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Horticulturae, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2015) , Pages 1-54

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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Leaf Phenology of White Oak and Northern Red Oak
Horticulturae 2015, 1(1), 44-54; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae1010044
Received: 8 September 2015 / Revised: 30 November 2015 / Accepted: 3 December 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1876 | PDF Full-text (180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the landscape, loss of interveinal tissue in developing leaves (leaf tatters) is common for white oak (Quercus alba L.), but not northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.). Previous research identified the cause of leaf tatters, as exposure of unfolding leaves, [...] Read more.
In the landscape, loss of interveinal tissue in developing leaves (leaf tatters) is common for white oak (Quercus alba L.), but not northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.). Previous research identified the cause of leaf tatters, as exposure of unfolding leaves, to low concentrations of chloroacetanilide herbicides. Both white oak and northern red oak were injured by these herbicides at the leaf unfolding stage. Reports from landowners suggest white oak is injured more often than red oak, leading us to theorize that white and northern red oak leaves emerge at different times, and white oaks were more likely to be at the leaf unfolding stage when chloroacetanilide herbicides are applied. A study of comparative leaf phenology of white and northern red oak was done at three sites in Urbana, IL. Identifying oak pairs was challenging, and at each location, four to six paired mature white oak and northern red oak trees were used to observe phenological events. Key development stages (swollen bud, leaf unfolding, or fully expanded leaf stages) were considered to have occurred when reached by greater than 50% of the canopy. Northern red oak expanded leaf stage occurred earlier when compared to white oak. Time between phenological events was similar for both species. Although northern red oak leaves emerged earlier, there was a range of emergence times within short distances. Difference between locations illustrates the problem in predicting tree phenology even among populations a few kilometers apart. Leaf phenology alone does not explain leaf tatters, and other factors including distribution differences in oak species must explain landowner observations of tree injury. There was a strong correlation between growth phases of the two oak species with cumulative growing degree days, cumulative rainfall, and day length. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Relative Salt Tolerance of Seven Strawberry Cultivars
Horticulturae 2015, 1(1), 27-43; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae1010027
Received: 26 August 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1665 | PDF Full-text (496 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars (“Albion”, “Benicia”, “Camarosa”, “Camino Real”, “Chandler”, “Radiance”, and “San Andreas”) were evaluated for salt tolerance in a greenhouse environment. Plants were irrigated with a nutrient solution with an electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.1 dS·m−1 (control) [...] Read more.
Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars (“Albion”, “Benicia”, “Camarosa”, “Camino Real”, “Chandler”, “Radiance”, and “San Andreas”) were evaluated for salt tolerance in a greenhouse environment. Plants were irrigated with a nutrient solution with an electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.1 dS·m−1 (control) or a nutrient solution with the addition of salts (salt solution) with ECs of 2.2, 3.3, or 4.4 dS·m−1 for four months. Salinity reduced plant growth and fruit yield of strawberry; however, the magnitude of reduction varied with cultivar. For example, at an EC of 4.4 dS·m−1, “Benicia” and “Chandler” had 39% and 44% less shoot dry weight (DW) respectively, compared with control plants. At ECs of 3.3 and 4.4 dS·m−1, “Camino Real” had equal shoot DW, which was about 50% lower than that of the control. The fruit yield of “Benicia” and “Camino Real” at 4.4 dS·m−1 was reduced by 56%, while the other salt treatments did not affect their shoot DW or fruit yield. To distinguish differences among the cultivars with respect to their tolerance to salinity, cluster analysis was performed based on growth parameters and visual quality. The results indicated that “Albion”, “Camarosa”, and “San Andreas” were more salt tolerant, while “Camino Real”, “Benicia”, “Chandler”, and “Radiance” were less salt tolerant. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Azospirillum brasilense Enhances Recycling of Fish Effluent to Support Growth of Tomato Seedlings
Horticulturae 2015, 1(1), 14-26; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae1010014
Received: 26 March 2015 / Accepted: 1 June 2015 / Published: 5 June 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2622 | PDF Full-text (282 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Increasing environmental concerns and growing demand for safer and sustainable food production presents significant challenges for agricultural production. One potential technique, which could help improve crop productivity without adverse impact on the environment, is the use of beneficial microbes in crop production systems. [...] Read more.
Increasing environmental concerns and growing demand for safer and sustainable food production presents significant challenges for agricultural production. One potential technique, which could help improve crop productivity without adverse impact on the environment, is the use of beneficial microbes in crop production systems. This study evaluated the effects of three Azospirillum brasilense strains on tomato seedlings fertilized with effluent from freshwater fish aquaculture. Seeds were inoculated with A. brasilense strains Sp7, Sp7-S and Sp245 before sowing and after transplanting. Seedlings were raised under controlled greenhouse conditions with natural light. Inoculated seedlings produced longer roots (67%), bigger leaves (22%), higher seedling biomass (>33%), and greater protein (15%) and endogenous plant IAA (94%) contents. Inoculation with Sp7 and Sp245 increased the number of leaves and stem diameter by 8 and 10%, respectively. Seedling height was also increased by inoculation, but only with Sp7. In addition, seedlings inoculated with strains Sp7-S and Sp245 had higher total phosphorus content, while inoculation with Sp245 increased the activity of the enzyme peroxidase, which suggests that plant defense responses had been triggered. The result demonstrates the potential of the applied A. brasilense strains to enhance the usefulness of fish effluent as fertilizer for tomato seedling production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Somatic Embryogenesis and Genetic Fidelity Study of the Micropropagated Medicinal Species, Canna indica
Horticulturae 2015, 1(1), 3-13; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae1010003
Received: 23 February 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 30 April 2015 / Published: 8 May 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2674 | PDF Full-text (3192 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae) is used both as medicine and food. Traditionally, various parts of C. indica are exploited to treat blood pressure, dropsy, fever, inflammatory diseases etc. However, to date there is no reliable micropropagation protocol for C. indica. We present [...] Read more.
Canna indica Linn. (Cannaceae) is used both as medicine and food. Traditionally, various parts of C. indica are exploited to treat blood pressure, dropsy, fever, inflammatory diseases etc. However, to date there is no reliable micropropagation protocol for C. indica. We present here a regeneration technique C. indica with banana micropropagation medium (BM). BM supplemented with 3% sucrose, 0.7% agar, and 0.17% NH4NO3 and different plant growth regulators like BAP (2 mg∙L−1) and NAA (0.5 mg∙L−1) was found to be effective in inducing callus. BM with BAP (2 mg∙L−1) was ideal for somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration. After a period of 3 months, regenerated plantlets were successfully transferred to the field conditions. Appearance of somaclonal variation among the regenerated plants is a common problem which was assessed by DNA fingerprinting. To detect genetic fidelity in C. indica, RAPD and ISSR markers were employed. Ten RAPD primers produced 60 amplicons, while 7 ISSR primers generated 45 bands in both in vitro plantlets and mother plants. RAPD and ISSR analyses showed no evidence of polymorphism between parent plants and the regenerated plants as all the amplified products were found to be monomorphic. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Horticulturae — An International, Multidisciplinary, Open Access Journal
Horticulturae 2015, 1(1), 1-2; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae1010001
Received: 23 December 2014 / Revised: 25 December 2014 / Accepted: 25 December 2014 / Published: 20 January 2015
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Abstract
Horticulture plays an integral role in human existence. As foods, in interior surroundings and exterior landscapes, and in forms of artistic expression, there is no social group worldwide for whom horticulture has not played a profound role [1]. Horticultural plants and their products [...] Read more.
Horticulture plays an integral role in human existence. As foods, in interior surroundings and exterior landscapes, and in forms of artistic expression, there is no social group worldwide for whom horticulture has not played a profound role [1]. Horticultural plants and their products provide critical nutrition and nutraceutical compounds which sustain life, provide environments for leisure, recreation, and improved mental health, and play essential roles in ecology and biodiversity. As the population grows, horticulture is destined to play increasingly critical roles in maintaining human health and happiness.[...] Full article
Horticulturae EISSN 2311-7524 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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