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Biomimetics, Volume 6, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 18 articles

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Article
Design of a Depth Control Mechanism for an Anguilliform Swimming Robot
Biomimetics 2021, 6(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6020039 - 09 Jun 2021
Viewed by 202
Abstract
This paper discusses the design and implementation of a depth control mechanism for an anguilliform swimming robot. Researchers analyzed three different methods of controlling the depth of the robot, including out-of-plane thrust direction, use of foil on the head and buoyancy control at [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the design and implementation of a depth control mechanism for an anguilliform swimming robot. Researchers analyzed three different methods of controlling the depth of the robot, including out-of-plane thrust direction, use of foil on the head and buoyancy control at the head and tail. It was determined that buoyancy control at the head and tail was the best method for controlling depth and pitch, given typical forward speeds of the robot. Details are given into the design of this mechanism, including a stress analysis on a critical part, as well as the impacts that these modifications have on the required torque of the drive servos. Full article
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Article
Biomimetic Approach for the Elaboration of Highly Hydrophobic Surfaces: Study of the Links between Morphology and Wettability
Biomimetics 2021, 6(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6020038 - 08 Jun 2021
Viewed by 311
Abstract
This investigation of morphology-wetting links was performed using a biomimetic approach. Three natural leaves’ surfaces were studied: two bamboo varieties and Ginkgo Biloba. Multiscale surface topographies were analyzed by SEM observations, FFT, and Gaussian filtering. A PDMS replicating protocol of natural surfaces was [...] Read more.
This investigation of morphology-wetting links was performed using a biomimetic approach. Three natural leaves’ surfaces were studied: two bamboo varieties and Ginkgo Biloba. Multiscale surface topographies were analyzed by SEM observations, FFT, and Gaussian filtering. A PDMS replicating protocol of natural surfaces was proposed in order to study the purely morphological contribution to wetting. High static contact angles, close to 135, were measured on PDMS replicated surfaces. Compared to flat PDMS, the increase in static contact angle due to purely morphological contribution was around 20. Such an increase in contact angle was obtained despite loss of the nanometric scale during the replication process. Moreover, a significant decrease of the hysteresis contact angle was measured on PDMS replicas. The value of the contact angle hysteresis moved from 40 for flat PDMS to less than 10 for textured replicated surfaces. The wetting behavior of multiscale textured surfaces was then studied in the frame of the Wenzel and Cassie–Baxter models. Whereas the classical laws made it possible to describe the wetting behavior of the ginkgo biloba replications, a hierarchical model was developed to depict the wetting behavior of both bamboo species. Full article
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Article
EvoSeg: Automated Electron Microscopy Segmentation through Random Forests and Evolutionary Optimization
Biomimetics 2021, 6(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6020037 - 01 Jun 2021
Viewed by 410
Abstract
Electron Microscopy Maps are key in the study of bio-molecular structures, ranging from borderline atomic level to the sub-cellular range. These maps describe the envelopes that cover possibly a very large number of proteins that form molecular machines within the cell. Within those [...] Read more.
Electron Microscopy Maps are key in the study of bio-molecular structures, ranging from borderline atomic level to the sub-cellular range. These maps describe the envelopes that cover possibly a very large number of proteins that form molecular machines within the cell. Within those envelopes, we are interested to find what regions correspond to specific proteins so that we can understand how they function, and design drugs that can enhance or suppress a process that they are involved in, along with other experimental purposes. A classic approach by which we can begin the exploration of map regions is to apply a segmentation algorithm. This yields a mask where each voxel in 3D space is assigned an identifier that maps it to a segment; an ideal segmentation would map each segment to one protein unit, which is rarely the case. In this work, we present a method that uses bio-inspired optimization, through an Evolutionary-Optimized Segmentation algorithm, to iteratively improve upon baseline segments obtained from a classical approach, called watershed segmentation. The cost function used by the evolutionary optimization is based on an ideal segmentation classifier trained as part of this development, which uses basic structural information available to scientists, such as the number of expected units, volume and topology. We show that a basic initial segmentation with the additional information allows our evolutionary method to find better segmentation results, compared to the baseline generated by the watershed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Intelligence II)
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Article
The Plant-Like Structure of Lance Sea Urchin Spines as Biomimetic Concept Generator for Freeze-Casted Structural Graded Ceramics
Biomimetics 2021, 6(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6020036 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 397
Abstract
The spine of the lance sea urchin (Phyllacanthus imperialis) is an unusual plant-akin hierarchical lightweight construction with several gradation features: a basic core–shell structure is modified in terms of porosities, pore orientation and pore size, forming superstructures. Differing local strength and [...] Read more.
The spine of the lance sea urchin (Phyllacanthus imperialis) is an unusual plant-akin hierarchical lightweight construction with several gradation features: a basic core–shell structure is modified in terms of porosities, pore orientation and pore size, forming superstructures. Differing local strength and energy consumption features create a biomimetic potential for the construction of porous ceramics with predetermined breaking points and adaptable behavior in compression overload. We present a new detailed structural and failure analysis of those spines and demonstrate that it is possible to include at least a limited number of those features in an abstracted way in ceramics, manufactured by freeze-casting. This possibility is shown to come from a modified mold design and optimized suspensions. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Labrum Resistance Force while Pull-Probing In Vivo and Cadaveric Hips
Biomimetics 2021, 6(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6020035 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Cadaver tissue has been identified as the highest-fidelity anatomical representation in terms of the training for orthopedic surgery, including for arthroscopy of a damaged hip labrum. However, hip labrum stiffness in vivo and in cadavers has not been directly compared. The purpose of [...] Read more.
Cadaver tissue has been identified as the highest-fidelity anatomical representation in terms of the training for orthopedic surgery, including for arthroscopy of a damaged hip labrum. However, hip labrum stiffness in vivo and in cadavers has not been directly compared. The purpose of this study was to compare in vivo and cadaveric hip labrum stiffness during pull-probing with a force sensor. We measured the resistance force of the hip labrum in ten patients during hip arthroscopy (i.e., in vivo) and compared it with ten cadavers, both intact and detached from the acetabulum, using a surgical knife. We confirmed a partial labral tear (i.e., not detached fully from the rim) at an antero-superior potion in all of the patients. The mean highest resistance levels for the hip labrum in the patients (4.7 N) were significantly lower than the intact cadaveric labrum (8.3 N), and slightly higher than the detached labrum (4.2 N). In this study, the stiffness of the cadaveric labrum tissue was similar to that of the in-vivo hip labrum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Characterization of Biomaterials)
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Article
Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimizing the Therapeutic Activity of ZnO Nanoparticles Biosynthesized from Aspergillus niger
Biomimetics 2021, 6(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6020034 - 27 May 2021
Viewed by 417
Abstract
In this study, the biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Aspergillus niger (A/ZnO-NPs) is described. These particles have been characterized by UV–Vis spectrum analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. To use this biosynthesized nanoparticle as an [...] Read more.
In this study, the biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Aspergillus niger (A/ZnO-NPs) is described. These particles have been characterized by UV–Vis spectrum analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. To use this biosynthesized nanoparticle as an antiproliferative and antimicrobial agent, the IC50 value against the breast cancer cell line and inhibition zone against Escherichia coli were used to optimize the effect of two processing factors including dose of filtrate fungi cell and temperature. The biosynthesized A/ZnO-NPs had an absorbance band at 320 nm and spherical shapes. The mean particles size was 35 nm. RSM (response surface methodology) was utilized to investigate the outcome responses. The Model F-value of 12.21 and 7.29 implies that the model was significant for both responses. The contour plot against inhibition zone for temperature and dose showed that if the dose increases from 3.8 to 17.2 µg/mL, the inhibition zone increases up to 35 mm. As an alternative to chemical and/or physical methods, biosynthesizing zinc oxide NPs through fungi extracts can serve as a more facile and eco-friendly strategy. Additionally, for optimization of the processes, the outcome responses in the biomedical available test can be used in the synthesis of ZnO-NPs that are utilized for large-scale production in various medical applications. Full article
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Article
3D Reticulated Actuator Inspired by Plant Up-Righting Movement Through a Cortical Fiber Network
Biomimetics 2021, 6(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6020033 - 27 May 2021
Viewed by 255
Abstract
Since most plant movements take place through an interplay of elastic deformation and strengthening tissues, they are thus ideal concept generators for biomimetic hingeless actuators. In the framework of a biomimetic biology push process, we present the transfer of the functional movement principles [...] Read more.
Since most plant movements take place through an interplay of elastic deformation and strengthening tissues, they are thus ideal concept generators for biomimetic hingeless actuators. In the framework of a biomimetic biology push process, we present the transfer of the functional movement principles of hollow tubular geometries that are surrounded by a net-like structure. Our plant models are the recent genera Ochroma (balsa) and Carica (papaya) as well as the fossil seed fern Lyginopteris oldhamia, which hold a net of macroscopic fiber structures enveloping the whole trunk. Asymmetries in these fiber nets, which are specifically caused by asymmetric growth of the secondary wood, enable the up-righting of inclined Ochroma and Carica stems. In a tubular net-like structure, the fiber angles play a crucial role in stress–strain relationships. When braided tubes are subjected to internal pressure, they become shorter and thicker if the fiber angle is greater than 54.7°. However, if the fiber angle is less than 54.7°, they become longer and thinner. In this article, we use straightforward functional demonstrators to show how insights into functional principles from living nature can be transferred into plant-inspired actuators with linear or asymmetric deformation. Full article
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Communication
Neuro-Inspired Signal Processing in Ferromagnetic Nanofibers
Biomimetics 2021, 6(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6020032 - 26 May 2021
Viewed by 348
Abstract
Computers nowadays have different components for data storage and data processing, making data transfer between these units a bottleneck for computing speed. Therefore, so-called cognitive (or neuromorphic) computing approaches try combining both these tasks, as is done in the human brain, to make [...] Read more.
Computers nowadays have different components for data storage and data processing, making data transfer between these units a bottleneck for computing speed. Therefore, so-called cognitive (or neuromorphic) computing approaches try combining both these tasks, as is done in the human brain, to make computing faster and less energy-consuming. One possible method to prepare new hardware solutions for neuromorphic computing is given by nanofiber networks as they can be prepared by diverse methods, from lithography to electrospinning. Here, we show results of micromagnetic simulations of three coupled semicircle fibers in which domain walls are excited by rotating magnetic fields (inputs), leading to different output signals that can be used for stochastic data processing, mimicking biological synaptic activity and thus being suitable as artificial synapses in artificial neural networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Devices for Neuro-Inspired Applications)
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Article
Evaluation of Human Ear Anatomy and Functionality by Axiomatic Design
Biomimetics 2021, 6(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6020031 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 344
Abstract
The design of the human ear is one of nature’s engineering marvels. This paper examines the merit of ear design using axiomatic design principles. The ear is the organ of both hearing and balance. A sensitive ear can hear frequencies ranging from 20 [...] Read more.
The design of the human ear is one of nature’s engineering marvels. This paper examines the merit of ear design using axiomatic design principles. The ear is the organ of both hearing and balance. A sensitive ear can hear frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. The vestibular apparatus of the inner ear is responsible for the static and dynamic equilibrium of the human body. The ear is divided into the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear, which play their respective functional roles in transforming sound energy into nerve impulses interpreted in the brain. The human ear has many modules, such as the pinna, auditory canal, eardrum, ossicles, eustachian tube, cochlea, semicircular canals, cochlear nerve, and vestibular nerve. Each of these modules has several subparts. This paper tabulates and maps the functional requirements (FRs) of these modules onto design parameters (DPs) that nature has already chosen. The “independence axiom” of the axiomatic design methodology is applied to analyze couplings and to evaluate if human ear design is a good design (i.e., uncoupled design) or a bad design (i.e., coupled design). The analysis revealed that the human ear is a perfect design because it is an uncoupled structure. It is not only a perfect design but also a low-cost design. The materials that are used to build the ear atom-by-atom are chiefly carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, calcium, and nitrogen. The material cost is very negligible, which amounts to only a few of dollars. After a person has deceased, materials in the human system are upcycled by nature. We consider space requirements, materials cost, and upcyclability as “constraints” in the axiomatic design. In terms of performance, the human ear design is very impressive and serves as an inspiration for designing products in industrial environments. Full article
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Article
A Symmetric Three Degree of Freedom Tensegrity Mechanism with Dual Operation Modes for Robot Actuation
Biomimetics 2021, 6(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6020030 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 375
Abstract
Tensegrity robots that use bio-inspired structures have many superior properties over conventional robots with regard to strength, weight, compliance and robustness, which are indispensable to planetary exploration and harsh environment applications. Existing research has presented various tensegrity robots with abundant capabilities in broad [...] Read more.
Tensegrity robots that use bio-inspired structures have many superior properties over conventional robots with regard to strength, weight, compliance and robustness, which are indispensable to planetary exploration and harsh environment applications. Existing research has presented various tensegrity robots with abundant capabilities in broad scenarios but mostly not focused on articulation and manipulability. In this paper, we propose a novel tensegrity mechanism for robot actuation which greatly improves the agility and efficiency compared with existing ones. The design integrates two separate tensegrity substructures inspired by shoulder and hip joints of the human body and features a similar form to a hexapod platform. It mitigates detrimental antagonistic forces in the structural network for optimising actuation controllability and efficiency. We validated the design both on a prototype and in a Chrono Engine simulation that represents the first physically accurate simulation of a wheeled tensegrity robot. It can reach up to approximately 58.9, 59.4 and 47.1 in pitch, yaw and roll motion, respectively. The mechanism demonstrates good agility and controllability as an actuated robot linkage while preserving desirable properties of tensegrity structures. The design would potentially inspire more possibilities of agile tensegrity implementations that enable future robots with enhanced compliance, robustness and efficiency without a tradeoff. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Design and Techniques for Space Applications II)
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Article
Approaches for the Prediction of Leaf Wetness Duration with Machine Learning
Biomimetics 2021, 6(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6020029 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 316
Abstract
The prediction of leaf wetness duration (LWD) is an issue of interest for disease prevention in coffee plantations, forests, and other crops. This study analyzed different LWD prediction approaches using machine learning and meteorological and temporal variables as the models’ input. The information [...] Read more.
The prediction of leaf wetness duration (LWD) is an issue of interest for disease prevention in coffee plantations, forests, and other crops. This study analyzed different LWD prediction approaches using machine learning and meteorological and temporal variables as the models’ input. The information was collected through meteorological stations placed in coffee plantations in six different regions of Costa Rica, and the leaf wetness duration was measured by sensors installed in the same regions. The best prediction models had a mean absolute error of around 60 min per day. Our results demonstrate that for LWD modeling, it is not convenient to aggregate records at a daily level. The model performance was better when the records were collected at intervals of 15 min instead of 30 min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Intelligence II)
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Article
Design and Experimental Research of Knee Joint Prosthesis Based on Gait Acquisition Technology
Biomimetics 2021, 6(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6020028 - 07 May 2021
Viewed by 397
Abstract
Whether the lower limb prosthesis can better meet the needs of amputees, the biomimetic performance of the knee joint is particularly important. In this paper, Nokov(metric) optical 3D motion capture system was used to collect motion data of normal human lower limbs, and [...] Read more.
Whether the lower limb prosthesis can better meet the needs of amputees, the biomimetic performance of the knee joint is particularly important. In this paper, Nokov(metric) optical 3D motion capture system was used to collect motion data of normal human lower limbs, and the motion instantaneous center of multi-gait knee joint was obtained. Taking the error of knee joint motion instantaneous center line as the objective function, a set of six-bar mechanism prosthetic knee joint was designed based on a genetic algorithm. The experimental results show that the movement trajectory of the instantaneous center of the knee joint is basically similar to that of the human knee joint, so it can help amputees complete a variety of gaits and has good biomimetic performance. Gait acquisition technology can provide important data for prosthetic designers and it will be widely used in prosthetic design and other fields. Full article
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Communication
Biomimicry in French Urban Projects: Trends and Perspectives from the Practice
Biomimetics 2021, 6(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6020027 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Biomimicry is a design framework with growing interests in sustainable architectural and urban design practice. Nevertheless, there is a significant lack of studies and knowledge regarding its practical application. In 2020, a French workgroup called Biomim’City Lab published a document identifying and describing [...] Read more.
Biomimicry is a design framework with growing interests in sustainable architectural and urban design practice. Nevertheless, there is a significant lack of studies and knowledge regarding its practical application. In 2020, a French workgroup called Biomim’City Lab published a document identifying and describing 16 urban projects designed by French teams integrating biomimicry at various levels. Our research is an opportunistic study analyzing this data, aiming to identify trends and challenges in the French market. We analyzed the projects using a mixed-method approach, through quantitative typological analysis and qualitative narrative analysis. This sample of French projects indicates a trend of increasing interest in biomimicry on built space projects in France. Biomimicry was primarily applied at the façade/roof/soil systems, mostly using macroscopic models as ecosystems, plants, and animals. Designers declared to aim diverse objectives with the biomimetic approach; still, thermal comfort is the most recurrent in the sample. We also identified that challenges remain to foster the field application, as the lack of awareness of the urban fabric stakeholders on the topic and the gaps between research and design practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Architectural and Urban Design)
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Article
Cytotoxicity of Different Composite Resins on Human Gingival Fibroblast Cell Lines
Biomimetics 2021, 6(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6020026 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 455
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxic effects of eight composite resins on immortalized human gingival fibroblasts. Composite resins were eluted in cell culture medium for 48 or 72 h at 37 °C. Immortalized human gingival fibroblast-1 [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxic effects of eight composite resins on immortalized human gingival fibroblasts. Composite resins were eluted in cell culture medium for 48 or 72 h at 37 °C. Immortalized human gingival fibroblast-1 (HGF-1) cell lines were seeded in 96-well (1 × 104) plates and incubated for 24 h at 37 °C with the obtained extraction medium. The percentage of viable cells in each well (MTT test) was calculated relative to control cells, which were set to 100%. Data observed were not normally distributed, and nonparametric statistical methods were used for statistical analysis. The Wilcoxon test was used for intragroup comparison, and the Kruskal–Wallis test was used for intergroup multiple comparisons. Significance value was set as p < 0.05. All materials tested showed cytotoxic effects on gingival fibroblasts, recordable as noncytotoxic, mildly cytotoxic or severely cytotoxic, depending on the percentage of cell viability. The Wilcoxon test for intragroup comparison showed that the percentage of viable cells decreased significantly for extracts, for all composite resins tested. The composite resins contained monomers that displayed cytotoxic properties. BisGMA, TEGDMA and UDMA had inhibitory effects and induced apoptotic proteins in pulp fibroblast. Composite resins that contained lower percentages of unbound free monomers—and that released less ions—possessed superior biocompatibility in vitro. Full article
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Article
Strengthening Structures in the Petiole–Lamina Junction of Peltate Leaves
Biomimetics 2021, 6(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6020025 - 02 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 678
Abstract
Peltate- or umbrella- shaped leaves are characterised by a petiole more or less centrally attached to the lamina on the abaxial side. The transition from the petiole to lamina in peltate leaves resembles a significant and abrupt geometrical change from a beam to [...] Read more.
Peltate- or umbrella- shaped leaves are characterised by a petiole more or less centrally attached to the lamina on the abaxial side. The transition from the petiole to lamina in peltate leaves resembles a significant and abrupt geometrical change from a beam to a plate in a very compact shape. Since these leaves have not been subject of many studies, the distribution of that specific leaf morphology in the plant kingdom was investigated. Furthermore, the connection between the petiole and lamina of several peltate species was studied anatomically and morphologically, focusing on the reinforcing fibre strands. We found peltate leaves in 357 species representing 25 orders, 40 families and 99 genera. The majority are herbaceous perennials growing in shady, humid to wet habitats mainly distributed in the subtropical–tropical zones. Detailed anatomical investigation of 41 species revealed several distinct principles of how the transition zone between the petiole and lamina is organised. In-depth analysis of these different types accompanied by finite element-modelling could serve as inspiration for supporting structures in lightweight construction. Full article
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Article
Textured Building Façades: Utilizing Morphological Adaptations Found in Nature for Evaporative Cooling
Biomimetics 2021, 6(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6020024 - 29 Mar 2021
Viewed by 838
Abstract
The overheating of buildings and their need for mechanical cooling is a growing issue as a result of climate change. The main aim of this paper is to examine the impact of surface texture on heat loss capabilities of concrete panels through evaporative [...] Read more.
The overheating of buildings and their need for mechanical cooling is a growing issue as a result of climate change. The main aim of this paper is to examine the impact of surface texture on heat loss capabilities of concrete panels through evaporative cooling. Organisms maintain their body temperature in very narrow ranges in order to survive, where they employ morphological and behavioral means to complement physiological strategies for adaptation. This research follows a biomimetic approach to develop a design solution. The skin morphology of elephants was identified as a successful example that utilizes evaporative cooling and has, therefore, informed the realization of a textured façade panel. A systematic process has been undertaken to examine the impact of different variables on the cooling ability of the panels, bringing in new morphological considerations for surface texture. The results showed that the morphological variables of assembly and depth of texture have impact on heat loss, and the impact of surface area to volume (SA:V) ratios on heat loss capabilities varies for different surface roughness. This study demonstrates the potential exploitation of morphological adaptation to buildings, that could contribute to them cooling passively and reduce the need for expensive and energy consuming mechanical systems. Furthermore, it suggests areas for further investigation and opens new avenues for novel thermal solutions inspired by nature for the built environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Architectural and Urban Design)
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Article
Wind Dispersal of Natural and Biomimetic Maple Samaras
Biomimetics 2021, 6(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6020023 - 29 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1093
Abstract
Maple trees (genus Acer) accomplish the task of distributing objects to a wide area by producing seeds, known as samaras, which are carried by the wind as they autorotate and slowly descend to the ground. With the goal of supporting engineering applications, [...] Read more.
Maple trees (genus Acer) accomplish the task of distributing objects to a wide area by producing seeds, known as samaras, which are carried by the wind as they autorotate and slowly descend to the ground. With the goal of supporting engineering applications, such as gathering environmental data over a broad area, we developed 3D-printed artificial samaras. Here, we compare the behavior of both natural and artificial samaras in both still-air laboratory experiments and wind dispersal experiments in the field. We show that the artificial samaras are able to replicate (within one standard deviation) the behavior of natural samaras in a lab setting. We further use the notion of windage to compare dispersal behavior, and show that the natural samara has the highest mean windage, corresponding to the longest flights during both high wind and low wind experimental trials. This study demonstrated a bioinspired design for the dispersed deployment of sensors and provides a better understanding of wind-dispersal of both natural and artificial samaras. Full article
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Article
Identification of Gait-Cycle Phases for Prosthesis Control
Biomimetics 2021, 6(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6020022 - 26 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1097
Abstract
The major problem with transfemoral prostheses is their capacity to compensate for the loss of the knee joint. The identification of gait-cycle phases plays an important role in the control of these prostheses. Such control is completely up to the patient in passive [...] Read more.
The major problem with transfemoral prostheses is their capacity to compensate for the loss of the knee joint. The identification of gait-cycle phases plays an important role in the control of these prostheses. Such control is completely up to the patient in passive prostheses or partly facilitated by the prosthesis in semiactive prostheses. In both cases, the patient recovers his/her walking ability through a suitable rehabilitation procedure that aims at recreating proprioception in the patient. Understanding proprioception passes through the identification of conditions and parameters that make the patient aware of lower-limb body segments’ postures, and the recognition of the current gait-cycle phase/period is the first step of this awareness. Here, a proposal is presented for the identification of the gait-cycle phases/periods under different walking conditions together with a control logic for a possible active/semiactive prosthesis. The proposal is based on the detection of different gait-cycle events as well as on different walking conditions through a load sensor, which is implemented by analyzing the variations in some gait parameters. The validation of the proposed method is done by using gait-cycle data present in the literature. The proposal assumes the prosthesis is equipped with an energy-storing foot without mobility. Full article
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