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Fermentation 2018, 4(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4020047

Transcription Factors Controlling Primary and Secondary Metabolism in Filamentous Fungi: The β-Lactam Paradigm

1
INBIOTEC, Instituto de Biotecnología de León, Avda. Real No. 1, Parque Científico de León, 24006 León, Spain
2
Área de Microbiología, Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad de León, Campus de Vegazana s/n, 24071 León, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postgenomic Microbial Physiology and Fermentation)
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Abstract

Transcription factors are key regulatory proteins in all living beings. In fungi, transcription factors include either broad-domain regulatory proteins that affect the expression of many genes involved in biosynthetic processes, or proteins encoded by cluster-associated (also called pathway-specific) regulatory genes. Belonging to the most interesting transcription factors in fungi are binuclear zinc finger proteins. In addition to the transcription factors in the strict sense, other proteins play a very important role in the expression of genes for primary and secondary metabolism in fungi, such as winged helix regulators, the LaeA protein and the velvet complex. LaeA appears to be involved in heterochromatin reorganization, and the velvet complex proteins, which are nuclear factors that associate with LaeA, also have a determining role in both differentiation (sporulation) and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. The genes involved in the biosynthesis of β-lactam antibiotics are well known and serve as an excellent model to understand the transcriptional control of genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Interaction between different regulatory proteins in the promoter regions may represent a cross-talk regulation between different gene clusters. View Full-Text
Keywords: β-lactam antibiotics; control of gene expression; filamentous fungi; regulation; secondary metabolism; transcription factors β-lactam antibiotics; control of gene expression; filamentous fungi; regulation; secondary metabolism; transcription factors
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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García-Estrada, C.; Domínguez-Santos, R.; Kosalková, K.; Martín, J.-F. Transcription Factors Controlling Primary and Secondary Metabolism in Filamentous Fungi: The β-Lactam Paradigm. Fermentation 2018, 4, 47.

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