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Fishes, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Open AccessCommunication Preliminary Results on Light Conditions Manipulation in Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797) Paralarval Rearing
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
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Abstract
High paralarvae mortality is a major bottleneck currently hindering the control over the lifecycle of common octopus (Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797). It is believed that this problem might be related to either zoo-technical and/or nutritional aspects. The present paper is focused on
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High paralarvae mortality is a major bottleneck currently hindering the control over the lifecycle of common octopus (Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797). It is believed that this problem might be related to either zoo-technical and/or nutritional aspects. The present paper is focused on the study of different zoo-technical aspects related to light conditions on the rearing of paralarvae, including the effects of polarization in prey ingestion, the use of a blue filter to simulate natural conditions, and the use of focused light to avoid reflections of the rearing tank’s walls. In the first experiment, O. vulgaris paralarvae ingestion of Artemia sp. and copepods (Tisbe sp.) was assessed under either normal or polarized light. In the second experiment, the effect of a blue filter with natural light or focused artificial light on growth and mortality was assessed over 15 days of rearing. Ingestion rate was not influenced by light polarization. Nonetheless, a significantly higher ingestion of Artemia sp. with respect to copepods was observed. The blue filter promoted the use of natural light conditions in Octopus paralarval culture, while focused light reduced the collision of the paralarvae against the walls. However, no significant differences were found in paralarval growth nor survival. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Peptides Are Expressed during Early Development of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Are Inducible by Immune Challenge
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 28 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 8 November 2017
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Abstract
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPS) are ancestral components in the evolution of immunity from protozoans to metazoans. Their expression can be constitutive or inducible by infectious challenge. Although characterized in detail in their structure and activity, the temporal and spatial expression of AMPS during vertebrate
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Antimicrobial peptides (AMPS) are ancestral components in the evolution of immunity from protozoans to metazoans. Their expression can be constitutive or inducible by infectious challenge. Although characterized in detail in their structure and activity, the temporal and spatial expression of AMPS during vertebrate embryogenesis is still poorly understood. In the present study, we identified selected AMPs in zebrafish, and characterized their expression during early development, and upon experimental immune challenge in adult animals, with the goal of establishing this genetically-tractable model system for further AMP studies. By mining available genomic databases, zebrafish AMP sequences homologous to AMPs from other vertebrates were selected for further study. These included parasin I and its enzyme cathepsin D, β-defensin (DB1), liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2), bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI), and chromogranin-A and -B (CgA and CgB). Specific primers were designed for RT-PCR amplification of each AMP gene of interest and amplicons between 242 bp and 504 bp were obtained from RNA extracted from adult zebrafish. Sequencing of the amplicons and alignment of their deduced amino acid sequences with those from AMPs from other vertebrate species confirmed their identity. The temporal expression of AMPs was investigated by RT-PCR analysis in fertilized oocytes, embryos, and adult individuals. Parasin I and chatepsin D transcripts were detectable immediately after fertilization, while the transcripts for CgA and CgB became evident starting at 48 h post fertilization. Mature transcripts of LEAP2 and DB1 were detectable only in the adult zebrafish, while BPI transcripts were detectable starting from the 12th day post fertilization. To explore the possible upregulation of AMP expression by infectious challenge, experiments were carried out in adult zebrafish by intraperitoneal injection of a cocktail of lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid. Except for CgA and CgB, amplicons corresponding to all tested AMPs showed stronger signals in the experimental animals as compared to the unchallenged controls. This study provided information on the early expression of AMPs in zebrafish from ontogeny to adulthood and their inducibility by microbials. This information could be useful to actuate new prophylactic strategies as an alternative to the use of antibiotics in culture. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Recreational Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) Fishery: Angler Practices in South Florida (USA)
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
The management of highly migratory species (HMS) is a complex domestic and international system that was initially established to regulate HMS taken in commercial fisheries in the Atlantic Ocean. For managing HMS taken in recreational fisheries, the authority and the data required is
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The management of highly migratory species (HMS) is a complex domestic and international system that was initially established to regulate HMS taken in commercial fisheries in the Atlantic Ocean. For managing HMS taken in recreational fisheries, the authority and the data required is lacking and remains to be stipulated by regulating bodies. In the United States, Florida saltwater anglers target various HMS, but swordfish (Xiphias gladius) is a favorite among anglers. The recreational swordfish fishery off the Southeast Florida coast has experienced resurgence in recent years, with directed tournaments resuming in 2001 after being absent almost 20 years. Today, South Florida supports the largest group of recreational swordfish anglers in the world. Despite the increasing popularity and interest, little data is available describing the recreational swordfish fishery and its socio-economic aspects in South Florida. This study aimed to compile, describe, and identify the demographics, fishing tactics, costs, and fishery management perceptions of recreational swordfish anglers in South Florida based on nonprobability purposive sampling organized through the Southeast Swordfish Club (SESC). The sample size (n = 38) represented about 16–38% of the SESC members and between 6% and 8% of the recreational anglers that actively targeted swordfish in South Florida during the time of the survey. We acknowledge the sample size was small (n = 38), but believe the study encompassed the most active swordfish anglers given their knowledge, expertise, and connection with the fishery in terms of participants, fishing effort, and fishing techniques. As such, it is highly probable that a large portion of the recreational swordfish angling population was represented by members of the SESC in terms of swordfishing gear, techniques, and socio-economics, which reduced apparent bias in the study. Overall, the annual income of recreational swordfish anglers in 2007 ranged from US$15,000 to $200,000 with an average income of $91,940 (n = 33). Sixty-nine percent of polled anglers indicated they had more than 26 years of recreational fishing experience and 81% had less than 10 years of experience targeting swordfish in South Florida. Thirty-seven percent of surveyed anglers indicated they departed from Port Everglades, Florida. To target swordfish, anglers generally used five rods and set their bait, commonly squid, at 91 m. Anglers also indicated they changed their fishing tactics from day to night, and took about five fishing trips per month. Overall, anglers spent around $14,210 on annual costs associated with swordfishing, which was 16% of their annual income. Many polled anglers also reported they were dissatisfied with the current swordfish management regulations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preliminary Insight into Winter Native Fish Assemblages in Guadiana Estuary Salt Marshes Coping with Environmental Variability and Non-Indigenous Fish Introduction
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 26 October 2017
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Abstract
This work aims to undertake a preliminary characterization of winter fish assemblages in the salt marsh areas of Guadiana lower estuary (South-East Portugal) and discusses the potential risks of habitat dominance by a non-indigenous species (NIS). To this effect, six field campaigns were
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This work aims to undertake a preliminary characterization of winter fish assemblages in the salt marsh areas of Guadiana lower estuary (South-East Portugal) and discusses the potential risks of habitat dominance by a non-indigenous species (NIS). To this effect, six field campaigns were carried out in four sampling sites during winter season targeting the collection of fish species. A total of 48 samples were collected. Individuals from seven different taxa (marine and estuarine) were collected, although the assemblage was dominated by two estuarine species—the native Pomatoschistus sp. (goby) and the NIS Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichog). Goby was the most abundant taxa in the majority of salt marsh habitats, except for one specific, marsh pool, where extreme environmental conditions were registered, namely high temperature and salinity. Such conditions may have boosted the intrusion of mummichog in this area. This species is well adapted to a wide range of abiotic factors enabling them to colonize habitats where no predators inhabit. Impacts of mummichog introduction in the Guadiana salt marsh area are still unpredictable since this is the first time they have been recorded in such high density. Nevertheless, in scenarios of increased anthropogenic pressure and, consequently, habitat degradation, there is a potential risk of mummichog spreading to other habitats and therefore competing for space and food resources with native species. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chlorella vulgaris as Protein Source in the Diets of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 24 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
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Abstract
Plant proteins substitutes of fishmeal in aquafeed are usually lacking in some essential amino acids and fatty acids. The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris has good-quality protein with amino acids rich in methionine, lysine and alanine. Four novel diets having C. vulgaris as the main
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Plant proteins substitutes of fishmeal in aquafeed are usually lacking in some essential amino acids and fatty acids. The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris has good-quality protein with amino acids rich in methionine, lysine and alanine. Four novel diets having C. vulgaris as the main source of protein were produced for African catfish Clarias gariepinus with an initial average weight of 1.09 ± 0.05 g. The diets were labeled Feed 1 (F1) to feed 4 (F4). The treatment diets were included 25% (F1), 15% (F2), 5% (F3) and 0% (F4) green algae meal. The basal ingredients of the feed were corn (maize) included as F1, 40%, F2, 43%, F3, 53% and F4, 43%; and millet meal, which varied in F1 as 23%, F2, 30%, F3, 30% and F4, 30%. The ingredients were preconditioned at 110 °C and pelleted. Post-fingerling African catfish were stocked at 10 fish per aquarium. There were three replicate aquariums for each feed type and the fish were fed for 60 d. The specific growth rate was best for the catfish fed with 25% C. vulgaris diet 7.86 ± 0% day−1, and worst at 6.77 ± 0.07% day−1 for the control group F4, 0% algal meal. The food conversion ratio (FCR) was lowest (1.88 ± 0.02) for 25% algal meal diet (F1) and highest (2.98 ± 0.01) for the 0% algal meal diet F4. Similarly, catfish had average weight gain of 121.02 ± 0.04 g for those fed with F1 compared to 62.50 ± 0.0 g for those fed with 0% algae F4. Protein efficiency ratio was highest for the F1-fed fish (2.46 ± 0.22) and lowest for those fed with F4 (2.02 ± 0.09). The hepatosomatic index was lowest for F1-fed fish (1.48 ± 0.01) and highest for catfish fed with F4 (2.50 ± 0.59). Based on the results, C. vulgaris is a good protein source for African catfish and can also substitute fishmeal in the catfish diets. Full article
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