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Hormonal Regulation of Early Fruit Development in European Pear (Pyrus communis cv. ‘Conference’)

1
Earth and Life Institute-Agronomy, Genetics, Reproduction and Populations Research Group, Université catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2, Box L7 05 14, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
2
The Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Experimental Botany, Laboratory of Hormonal Regulations in Plants, Rozvojová 263, CZ-16502 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Horticulturae 2019, 5(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae5010009
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular, Genetic and Physiological Control of Fruit Quality)
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Abstract

European pear requires inter-cultivar cross-pollination by insects to develop fertilized fruits. However, some European pear cultivars such as ‘Conference’ naturally produce parthenocarpic seedless fruits. To better understand the hormonal regulation of fruit set and early fruit development in this European pear cultivar, the phytohormone and polyamine profiles in ‘Conference’ flowers and fruits resulting from both fertilization and parthenocarpic processes were analyzed. The expression of genes involved in phytohormone metabolism and signaling were also investigated. Phytohormone profiles differed more at flower stage 3 days after treatment than in 15 day- and 30-day-old fruits in response to fertilization and parthenocarpy. An increase in auxins, abscisic acid, ethylene precursor, and spermine, and a decrease in putrescine were recorded in the fertilized flowers as compared to the parthenocarpic flowers. Fertilization also upregulated genes involved in gibberellin synthesis and down-regulated genes involved in gibberellin catabolism although the total gibberellin content was not modified. Moreover, exogenous gibberellin (GA3, GA4/7) and cytokinin (6BA) applications did not increase parthenocarpic induction in ‘Conference’ as observed in other European and Asian pear cultivars. We hypothesize that the intrinsic parthenocarpy of ‘Conference’ could be related to a high gibberellin level in the flowers explaining why exogenous gibberellin application did not increase parthenocarpy as observed in other pear cultivars and species. View Full-Text
Keywords: fruit set, parthenocarpy, phytohormones, pollination, polyamines, transcriptomic. fruit set, parthenocarpy, phytohormones, pollination, polyamines, transcriptomic.
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Quinet, M.; Buyens, C.; Dobrev, P.I.; Motyka, V.; Jacquemart, A.-L. Hormonal Regulation of Early Fruit Development in European Pear (Pyrus communis cv. ‘Conference’). Horticulturae 2019, 5, 9.

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