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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis., Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2018)

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Open AccessComment Comment on “The Memory of the Heart”, J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5, 55
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd5040060
Received: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
In his recent review for the Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease, Cirillo offers a concept for “cardiac memory” based on the notion that the ventricular cone can be unwrapped to show a myocardial band extending from the pulmonary to the aortic root.
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In his recent review for the Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease, Cirillo offers a concept for “cardiac memory” based on the notion that the ventricular cone can be unwrapped to show a myocardial band extending from the pulmonary to the aortic root. The concept of the myocardial band was itself developed by Torrent Guasp, and has subsequently been championed by Buckberg. Neither Torrent Guasp, when formulating his initial concept, nor Buckberg in his subsequent endorsements, have validated the results of dissection using histological or other techniques that would reveal the boundaries of the alleged band. In contrast, there is a wealth of evidence showing that such boundaries do not exist and that the cardiomyocytes are packed together within the walls of the ventricular cone in the form of a three-dimensional mesh. The evidence demonstrating the manner of packing of the cardiomyocytes within the ventricular walls was summarised in another recent review published in the journal. It is disappointing that Cirillo chose to ignore the wealth of evidence disproving the concept on which he bases his entire review. Only by recognising the existence of this evidence can we truly understand ventricular function correctly, as envisaged by Cirillo. Full article
Open AccessReview Coronary Vasculature in Cardiac Development and Regeneration
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd5040059
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
Functional coronary circulation is essential for a healthy heart in warm-blooded vertebrates, and coronary diseases can have a fatal consequence. Despite the growing interest, the knowledge about the coronary vessel development and the roles of new coronary vessel formation during heart regeneration is
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Functional coronary circulation is essential for a healthy heart in warm-blooded vertebrates, and coronary diseases can have a fatal consequence. Despite the growing interest, the knowledge about the coronary vessel development and the roles of new coronary vessel formation during heart regeneration is still limited. It is demonstrated that early revascularization is required for efficient heart regeneration. In this comprehensive review, we first describe the coronary vessel formation from an evolutionary perspective. We further discuss the cell origins of coronary endothelial cells and perivascular cells and summarize the critical signaling pathways regulating coronary vessel development. Lastly, we focus on the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms regulating heart regeneration in zebrafish, a genetically tractable vertebrate model with a regenerative adult heart and well-developed coronary system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiac Regeneration in Non-Mammalian Vertebrates)
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Open AccessReview Visualising the Cardiovascular System of Embryos of Biomedical Model Organisms with High Resolution Episcopic Microscopy (HREM)
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd5040058
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 9 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
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Abstract
The article will briefly introduce the high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM) technique and will focus on its potential for researching cardiovascular development and remodelling in embryos of biomedical model organisms. It will demonstrate the capacity of HREM for analysing the cardiovascular system of normally
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The article will briefly introduce the high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM) technique and will focus on its potential for researching cardiovascular development and remodelling in embryos of biomedical model organisms. It will demonstrate the capacity of HREM for analysing the cardiovascular system of normally developed and genetically or experimentally malformed zebrafish, frog, chick and mouse embryos in the context of the whole specimen and will exemplarily show the possibilities HREM offers for comprehensive visualisation of the vasculature of adult human skin. Finally, it will provide examples of the successful application of HREM for identifying cardiovascular malformations in genetically altered mouse embryos produced in the deciphering the mechanisms of developmental disorders (DMDD) program. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Epigenetic Regulation of Organ Regeneration in Zebrafish
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd5040057
Received: 18 November 2018 / Revised: 11 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
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Abstract
The zebrafish is broadly used for investigating de novo organ regeneration, because of its strong regenerative potential. Over the past two decades of intense study, significant advances have been made in identifying both the regenerative cell sources and molecular signaling pathways in a
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The zebrafish is broadly used for investigating de novo organ regeneration, because of its strong regenerative potential. Over the past two decades of intense study, significant advances have been made in identifying both the regenerative cell sources and molecular signaling pathways in a variety of organs in adult zebrafish. Epigenetic regulation has gradually moved into the center-stage of this research area, aided by comprehensive work demonstrating that DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling complexes, and microRNAs are essential for organ regeneration. Here, we present a brief review of how these epigenetic components are induced upon injury, and how they are involved in sophisticated organ regeneration. In addition, we highlight several prospective research directions and their potential implications for regenerative medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiac Regeneration in Non-Mammalian Vertebrates)
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Open AccessReview Endothelial Contributions to Zebrafish Heart Regeneration
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd5040056
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
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Abstract
Studies over the past two decades have shown heart regeneration in zebrafish to be a dynamic process, choreographed by multiple cell types. In particular, recent work has identified revascularization of the wound to be a sentinel event during heart regeneration. The cardiac endothelium
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Studies over the past two decades have shown heart regeneration in zebrafish to be a dynamic process, choreographed by multiple cell types. In particular, recent work has identified revascularization of the wound to be a sentinel event during heart regeneration. The cardiac endothelium has emerged as a key orchestrator of heart regeneration, influencing cardiomyocyte hyperplasia and tissue morphogenesis. Here, we review how the coronary vasculature regenerates after injury, how signaling pathways link the cardiac endothelium to heart regeneration, and how understanding these signaling dynamics can lead to targeted therapies for heart regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiac Regeneration in Non-Mammalian Vertebrates)
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Open AccessReview The Memory of the Heart
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd5040055
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 11 November 2018
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Abstract
The embryological development of the heart is one of the most fascinating phenomena in nature and so is its final structure and function. The various ontogenetic passages form the evolutive basis of the final configuration of the heart. Each key step can be
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The embryological development of the heart is one of the most fascinating phenomena in nature and so is its final structure and function. The various ontogenetic passages form the evolutive basis of the final configuration of the heart. Each key step can be recognized in the final features, as the heart maintains a kind of “memory” of these passages. We can identify the major lines of development of the heart and trace these lines up to the mature organ. The aim of this review is to identify these key parameters of cardiac structure and function as essential elements of the heart’s proper functioning and bases for its treatment. We aim to track key steps of heart development to identify what it “remembers” and maintains in its final form as positively selected. A new vision based on the whole acquired knowledge must guide an in-depth scientific approach in future papers and guidelines on the topic and a complete, farsighted therapeutic conduct able to ensure the physiological correction of cardiac pathologies. The application of this modern, functional vision of the heart could improve the clinical treatment of heart disease, filling the gaps still present. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hemodynamics in Cardiac Development
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd5040054
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
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Abstract
The beating heart is subject to intrinsic mechanical factors, exerted by contraction of the myocardium (stretch and strain) and fluid forces of the enclosed blood (wall shear stress). The earliest contractions of the heart occur already in the 10-somite stage in the tubular
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The beating heart is subject to intrinsic mechanical factors, exerted by contraction of the myocardium (stretch and strain) and fluid forces of the enclosed blood (wall shear stress). The earliest contractions of the heart occur already in the 10-somite stage in the tubular as yet unsegmented heart. With development, the looping heart becomes asymmetric providing varying diameters and curvatures resulting in unequal flow profiles. These flow profiles exert various wall shear stresses and as a consequence different expression patterns of shear responsive genes. In this paper we investigate the morphological alterations of the heart after changing the blood flow by ligation of the right vitelline vein in a model chicken embryo and analyze the extended expression in the endocardial cushions of the shear responsive gene Tgfbeta receptor III. A major phenomenon is the diminished endocardial-mesenchymal transition resulting in hypoplastic (even absence of) atrioventricular and outflow tract endocardial cushions, which might be lethal in early phases. The surviving embryos exhibit several cardiac malformations including ventricular septal defects and malformed semilunar valves related to abnormal development of the aortopulmonary septal complex and the enclosed neural crest cells. We discuss the results in the light of the interactions between several shear stress responsive signaling pathways including an extended review of the involved Vegf, Notch, Pdgf, Klf2, eNos, Endothelin and Tgfβ/Bmp/Smad networks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hypertension Status and Associations with Self-Rated Health and General Practitioner Health Seeking in a Rural Australian Cohort
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd5040053
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
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Abstract
Hypertension is the most frequently managed condition by Australian general practitioners (GP). Knowledge of hypertension and blood pressure (BP) values may motivate individuals to seek GP management. Our study aims to determine the associations of knowledge of BP values, BP perception, GP health
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Hypertension is the most frequently managed condition by Australian general practitioners (GP). Knowledge of hypertension and blood pressure (BP) values may motivate individuals to seek GP management. Our study aims to determine the associations of knowledge of BP values, BP perception, GP health seeking, and self-rated health (SRH) in a rural population. Two-hundred and seventy-eight (278) residents responded to the health survey on socio-demographic profile, medical history, BP knowledge and perception, SRH, and GP visit frequency. Associations were evaluated using Chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression. Cohort mean age was 63.6 (12.4) years with 63.3% females. Hypertension (37.8%) was the most common condition. GP visits were made at least once every month (19.1%), every 2–6 months (35.6%), >6 months (11.5%), or only when needed (29.5%). Univariate analyses showed age, education, alcohol consumption, comorbidities, hypertension status, and SRH were significantly associated with visit frequency. After adjustments, hypertension status (OR = 3.6, 95% CI [1.7, 7.9]) and poor SRH (OR = 3.1, 95% CI [1.4, 7.0]) were significantly associated with frequent monthly visits. Our cohort demonstrated that having hypertension and poor self-rated health were associated with frequent monthly GP visits. The perception of high blood pressure does not drive seeking additional GP input. Full article
Open AccessArticle Renal Venous Pattern: A New Parameter for Predicting Prognosis in Heart Failure Outpatients
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd5040052
Received: 21 August 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 3 November 2018
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Abstract
Aim of the study: In chronic heart failure (CHF) patients, renal congestion plays a key role in determining the progression of renal dysfunction and a worse prognosis. The aim of this study was to define the role of Doppler venous patterns reflecting renal
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Aim of the study: In chronic heart failure (CHF) patients, renal congestion plays a key role in determining the progression of renal dysfunction and a worse prognosis. The aim of this study was to define the role of Doppler venous patterns reflecting renal congestion that predict heart failure progression. Methods: We enrolled outpatients affected by CHF, in stable clinical conditions and in conventional therapy. All patients underwent a clinical evaluation, routine chemistry, an echocardiogram and a renal echo-Doppler. Pulsed Doppler flow recording was performed at the level of interlobular renal right veins in the tele-expiratory phase. The venous flow patterns were divided into five groups according to the fluctuations of the flow. Type A and B were characterized by a continuous flow, whereas type C was characterized by a short interruption or reversal flow during the end-diastolic or protosystolic phase. Type D and E were characterized by a wide interruption and/or reversal flow. The occurrence of death and/or of heart transplantation and/or of hospitalization due to heart failure worsening was considered an event during follow-up. Results: During a median follow-up of 38 months, 126 patients experienced the considered end-point. Venous pattern C (HR 4.04; 95% CI: 2.14–7.65; p < 0.001), pattern D (HR 7.16; 95% CI: 3.69–13.9; p < 0.001) and pattern E (HR 8.94; 95% CI: 4.65–17.2; p < 0.001) were all associated with events using an univariate Cox regression analysis. Moreover, both the presence of pattern C (HR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.09–2.97; p: 0) and of pattern D or E (HR: 1.90; 95% CI: 1.16–3.12; p: 0.011) remained significantly associated to events using a multivariate Cox regression analysis after correction for a reference model with an improvement of the overall net reclassification index (0.46; 95% CI 0.24–0.68; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate the independent and incremental role of Doppler venous patterns reflecting renal congestion in predicting HF progression among CHF patients, thus suggesting its possible utility in daily clinical practice to better characterize patients with cardio-renal syndrome. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association between Sarcopenic Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes, and Hypertension in Overweight and Obese Treatment-Seeking Adult Women
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd5040051
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
The last decade has seen a new condition that describes the coexistence of obesity and sarcopenia, termed sarcopenic obesity (SO). We aimed to assess the prevalence of SO in overweight and obese treatment-seeking adult women and the association with type 2 diabetes, hypertension,
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The last decade has seen a new condition that describes the coexistence of obesity and sarcopenia, termed sarcopenic obesity (SO). We aimed to assess the prevalence of SO in overweight and obese treatment-seeking adult women and the association with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. A body composition assessment was conducted with an InBody bioimpedance analyser in 154 overweight and obese women referred to the Outpatient Clinic in the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics at Beirut Arab University (BAU) in Lebanon, and 30 normal-weight participants of similar age. The overweight and obese patients were then categorized as being with or without sarcopenia. Thirty-one out of the 154 overweight or obese participants met the criteria for SO and displayed a significantly higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes and hypertension than those without SO. Logistic regression analysis showed that SO increases the odds of having type 2 diabetes and hypertension by nearly 550% (odds ratio = 5.42, 95% confidence interval = 1.37–21.40, p < 0.05) after adjusting for central fat, eating habits, level of physical activity, and smoking. SO affects nearly 20% of treatment-seeking overweight and obese adult women. Moreover, SO seems to be strongly associated with type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Full article
Open AccessReview Gene Therapy Approaches to Biological Pacemakers
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd5040050
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Bradycardia arising from pacemaker dysfunction can be debilitating and life threatening. Electronic pacemakers serve as effective treatment options for pacemaker dysfunction. They however present their own limitations and complications. This has motivated research into discovering more effective and innovative ways to treat pacemaker
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Bradycardia arising from pacemaker dysfunction can be debilitating and life threatening. Electronic pacemakers serve as effective treatment options for pacemaker dysfunction. They however present their own limitations and complications. This has motivated research into discovering more effective and innovative ways to treat pacemaker dysfunction. Gene therapy is being explored for its potential to treat various cardiac conditions including cardiac arrhythmias. Gene transfer vectors with increasing transduction efficiency and biosafety have been developed and trialed for cardiovascular disease treatment. With an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving pacemaker development, several gene therapy targets have been identified to generate the phenotypic changes required to correct pacemaker dysfunction. This review will discuss the gene therapy vectors in use today along with methods for their delivery. Furthermore, it will evaluate several gene therapy strategies attempting to restore biological pacing, having the potential to emerge as viable therapies for pacemaker dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiaovascular Gene Therapy)
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Open AccessCommunication Defective Vagal Innervation in Murine Tbx1 Mutant Hearts
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd5040049
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 23 September 2018
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Abstract
Haploinsufficiency of the T-box transcription factor TBX1 is responsible for many features of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Tbx1 is expressed dynamically in the pharyngeal apparatus during mouse development and Tbx1 homozygous mutants display numerous severe defects including abnormal cranial ganglion formation and neural crest
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Haploinsufficiency of the T-box transcription factor TBX1 is responsible for many features of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Tbx1 is expressed dynamically in the pharyngeal apparatus during mouse development and Tbx1 homozygous mutants display numerous severe defects including abnormal cranial ganglion formation and neural crest cell defects. These abnormalities prompted us to investigate whether parasympathetic (vagal) innervation of the heart was affected in Tbx1 mutant embryos. In this report, we used an allelic series of Tbx1 mouse mutants, embryo tissue explants and cardiac electrophysiology to characterise, in detail, the function of Tbx1 in vagal innervation of the heart. We found that total nerve branch length was significantly reduced in Tbx1+/− and Tbx1neo2/− mutant hearts expressing 50% and 15% levels of Tbx1. We also found that neural crest cells migrated normally to the heart of Tbx1+/−, but not in Tbx1neo2 mutant embryos. In addition, we showed that cranial ganglia IXth and Xth were fused in Tbx1neo2/− but neuronal differentiation appeared intact. Finally, we used telemetry to monitor heart response to carbachol, a cholinergic receptor agonist, and found that heart rate recovered more quickly in Tbx1+/− animals versus controls. We speculate that this condition of decreased parasympathetic drive could result in a pro-arrhythmic substrate in some 22q11.2DS patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Congenital Heart Disease)
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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. EISSN 2308-3425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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