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Fishes, Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2019) – 12 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The blackspot sergeant damselfish, Abudefduf sordidus (Pomacentridae) is a large-bodied damselfish [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Detection Range of Acoustic Receivers in a Large Hydropower Reservoir
Fishes 2019, 4(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040060 - 11 Dec 2019
Viewed by 182
Abstract
Acoustic telemetry manufacturers report estimated detection ranges under idealized conditions, but environmental conditions such as water depth, substrate type, and turbulence can affect the range of reliable detection. Range testing of low (Vemco V7 136 dB re 1µ[email protected]) and high power (V13 147 [...] Read more.
Acoustic telemetry manufacturers report estimated detection ranges under idealized conditions, but environmental conditions such as water depth, substrate type, and turbulence can affect the range of reliable detection. Range testing of low (Vemco V7 136 dB re 1µ[email protected]) and high power (V13 147 dB re 1µ[email protected]) acoustic transmitters (tags) was performed near a hydropower generating station and its associated reservoir using both active (mobile; VR100) and passive (stationary; VR2W/VR2Tx) receivers. Low power tags are typically used to track small fish such as juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), whereas high power tags are typically used to track larger fish such as adult salmon. The results found herein were applied to concurrent salmon telemetry studies. Detection ranges of the low power tags were within 246–351 ± 20–70 m (mean ± SE), and the high power tags were within 537–1106 ± 53–272 m. Observed detection ranges were comparable or higher to manufacturer estimates for both tag types being detected by passive receivers, and were lower than expected for both tag types being detected by active receivers. Passive receivers were further tested by mooring a fixed sentinel tag (low power) on a receiver line at the hydropower site for 50 days. The sentinel tag detection range of 212 m was less than the expected range of 280–292 m, and was not found to be significantly impacted by wind speed. There was evidence of a hydropower effect on detection probability (up to 95% reduction) of both tag types for the active receiver, and detection ranges were significantly lower at the hydropower site than the reservoir site for the high power tag. The results of this study give insight to the initial design of acoustic telemetry studies beyond what can be gathered from manufacturer’s estimates, but rather near hydropower facilities and within large reservoirs; however, detection ranges reported herein do not replace the importance of range testing in site-specific conditions. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Drift of Larval Darters (Family Percidae) in the Upper Roanoke River Basin, USA, Characterized Using Phenotypic and DNA Barcoding Markers
Fishes 2019, 4(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040059 - 08 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Larval fish ecology is poorly characterized because sampling is difficult and tools for phenotypically identifying larvae are poorly developed. While DNA barcoding can help address the latter problem, ‘universal’ primers do not work for all fish species. The Roanoke River in the southeastern [...] Read more.
Larval fish ecology is poorly characterized because sampling is difficult and tools for phenotypically identifying larvae are poorly developed. While DNA barcoding can help address the latter problem, ‘universal’ primers do not work for all fish species. The Roanoke River in the southeastern United States includes seven darters (Family Percide: Tribe Etheostomatini). We made 393 collections of larval fishes in 2015 and 2018, examined darter larvae for morphometric and pigmentation traits, developed PCR primers amplifying darter DNA, and evaluated three gear types for collecting larval darters. Amplified DNA sequences for 1351 larvae matched archived mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I sequences for darters occurring in the ecosystem. Larval darters were classified to genus with 100% accuracy using the ratio of pectoral fin length to body length; however, identification to species using morphometrics alone was subject to a misclassification rate of 11.8%, which can be resolved by considering pigmentation patterns. Gear-types varied considerably in their capture efficacy for larval darters; most Percina larvae were collected in drift nets. Larval Percina species appeared in the drift before Etheostoma species in both study years. Application of molecular genetic and phenotypic tools to larval fish identification can advance understanding of larval darter ecology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Diet of European Catfish in a Newly Invaded Region
Fishes 2019, 4(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040058 - 08 Dec 2019
Viewed by 257
Abstract
Biological invasions are considered to be one of the leading causes of biodiversity loss worldwide. Freshwater ecosystems are amongst the most biodiverse, containing about 50% of the world’s known fish species but, ironically, are the most invaded ecosystems. In Portuguese freshwaters, there are [...] Read more.
Biological invasions are considered to be one of the leading causes of biodiversity loss worldwide. Freshwater ecosystems are amongst the most biodiverse, containing about 50% of the world’s known fish species but, ironically, are the most invaded ecosystems. In Portuguese freshwaters, there are currently 20 identified non-native fishes, arriving at an unprecedented rate of a new species every two years. A recent non-native is the European catfish Silurus glanis, a top predator native to Central and Eastern Europe, that arrived at the Lower Tagus (Portugal) circa 2006. This study compares the dietary habits of this top predator in two different habitats of the Lower Tagus in order to evaluate its potential impact. The stomach contents of 96 individuals were analyzed, 61 from the lotic environment and 35 from the lentic systems. A total of 66 stomachs contained prey items, 38 from the lotic and 28 from the lentic. Diet varied considerably between habitats, with shrimp and crayfish being the most abundant prey items in the lentic systems and shrimp and fish the most abundant prey items in the lotic section. Tendency to piscivory was observed in large-sized individuals. Overall, the findings in this study provide the first evidence of the potential impacts of European catfish through predation on the fish communities. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Secretory Proteins in the Skin Mucus of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) are Modulated Temporally by Photoperiod and Bacterial Endotoxin Cues
Fishes 2019, 4(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040057 - 05 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Although it is well known that the biological and physical characteristics of skin mucus in fishes are strongly affected by changes in environmental conditions, the influence of photoperiod and time-dependent bacterial endotoxin stimulation is not well documented. In the present study, we determined [...] Read more.
Although it is well known that the biological and physical characteristics of skin mucus in fishes are strongly affected by changes in environmental conditions, the influence of photoperiod and time-dependent bacterial endotoxin stimulation is not well documented. In the present study, we determined the diel variations in the basal activities of secretory proteins with known defense functions in the skin mucus of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) maintained under two photic environments: equal length of day and night (12L:12D, LD) or total darkness (0L:24D, DD). A second experiment was conducted to determine how time-dependent (i.e., day versus night) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge could influence these skin mucosal defenses. The results revealed that LD signal differentially modulated the activities of mucosal immune molecules. Fish subjected to LD regime showed significantly higher levels of skin mucus lysozyme and protease at nighttime than at daytime. This distinct feature was not observed in fish under DD. There was no general mucosal response patterns to time-dependent LPS challenge. Nonetheless, protease and lysozyme, which were identified to be at elevated levels at night, were significantly modulated when the endotoxin was administered at nighttime. Ceruloplasmin was the only molecule that responded to LPS challenge at daytime, where its activity significantly increased at 8 h post-stimulation. Collectively, the results revealed that photoperiod cues influenced the activities of mucosal defenses and this may play, at least in part, in the temporal sensitivity to bacterial endotoxin. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Evaluation of Enzyme Additives on the Nutritional Use of Feeds with a High Content of Plant Ingredients for Mugil cephalus
Fishes 2019, 4(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040056 - 04 Dec 2019
Viewed by 243
Abstract
The Mugilidae are a group of fish with a great interest for aquaculture due to their omnivorous profile, rapid growth, and resistance to environmental variations. The selection of feed ingredients for these species is currently focused on an extensive use of plant by-products, [...] Read more.
The Mugilidae are a group of fish with a great interest for aquaculture due to their omnivorous profile, rapid growth, and resistance to environmental variations. The selection of feed ingredients for these species is currently focused on an extensive use of plant by-products, with this being limited by their content in anti-nutritive factors (mainly phytate and non-starch polysaccharides; NSPs). Nevertheless, specific enzymes can be used to counteract some of those negative effects. In the present study, the effect of pretreating two high-plant feeds with a mixture of enzymes (glucanases + phytase) on the digestive use of protein and phosphorus by juvenile mullets (Mugil cephalus) was assessed using both in vitro and in vivo assays. The enzymatic treatment significantly modified the potential bioavailability of some nutrients, such as a reduction of sugars, pentoses, and phytic phosphorus. Also, it increased the digestibility of protein in one of the feeds but reduced that of phosphorus in both of them. The potential usefulness of enzyme treatment and the information provided by the two types of assays are discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Modulation of Pituitary Response by Dietary Lipids and Throughout a Temperature Fluctuation Challenge in Gilthead Sea Bream
Fishes 2019, 4(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040055 - 22 Nov 2019
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Abstract
Low temperatures provoke drastic reductions in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) activity and nourishment, leading to growth arrest and a halt in production. However, scarce data exist concerning the implications of central core control during the cold season. The aim of [...] Read more.
Low temperatures provoke drastic reductions in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) activity and nourishment, leading to growth arrest and a halt in production. However, scarce data exist concerning the implications of central core control during the cold season. The aim of this work was to study the effects of low temperature and recovery from such exposure on the pituitary activity of sea bream juveniles fed 18% or 14% dietary lipid. A controlled indoor trial was performed to simulate natural temperature fluctuation (22 °C to 14 °C to 22 °C). Meanwhile, we determined the regulatory role of the pituitary by analyzing the gene expression of some pituitary hormones and hormone receptors via qPCR, as well as plasma levels of thyroidal hormones. In response to higher dietary lipids, hormone pituitary expressions were up-regulated. Induced low temperatures and lower ingesta modulated pituitary function up-regulating GH and TSH and thyroid and glucocorticoid receptors. All these findings demonstrate the capacity of the pituitary to recognize both external conditions and to modulate its response accordingly. However, growth, peripheral tissues and metabolism were not linked or connected to pituitary function at low temperatures, which opens an interesting field of study to interpret the hypothalamus–pituitary–target axis during temperature fluctuations in fish. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vitellogenesis in Blue Gourami is Accompanied by Brain Transcriptome Changes
Fishes 2019, 4(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040054 - 29 Oct 2019
Viewed by 283
Abstract
The blue gourami (Trichogaster trichopterus) is a model for hormonal control of reproduction in Anabantidae fish, but also relevant to other vertebrates. We analyzed the female blue gourami brain transcriptome in two developmental stages: pre-vitellogenesis (PVTL) before yolk accumulation in the [...] Read more.
The blue gourami (Trichogaster trichopterus) is a model for hormonal control of reproduction in Anabantidae fish, but also relevant to other vertebrates. We analyzed the female blue gourami brain transcriptome in two developmental stages: pre-vitellogenesis (PVTL) before yolk accumulation in the oocytes, and high vitellogenesis (HVTL) at the end of yolk accumulation in the oocytes. RNA sequencing of whole-brain transcriptome identified 34,368 unique transcripts, 23,710 of which could be annotated by homology with other species. We focused on the transcripts showing significant differences between the stages. Seventeen and fourteen annotated genes were found to be upregulated in PVTL and HVTL, respectively. Five nuclear transcripts, three of which contain the homeobox domain (ARX, DLX5, CERS6), were upregulated in PVTL. Additionally, several receptors previously known to be involved in reproduction were identified, and three of these, G-protein coupled receptor 54, Membrane progesterone receptor epsilon, and Gonadotropin-releasing hormone II receptor (GPCR, mPR, and GnRHR) were measured by quantitative RT-PCR in brain, pituitary, and ovary samples from PVTL and HVTL stage females. Of these, GPCR was highly expressed in the brain and pituitary as compared to the ovary in both PVTL and HVTL. GnRHR was highly expressed in the ovary compared to the brain and pituitary, and its levels in the brain were significantly higher in PVTL than HVTL. Brain mPR mRNA levels were likewise higher in PVTL than HVTL. In conclusion, this study details changes in the female blue gourami brain transcriptome through yolk accumulation in the oocytes and identifies key genes that may mediate this process. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Genetic Assessment of Parentage in the Blackspot Sergeant Damselfish, Abudefduf sordidus (Pisces: Pomacentridae)
Fishes 2019, 4(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040053 - 24 Oct 2019
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Microsatellite markers were used to investigate the reproductive behavior of the damselfish Abudefduf sordidus at Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean. Genetic results indicated that ten males maintained guardianship over their nest territories for up to nine nest cycles during a 3.5 month period. [...] Read more.
Microsatellite markers were used to investigate the reproductive behavior of the damselfish Abudefduf sordidus at Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean. Genetic results indicated that ten males maintained guardianship over their nest territories for up to nine nest cycles during a 3.5 month period. Genotypes of 1025 offspring sampled from 68 nests (composed of 129 clutches) were consistent with 95% of the offspring being sired by the guardian male. Offspring lacking paternal alleles at two or more loci were found in 19 clutches, indicating that reproductive parasitism and subsequent alloparental care occurred. Reconstructed maternal genotypes allowed the identification of a minimum of 74 different females that spawned with these ten territorial males. Males were polygynous, mating with multiple females within and between cycles. Genetic data from nests, which consisted of up to four clutches during a reproductive cycle, indicated that each clutch usually had only one maternal contributor and that different clutches each had different dams. Females displayed sequential polyandry spawning with one male within a cycle but switched males in subsequent spawning cycles. These results highlight new findings regarding male parasitic spawning, polygyny, and sequential polyandry in a marine fish with exclusive male paternal care. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Sex Steroids and Ovarian Steroidogenic Enzyme mRNA Levels in Artificially Maturing Japanese Eel (Anguilla japonica) and Naturally Maturing New Zealand Longfin Eel (Anguilla dieffenbachii) during Vitellogenesis
Fishes 2019, 4(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040052 - 17 Oct 2019
Viewed by 370
Abstract
Repeated hormone injections are routinely used to induce advanced stages of oogenesis in freshwater eels, but this approach may result in aberrant germ cell development. To investigate the underlying causes, levels of sex steroids (testosterone, T; estradiol-17β, E2) and ovarian steroidogenic enzyme mRNAs [...] Read more.
Repeated hormone injections are routinely used to induce advanced stages of oogenesis in freshwater eels, but this approach may result in aberrant germ cell development. To investigate the underlying causes, levels of sex steroids (testosterone, T; estradiol-17β, E2) and ovarian steroidogenic enzyme mRNAs were compared between artificially maturing Japanese eels and wild-caught, spontaneously maturing New Zealand longfin eels. The latter were employed as reference, as wild Japanese eels in advanced stages of oogenesis are near-impossible to catch. Serum T levels in artificially maturing Japanese eel changed with stage in a pattern that was comparable to that in longfin eels. Likewise, ovarian mRNA levels of most steroidogenic enzyme genes were not qualitatively dissimilar between both eel species when taking developmental stage into account. However, aromatase (cyp19a) mRNA levels, together with serum E2 levels, rapidly increased in artificially maturing Japanese eels in mid-late stages of oogenesis (gonadosomatic index, GSI = 13.8%), whereas no such increase was evident in longfin eels (GSI ~ 6.9%). In addition, sex steroid and target gene mRNA levels fluctuated drastically with each hormone injection. We contend that expression of most target genes, possibly even that of cyp19a, during induced oogenesis could be “normal”, with the drastic fluctuations due most likely to hormone delivery through repeated injections. The effects of these fluctuations on gamete quality remain unknown and resolving this issue may prove fruitful in the future to further artificial propagation of anguillid eels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
No Correlation between Endo- and Exoskeletal Regenerative Capacities in Teleost Species
Fishes 2019, 4(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040051 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 432
Abstract
The regeneration of paired appendages in certain fish and amphibian lineages is a well established and extensively studied regenerative phenomenon. The teleost fin is comprised of a proximal endoskeletal part (considered homologous to the Tetrapod limb) and a distal exoskeletal one, and these [...] Read more.
The regeneration of paired appendages in certain fish and amphibian lineages is a well established and extensively studied regenerative phenomenon. The teleost fin is comprised of a proximal endoskeletal part (considered homologous to the Tetrapod limb) and a distal exoskeletal one, and these two parts form their bony elements through different ossification processes. In the past decade, a significant body of literature has been generated about the biology of exoskeletal regeneration in zebrafish. However, it is still not clear if this knowledge can be applied to the regeneration of endoskeletal parts. To address this question, we decided to compare endo- and exoskeletal regenerative capacity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and mudskippers (Periophthalmus barbarous). In contrast to the reduced endoskeleton of zebrafish, Periophthalmus has well developed pectoral fins with a large and easily accessible endoskeleton. We performed exo- and endoskeletal amputations in both species and followed the regenerative processes. Unlike the almost flawless exoskeletal regeneration observed in zebrafish, regeneration following endoskeletal amputation is often impaired in this species. This difference is even more pronounced in Periophthalmus where we could observe no regeneration in endoskeletal structures. Therefore, regeneration is regulated differentially in the exo- and endoskeleton of teleost species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish as Model Organisms for (Eco)Toxicology and Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Consumption of Atlantic Salmon Smolt by Striped Bass: A Review of the Predator-Prey Encounter Literature and Implications for the Design of Effective Sampling Strategies
Fishes 2019, 4(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040050 - 11 Oct 2019
Viewed by 376
Abstract
The native striped bass (Morone saxatilis) population of the Miramichi River, New Brunswick is undergoing an unprecedented recovery while Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) numbers within that system continue to decline. Atlantic salmon smolt depart from the Miramichi system during [...] Read more.
The native striped bass (Morone saxatilis) population of the Miramichi River, New Brunswick is undergoing an unprecedented recovery while Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) numbers within that system continue to decline. Atlantic salmon smolt depart from the Miramichi system during the striped bass spawning period and it is hypothesized that elevated striped bass abundances will increase encounter rates and predation on smolts. We summarize all available striped bass diet studies occurring within the native range of Atlantic salmon and present a review of the feeding behavior and diet preferences of striped bass before, during, and after their spawning period. The key studies vary in methodologies and interpretability. We present a standardized approach for assessing striped bass predation threats and smolt vulnerability and thus an improved understanding of the species interactions to guide future management in the Miramichi River. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Species in the CARES Preservation Program and the Role of Aquarium Hobbyists in Freshwater Fish Conservation
Fishes 2019, 4(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040049 - 29 Sep 2019
Viewed by 3461
Abstract
Freshwater fish represent half of all fish species and are the most threatened vertebrate group. Given their considerable passion and knowledge, aquarium hobbyists can play a vital role in their conservation. CARES is made up of many organizations, whose purpose is to encourage [...] Read more.
Freshwater fish represent half of all fish species and are the most threatened vertebrate group. Given their considerable passion and knowledge, aquarium hobbyists can play a vital role in their conservation. CARES is made up of many organizations, whose purpose is to encourage aquarium hobbyists to devote tank space to the most endangered and overlooked freshwater fish to ensure their survival. We found the CARES priority list contains nearly six hundred species from twenty families and two dozen extinct-in-the-wild species. The major families were typically those with the largest hobbyist affiliations such as killifish, livebearers, and cichlids, the latter containing half of CARES species. CARES included every IUCN threatened species of Pseudomugilidae and Valenciidae, but only one percent of threatened Characidae, Cobitidae, and Gobiidae species. No Loricariidae in CARES were in the IUCN red list as they have not been scientifically described. Tanzania and Mexico contained the largest amount of species, with the latter containing the most endemics. Many species were classified differently than the IUCN, including a third of extinct-in-the-wild species classified as least concern by the IUCN. This vast disconnect exemplifies the importance of future collaboration and information exchange required between hobbyists, the scientific community, and conservation organizations. Full article
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