Previous Issue

Table of Contents

J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis., Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-6
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Hemodynamics in Cardiac Development
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd5040054
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
Viewed by 157 | PDF Full-text (2268 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The beating heart is subject to intrinsic mechanical factors, exerted by contraction of the myocardium (stretch and strain) and fluid forces of the enclosed blood (wall shear stress). The earliest contractions of the heart occur already in the 10-somite stage in the tubular
[...] Read more.
The beating heart is subject to intrinsic mechanical factors, exerted by contraction of the myocardium (stretch and strain) and fluid forces of the enclosed blood (wall shear stress). The earliest contractions of the heart occur already in the 10-somite stage in the tubular as yet unsegmented heart. With development, the looping heart becomes asymmetric providing varying diameters and curvatures resulting in unequal flow profiles. These flow profiles exert various wall shear stresses and as a consequence different expression patterns of shear responsive genes. In this paper we investigate the morphological alterations of the heart after changing the blood flow by ligation of the right vitelline vein in a model chicken embryo and analyze the extended expression in the endocardial cushions of the shear responsive gene Tgfbeta receptor III. A major phenomenon is the diminished endocardial-mesenchymal transition resulting in hypoplastic (even absence of) atrioventricular and outflow tract endocardial cushions, which might be lethal in early phases. The surviving embryos exhibit several cardiac malformations including ventricular septal defects and malformed semilunar valves related to abnormal development of the aortopulmonary septal complex and the enclosed neural crest cells. We discuss the results in the light of the interactions between several shear stress responsive signaling pathways including an extended review of the involved Vegf, Notch, Pdgf, Klf2, eNos, Endothelin and Tgfβ/Bmp/Smad networks. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Hypertension Status and Associations with Self-Rated Health and General Practitioner Health Seeking in a Rural Australian Cohort
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd5040053
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
Viewed by 91 | PDF Full-text (231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hypertension is the most frequently managed condition by Australian general practitioners (GP). Knowledge of hypertension and blood pressure (BP) values may motivate individuals to seek GP management. Our study aims to determine the associations of knowledge of BP values, BP perception, GP health
[...] Read more.
Hypertension is the most frequently managed condition by Australian general practitioners (GP). Knowledge of hypertension and blood pressure (BP) values may motivate individuals to seek GP management. Our study aims to determine the associations of knowledge of BP values, BP perception, GP health seeking, and self-rated health (SRH) in a rural population. Two-hundred and seventy-eight (278) residents responded to the health survey on socio-demographic profile, medical history, BP knowledge and perception, SRH, and GP visit frequency. Associations were evaluated using Chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression. Cohort mean age was 63.6 (12.4) years with 63.3% females. Hypertension (37.8%) was the most common condition. GP visits were made at least once every month (19.1%), every 2–6 months (35.6%), >6 months (11.5%), or only when needed (29.5%). Univariate analyses showed age, education, alcohol consumption, comorbidities, hypertension status, and SRH were significantly associated with visit frequency. After adjustments, hypertension status (OR = 3.6, 95% CI [1.7, 7.9]) and poor SRH (OR = 3.1, 95% CI [1.4, 7.0]) were significantly associated with frequent monthly visits. Our cohort demonstrated that having hypertension and poor self-rated health were associated with frequent monthly GP visits. The perception of high blood pressure does not drive seeking additional GP input. Full article
Open AccessArticle Renal Venous Pattern: A New Parameter for Predicting Prognosis in Heart Failure Outpatients
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd5040052
Received: 21 August 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 3 November 2018
Viewed by 169 | PDF Full-text (946 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aim of the study: In chronic heart failure (CHF) patients, renal congestion plays a key role in determining the progression of renal dysfunction and a worse prognosis. The aim of this study was to define the role of Doppler venous patterns reflecting renal
[...] Read more.
Aim of the study: In chronic heart failure (CHF) patients, renal congestion plays a key role in determining the progression of renal dysfunction and a worse prognosis. The aim of this study was to define the role of Doppler venous patterns reflecting renal congestion that predict heart failure progression. Methods: We enrolled outpatients affected by CHF, in stable clinical conditions and in conventional therapy. All patients underwent a clinical evaluation, routine chemistry, an echocardiogram and a renal echo-Doppler. Pulsed Doppler flow recording was performed at the level of interlobular renal right veins in the tele-expiratory phase. The venous flow patterns were divided into five groups according to the fluctuations of the flow. Type A and B were characterized by a continuous flow, whereas type C was characterized by a short interruption or reversal flow during the end-diastolic or protosystolic phase. Type D and E were characterized by a wide interruption and/or reversal flow. The occurrence of death and/or of heart transplantation and/or of hospitalization due to heart failure worsening was considered an event during follow-up. Results: During a median follow-up of 38 months, 126 patients experienced the considered end-point. Venous pattern C (HR 4.04; 95% CI: 2.14–7.65; p < 0.001), pattern D (HR 7.16; 95% CI: 3.69–13.9; p < 0.001) and pattern E (HR 8.94; 95% CI: 4.65–17.2; p < 0.001) were all associated with events using an univariate Cox regression analysis. Moreover, both the presence of pattern C (HR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.09–2.97; p: 0) and of pattern D or E (HR: 1.90; 95% CI: 1.16–3.12; p: 0.011) remained significantly associated to events using a multivariate Cox regression analysis after correction for a reference model with an improvement of the overall net reclassification index (0.46; 95% CI 0.24–0.68; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate the independent and incremental role of Doppler venous patterns reflecting renal congestion in predicting HF progression among CHF patients, thus suggesting its possible utility in daily clinical practice to better characterize patients with cardio-renal syndrome. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Association between Sarcopenic Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes, and Hypertension in Overweight and Obese Treatment-Seeking Adult Women
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd5040051
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 285 | PDF Full-text (195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The last decade has seen a new condition that describes the coexistence of obesity and sarcopenia, termed sarcopenic obesity (SO). We aimed to assess the prevalence of SO in overweight and obese treatment-seeking adult women and the association with type 2 diabetes, hypertension,
[...] Read more.
The last decade has seen a new condition that describes the coexistence of obesity and sarcopenia, termed sarcopenic obesity (SO). We aimed to assess the prevalence of SO in overweight and obese treatment-seeking adult women and the association with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. A body composition assessment was conducted with an InBody bioimpedance analyser in 154 overweight and obese women referred to the Outpatient Clinic in the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics at Beirut Arab University (BAU) in Lebanon, and 30 normal-weight participants of similar age. The overweight and obese patients were then categorized as being with or without sarcopenia. Thirty-one out of the 154 overweight or obese participants met the criteria for SO and displayed a significantly higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes and hypertension than those without SO. Logistic regression analysis showed that SO increases the odds of having type 2 diabetes and hypertension by nearly 550% (odds ratio = 5.42, 95% confidence interval = 1.37–21.40, p < 0.05) after adjusting for central fat, eating habits, level of physical activity, and smoking. SO affects nearly 20% of treatment-seeking overweight and obese adult women. Moreover, SO seems to be strongly associated with type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Full article
Open AccessReview Gene Therapy Approaches to Biological Pacemakers
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd5040050
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
Viewed by 293 | PDF Full-text (653 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bradycardia arising from pacemaker dysfunction can be debilitating and life threatening. Electronic pacemakers serve as effective treatment options for pacemaker dysfunction. They however present their own limitations and complications. This has motivated research into discovering more effective and innovative ways to treat pacemaker
[...] Read more.
Bradycardia arising from pacemaker dysfunction can be debilitating and life threatening. Electronic pacemakers serve as effective treatment options for pacemaker dysfunction. They however present their own limitations and complications. This has motivated research into discovering more effective and innovative ways to treat pacemaker dysfunction. Gene therapy is being explored for its potential to treat various cardiac conditions including cardiac arrhythmias. Gene transfer vectors with increasing transduction efficiency and biosafety have been developed and trialed for cardiovascular disease treatment. With an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving pacemaker development, several gene therapy targets have been identified to generate the phenotypic changes required to correct pacemaker dysfunction. This review will discuss the gene therapy vectors in use today along with methods for their delivery. Furthermore, it will evaluate several gene therapy strategies attempting to restore biological pacing, having the potential to emerge as viable therapies for pacemaker dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiaovascular Gene Therapy)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication Defective Vagal Innervation in Murine Tbx1 Mutant Hearts
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd5040049
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 23 September 2018
Viewed by 391 | PDF Full-text (2022 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Haploinsufficiency of the T-box transcription factor TBX1 is responsible for many features of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Tbx1 is expressed dynamically in the pharyngeal apparatus during mouse development and Tbx1 homozygous mutants display numerous severe defects including abnormal cranial ganglion formation and neural crest
[...] Read more.
Haploinsufficiency of the T-box transcription factor TBX1 is responsible for many features of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Tbx1 is expressed dynamically in the pharyngeal apparatus during mouse development and Tbx1 homozygous mutants display numerous severe defects including abnormal cranial ganglion formation and neural crest cell defects. These abnormalities prompted us to investigate whether parasympathetic (vagal) innervation of the heart was affected in Tbx1 mutant embryos. In this report, we used an allelic series of Tbx1 mouse mutants, embryo tissue explants and cardiac electrophysiology to characterise, in detail, the function of Tbx1 in vagal innervation of the heart. We found that total nerve branch length was significantly reduced in Tbx1+/− and Tbx1neo2/− mutant hearts expressing 50% and 15% levels of Tbx1. We also found that neural crest cells migrated normally to the heart of Tbx1+/−, but not in Tbx1neo2 mutant embryos. In addition, we showed that cranial ganglia IXth and Xth were fused in Tbx1neo2/− but neuronal differentiation appeared intact. Finally, we used telemetry to monitor heart response to carbachol, a cholinergic receptor agonist, and found that heart rate recovered more quickly in Tbx1+/− animals versus controls. We speculate that this condition of decreased parasympathetic drive could result in a pro-arrhythmic substrate in some 22q11.2DS patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Congenital Heart Disease)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to Top