If maintenance activities are not considered in the initial design or considered but not applied during the service life, damage will grow to a point where rehabilitation may be the only and most expensive option left. In order to monitor the evolution of damage and its severity in pavement structures, a novel data compression approach based on cumulative measurements from a piezoelectric sensor is presented in this paper. Specifically, the piezoelectric sensor uses a thin film of polyvinylidene fluoride to sense the energy produced by the micro deformation generated due to the application of traffic loads. Epoxy solution has been used to encapsulate the membrane providing hardness and flexibility to withstand the high-loads and the high-temperatures during construction of the asphalt layer. The piezoelectric sensors have been exposed to three months of loading (approximately 1.0 million loads of 65 kN) at the French Institute of Science and Technology for Transport, Development and Networks (IFSTTAR) fatigue carrousel. Notably, the sensors survived the construction and testing. Reference measurements were made with a commercial conventional strain gauge specifically designed for measurements in hot mix asphalt layers. Results from the carrousel successfully demonstrate that the novel approach can be considered as a good indicator of damage progression, thus alleviating the need to measure strains in pavement for the purpose of damage tracking. Full article
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