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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol., Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2017)

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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Cervical Kinesthetic Motor Imagery on Postural Control of Healthy Young Adults with Fear of Falling
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk2020021 - 19 Jun 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1286
Abstract
Motor imagery (MI) is the act of coding the mental aspect of an intended task without executing it. Fear consists of an anxiogenic response to a previous event, which provides a state of alertness to the individual in the face of a threat. [...] Read more.
Motor imagery (MI) is the act of coding the mental aspect of an intended task without executing it. Fear consists of an anxiogenic response to a previous event, which provides a state of alertness to the individual in the face of a threat. These two conditions (imagery and fear) may modulate orthostatic postural control, but their combined effect is still unknown. To investigate whether cervical kinesthetic motor imagery induces modulations in postural control and in the fear of falling (FoF) sensation in healthy young adults. Participants (n = 20) were placed on the Wii Balance Board® and oriented to perform and imagine three tasks for 60 s: (1) closed eyes; (2) cervical flexion; and (3) cervical inclination. The number of performed and imagined repetitions were recorded, and participants responded to a question at the end of each task regarding the FoF. There were four relevant effects: (1) there was no difference between the number of performed and imagined repetitions (p > 0.05) indicating similarities; (2) there was a greater sensation of FoF induced by kinesthetic MI tasks (p < 0.001); (3) there was a greater modulation of the center of pressure (mean velocity and amplitude) in the anteroposterior direction in phobic subjects (p < 0.05); and (4) there was no modulation between the non-phobic subjects in the anteroposterior direction (p > 0.05). The FoF during kinesthetic MI tasks may influence the orthostatic postural control, favoring the reduction in postural stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Human Posture and Movement)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Eccentric Exercise on Muscle Damage and Blood Redox Status in Men and Women
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk2020020 - 19 Jun 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of the present investigation was to study the possible differences between men and women in muscle damage indices and oxidative stress biomarkers in response to eccentric exercise. Ten males and ten females performed a bout of eccentric exercise using an isokinetic [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present investigation was to study the possible differences between men and women in muscle damage indices and oxidative stress biomarkers in response to eccentric exercise. Ten males and ten females performed a bout of eccentric exercise using an isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle damage indices (i.e., isometric torque, range of movement, delayed onset muscle soreness, and creatine kinase (CK)) and oxidative stress biomarkers (i.e., protein carbonyls and glutathione) were measured before and 48 h after eccentric exercise. No significant main effect of group or time–group interaction was found for muscle damage indices and oxidative stress biomarkers. However, the main effect of time was significant for all measured parameters. The findings of the present investigation indicate that eccentric exercise caused muscle damage and oxidative stress (i.e., protein and glutathione oxidation) in both males and females with no significant differences between the two groups. It is concluded that there are no differences between males and females regarding muscle damage and oxidative stress after eccentric exercise. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluating Human Balance Following an Exercise Intervention in Previously Sedentary, Overweight Adults
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk2020019 - 11 Jun 2017
Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Previous research suggests that an improvement in body composition could potentially lead to improvement in balance performance in previously overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if an exercise intervention without any specific balance training can lead to an improvement [...] Read more.
Previous research suggests that an improvement in body composition could potentially lead to improvement in balance performance in previously overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if an exercise intervention without any specific balance training can lead to an improvement in standing balance. Fourteen overweight, but otherwise healthy adults (nine females, six males) (mean age: 23.5 years; mean height: 1.70 m, mean starting body mass: 94.1 kg) participated in this study. Balance performance was assessed with sensory organization test (SOT) and motor control test (MCT) on the NeuroCom® Equitest™, prior to and after a 10-week exercise intervention. Results revealed significant improvements in the following balance parameters following exercise intervention: eyes open, sway-referenced visual surrounding and platform condition (p = 0.033) for SOT equilibrium scores; SOT center of pressure (COP) sway in the eyes closed condition for anterior-posterior sway velocity (p = 0.006) and in the eyes open sway-referenced condition (p = 0.048). The results of the current study suggest that improved balance performance can result from an exercise intervention without any specific balance directed exercises, but that the results may be limited to the conditions where the somatosensory system plays a larger role in balance maintenance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tailored Exercise in Patients with Chronic Diseases 2017)
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Open AccessBrief Report
Effects of Osteopathic Treatment on Postural Equilibrium Evaluated through a Stabilometric Platform: A Randomized and Controlled Study
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk2020018 - 24 May 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1369
Abstract
Equilibrium is a very complex function and involves many systems, including the somatic-sensory, vestibular and visual systems. The condition of balance is maintained until the gravity center falls into the perimeter of support, defined as the ground level of the support base. Equilibrium [...] Read more.
Equilibrium is a very complex function and involves many systems, including the somatic-sensory, vestibular and visual systems. The condition of balance is maintained until the gravity center falls into the perimeter of support, defined as the ground level of the support base. Equilibrium loss is at the root of the risk of falling down, and represents a public health issue associated with remarkable costs for hospitalization, risk of residual disability and death for the elderly. Osteopathy can be a good ally that allows the human body to oppose gravitational force in a functional and ergonomic way. Osteopathy represents a medical approach complementary to healthcare and could be a non-invasive approach to improve and support traditional medicine in different physiological and pathological conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cause-effect relationship between Manipulative Osteopathic Treatment (OMT) and its effects on equilibrium through stabilometric examinations. The 63 chosen subjects, including 23 females and 40 males, were between 18 and 45 years old, with a mean age of 29. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: Manipulative Osteopathic Treatment (OMT) and Non Touch group (NON TOUCH). We can confirm that the tonic-postural response was more marked in the OMT group, with a statistic relevance both for the ellipse surface and the tangle length, with better stability and consequent energy saving in treated subjects. There were not statistically relevant variations for the NON TOUCH group. Therefore, it seems that Manipulative Osteopathic Treatment (OMT) influences stabilometry. However, posture influence due to Manipulative Osteopathic Treatment (OMT) should be evaluated with short- and long-term follow-ups, and with a larger sample size to test the administration of osteopathic treatments, in order to define an adequate work plan time period to prevent equilibrium loss. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Use of Vibration as Physical Exercise and Therapy
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk2020017 - 19 May 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1306
Abstract
Musculoskeletal vibration stimulation is the topic chosen for this review. The aim is to discuss this interesting, but poorly analyzed topic in the current literature in order to explain and help readers to better understand the effects of vibration used as an exercise [...] Read more.
Musculoskeletal vibration stimulation is the topic chosen for this review. The aim is to discuss this interesting, but poorly analyzed topic in the current literature in order to explain and help readers to better understand the effects of vibration used as an exercise intervention and therapy for muscle, bone, and cartilage tissues. The use of vibration stimulation for enhancing athletic performance and therapeutic use is considered an important matter of medical biology that has developed in the last three decades. Current evidence suggests that vibration is effective in enhancing musculoskeletal strength and power capacity and improving physical conditions in patients with related disorders such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, although the mechanisms mediating these effects are still not well known. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Stochastic Resonance on Sensorimotor Performance during Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk2020016 - 16 May 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1239
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of stochastic resonance (SR) stimulation on sensorimotor performance during an episode of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Thirty four men (age: 21.3 (±2.6) years; height 1.78 (±0.06) m; body mass 72.3 (±7.4) kg (mean [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of stochastic resonance (SR) stimulation on sensorimotor performance during an episode of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Thirty four men (age: 21.3 (±2.6) years; height 1.78 (±0.06) m; body mass 72.3 (±7.4) kg (mean (±SD)) gave their informed consent to participate in this study.Sensorimotor performance (error in replicating a target force) of the knee flexors was assessed prior to, and at 0.5 and 48 h after (i) a treatment condition involving a single-leg EIMD conditioning of the non-preferred leg, with concomitant responses to (ii) randomised presentation of SR, no SR and placebo conditions. Results showed a significant ANOVA interaction for sensorimotor performance amongst factors of condition (control period; EIMD), time (pre; post 0.5 h; post 48 h) and stimuli (SR; no SR; placebo) (F[1.5,29.3] = 5.7; p < 0.01). While scores during an antecedent control period had remained relatively constant, the EIMD protocol had elicited increased error in replicating a target force for the knee flexors of the non-preferred leg over time (worsened sensorimotor performance) that had been most prominent at 48 h after exercise, but whose negative effects had been ameliorated under conditions of SR (5.6 ± 3.1% (no SR) versus 3.7 ± 2.3% (SR) (pre) and 10.3 ± 4.2% (no SR) versus 8.1 ± 5.1% (SR) (48 h), respectively; F[1,36] = 6.0; p < 0.01). In conclusion, this study has shown that SR conditioning-related increases in the sensorimotor performance of the hamstring muscle group led to some protection from performance loss following EIMD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Muscle Damage and Regeneration)
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Open AccessArticle
Hyperglycemia and Hyperinsulinemia-Like Conditions Independently Induce Inflammatory Responses in Human Chondrocytes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk2020015 - 16 May 2017
Viewed by 1888
Abstract
To elucidate the mechanisms by which type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) constitutes a risk factor for the development and progression of osteoarthritis (OA), this work determined whether high glucose and/or high insulin, the hallmarks of DM2, are capable of activating the transcription factor, [...] Read more.
To elucidate the mechanisms by which type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) constitutes a risk factor for the development and progression of osteoarthritis (OA), this work determined whether high glucose and/or high insulin, the hallmarks of DM2, are capable of activating the transcription factor, Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB), which plays a critical role in OA by inducing the expression of pro-inflammatory and catabolic genes. For this, we analyzed NF-κB activation by measuring the nuclear levels of p65 by western blot. As readouts of NF-κB activity, Interleukin-1β, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression were analyzed by real time RT-PCR and western blot. Culture of the human chondrocytic cell line, C28-I2, in high glucose (30 mM) increased nuclear NF-κB p65 levels in a time-dependent manner, relative to cells cultured in medium containing 10 mM glucose (regular culture medium). High glucose-induced NF-κB activation was inhibited by co-treatment with its specific inhibitor, Bay 11-7082, 5 µM. Culture of primary human chondrocytes under high glucose for 24 h increased IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA levels by 97% (p = 0.0066) and 85% (p = 0.0045), respectively, while iNOS mRNA and protein levels and NO production increased by 61% (p = 0.0017), 148% (p = 0.0089), and 70% (p = 0.049), respectively, relative to chondrocytes maintained in 10 mM glucose. Treatment of chondrocytic cells with 100 nM insulin was also sufficient to increase nuclear NF-κB p65 levels, independently of the glucose concentration in the culture medium. This study shows that hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia are independently sufficient to induce inflammatory responses in human chondrocytes, namely by activating NF-κB. This can be a relevant mechanism by which DM type 2 and other conditions associated with impaired glucose and insulin homeostasis, like obesity and the metabolic syndrome, contribute to the development and progression of OA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Articular Cells and Tissues in Health and Osteoarthritis)
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Open AccessArticle
Increased Corticospinal Excitability and Muscular Activity in a Lower Limb Reaction Task under Psychological Pressure
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk2020014 - 12 May 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1471
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of psychological pressure on corticospinal excitability, the spinal reflex, lower limb muscular activity, and reaction times during a task involving dominant leg movements. Ten healthy participants performed a simple reaction time task [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of psychological pressure on corticospinal excitability, the spinal reflex, lower limb muscular activity, and reaction times during a task involving dominant leg movements. Ten healthy participants performed a simple reaction time task by raising the heel of their dominant foot from a switch. After 20 practice trials, participants performed 20 non-pressure and 20 pressure trials in a counterbalanced order. A combination of pressure manipulations, including reward and penalty by monetary incentives, was used in the pressure trials. Stress responses were successfully induced, as indexed by significant increases in state anxiety, mental effort, and heart rates under pressure. Significant increases in motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude of the tibialis anterior muscle (TA) occurred under pressure. In terms of task-related electromyography (EMG) amplitude, the co-contraction rate between the soleus (SOL) and TA muscles significantly increased along with SOL and TA EMG amplitudes under pressure. Hoffmann reflexes for SOL and reaction times did not change under pressure. These results indicate that corticospinal excitability and leg muscle-related EMG activity increase homogeneously during lower limb movements that are performed under psychological pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Human Posture and Movement)
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Open AccessArticle
Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction in Adolescents Affected by Patellar Instability
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk2020013 - 30 Apr 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1052
Abstract
Patellar instability is a heterogeneous group of morphological and functional disorders of the knee extensor mechanism. The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has been recognized as being important in stabilizing the patella and preventing lateral patellar dislocation. Recurrent dislocations in the pediatric population may [...] Read more.
Patellar instability is a heterogeneous group of morphological and functional disorders of the knee extensor mechanism. The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has been recognized as being important in stabilizing the patella and preventing lateral patellar dislocation. Recurrent dislocations in the pediatric population may benefit from surgical intervention. The aim of this study is to retrospectively evaluate adolescent patients treated with surgical reconstruction of medial patello-femoral ligament. Between January 2009 and December 2014, seven patients with patellar instability were treated at the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology of the University of Catania, Sicily. Five patients (71.4%) were female and two (28.6%) were male. The mean age at the time of surgery was 14.9 ± 1.1 years (range 13–16 years). All cases were treated with reconstruction of the MPFL. Clinical outcomes and complications were reported. Mean follow-up was 26.1 ± 10.9 months (range 12–46 months). Evaluation at two years after surgery identified an average Knee Society Score (KSS) of 94.3 ± 7.4 (range 78–100). An excellent result was obtained in six patients (85.7%) and a good result was obtained in one patient (14.3%). A recurrence was reported in one patient (14.3%). This study shows that surgical treatment of patellar instability by reconstruction of MPFL leads to satisfying results at mid-term follow-up. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Knee: Structure, Function and Rehabilitation)
Open AccessArticle
Total Body Water Distribution in Breast Cancer Survivors Following Cancer Rehabilitation
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk2020012 - 19 Apr 2017
Viewed by 1562
Abstract
Cancer in humans is frequently associated with compartmentalization of body fluids as a result of sedentary behavior and pharmacological cellular toxicity. Total Body Water (TBW) in the general population is approximately 55–60% of body weight in adult males and 50–55% in adult females, [...] Read more.
Cancer in humans is frequently associated with compartmentalization of body fluids as a result of sedentary behavior and pharmacological cellular toxicity. Total Body Water (TBW) in the general population is approximately 55–60% of body weight in adult males and 50–55% in adult females, while varying significantly in pathological conditions. Exercise is largely recognized as an important tool to TBW distribution. The purpose of this study was to investigate, for a least 12 months, the impact of physical activity on body water distribution in a sample of cancer patients and compare their responses to a sample of healthy controls. Cancer patients included 28 clinically stable female cancer patients diagnosed with breast cancer (aged 59 ± 9 years, weight 70.2 ± 9.9 kg, and Body Mass Index (BMI 26.7 ± 5.4 kg·m2), who were enrolled in a year-long physical activity prescription program. The results indicated the absence of significant variations of TBW% between the cancer patients and controls, however, there was a significant improvement in intracellular water content (ICW%) at 6 months (T0: 51.1 ± 3.9 vs. T6: 52.4 ± 4.1; p < 0.05) and at T12 (T0: 51.1 ± 3.9 vs. T12: 53.6 ± 3.1; p < 0.005). In conclusion, in this small sample of cancer survivors, an unsupervised cancer rehabilitation program reduced the trend towards increased peripheral edema. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tailored Exercise in Patients with Chronic Diseases 2017)
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Open AccessArticle
Sonic Hedgehog and TDP-43 Participate in the Spontaneous Locomotor Recovery in a Mouse Model of Spinal Motoneuron Disease
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk2020011 - 19 Apr 2017
Viewed by 1466
Abstract
Several studies have attempted to repair the damaged spinal cord (SC) by stimulating neurogenesis or neuroplasticity, with limited success. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is involved in neural induction and stem cell functioning, but recent findings also suggest its role in regeneration and functional recovery. [...] Read more.
Several studies have attempted to repair the damaged spinal cord (SC) by stimulating neurogenesis or neuroplasticity, with limited success. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is involved in neural induction and stem cell functioning, but recent findings also suggest its role in regeneration and functional recovery. Transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is a nuclear DNA/RNA binding protein involved in transcription and RNA processing. Recent findings have reported cytoplasmic inclusions containing TDP-43 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Although substantial attention has been given to the toxic effects of this protein, the functional role of TDP-43 remains largely unclear. We used a mouse model of neurotoxic motoneuron depletion to study the role of the above-described factors in the compensatory changes occurring after the lesion. The injection of cholera toxin-B saporin into the gastrocnemius muscle caused a partial motoneuron death accompanied by an impairment of locomotion. Interestingly, motor activity was significantly restored as soon as one month later. Moreover, we observed an activity-dependent modification of Shh and synaptic proteins: synapsin-I and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptors. Notably, the motor performance of lesioned animals correlated with the expression of synapsin-I and Shh. Conversely, the expression of Shh significantly correlated with the levels of synapsin-I, GluR2, and TDP-43. The results suggest that Shh and TDP-43 are crucial parts of a complex mechanism of neuroplasticity in a mouse model of SC motoneuron disease. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
The “Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology” Journal Club Series: Highlights on Recent Papers in Musculoskeletal Disorders
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk2020010 - 18 Apr 2017
Viewed by 1124
Abstract
We are glad to introduce the fourth Journal Club. This edition is focused on several relevant studies published in the last few years in the field of musculoskeletal disorders, chosen by our Editorial Board members. We hope to stimulate your curiosity in this [...] Read more.
We are glad to introduce the fourth Journal Club. This edition is focused on several relevant studies published in the last few years in the field of musculoskeletal disorders, chosen by our Editorial Board members. We hope to stimulate your curiosity in this field. The Editorial Board members wish you an inspiring lecture. Full article
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