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The Clinical Frailty Scale: Estimating the Prevalence of Frailty in Older Patients Hospitalised with COVID-19. The COPE Study

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Department of Geriatric Medicine, Aneurin Bevan UHB, Caerphilly CF82 7GP, UK
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Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, King’s College London, London SE5 8AF, UK
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Department of Biostatistics and Health Informatics, King’s College London, London SE5 8AF, UK
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Respiratory Unit, Hospital Policlinico, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 41121 Modena, Italy
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Institute of Applied Health Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
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Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8TA, UK
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Ageing and Complex Medicine Department, Salford Royal NHS Trust, University of Manchester, Manchester M6 8HD, UK
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Department of Surgery, Cardiff and Vale UHB, Cardiff CF14 4XW, UK
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Department of Surgery, Royal Alexandra Hospital, Paisley PA2 9PN, UK
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Department of Surgery, Southmead Hospital, North Bristol NHS Trust, Bristol BS10 5NB, UK
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Division of Population Medicine, Aneurin Bevan UHB, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geriatrics 2020, 5(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5030058
Received: 30 July 2020 / Revised: 21 August 2020 / Accepted: 15 September 2020 / Published: 21 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 Infections in the Elderly)
Frailty assessed using Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) is a good predictor of adverse clinical events including mortality in older people. CFS is also an essential criterion for determining ceilings of care in people with COVID-19. Our aims were to assess the prevalence of frailty in older patients hospitalised with COVID-19, their sex and age distribution, and the completion rate of the CFS tool in evaluating frailty. Methods: Data were collected from thirteen sites. CFS was assessed routinely at the time of admission to hospital and ranged from 1 (very fit) to 9 (terminally ill). The completion rate of the CFS was assessed. The presence of major comorbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease was noted. Results: A total of 1277 older patients with COVID-19, aged ≥ 65 (79.9 ± 8.1) years were included in the study, with 98.5% having fully completed CFS. The total prevalence of frailty (CFS ≥ 5) was 66.9%, being higher in women than men (75.2% vs. 59.4%, p < 0.001). Frailty was found in 161 (44%) patients aged 65–74 years, 352 (69%) in 75–84 years, and 341 (85%) in ≥85 years groups, and increased across the age groups (<0.0001, test for trend). Conclusion: Frailty was prevalent in our cohort of older people admitted to hospital with COVID-19. This indicates that older people who are also frail, who go on to contract COVID-19 may have disease severity significant enough to warrant hospitalization. These data may help inform health care planners and targeted interventions and appropriate management for the frail older person. View Full-Text
Keywords: frailty; Clinical Frailty Scale; COVID-19; prevalence; hospital frailty; Clinical Frailty Scale; COVID-19; prevalence; hospital
MDPI and ACS Style

Collins, J.T.; Short, R.; Carter, B.; Verduri, A.; Myint, P.K.; Quinn, T.J.; Vilches-Moraga, A.; Stechman, M.J.; Moug, S.; McCarthy, K.; Hewitt, J. The Clinical Frailty Scale: Estimating the Prevalence of Frailty in Older Patients Hospitalised with COVID-19. The COPE Study. Geriatrics 2020, 5, 58.

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