Next Issue
Volume 2, December
Previous Issue
Volume 2, June

Table of Contents

Beverages, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2016)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
A Colorimetric Method for the Determination of the Exhaustion Level of Granular Activated Carbons Used in Rum Production
Beverages 2016, 2(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages2030024 - 20 Sep 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2120
Abstract
Spectrophotometric measurement applied on saturated granular activated carbon (GAC) is not yet explored. A colorimetric method in the visible range has been developed in order to determine the exhaustion level of GAC used in rum production. Aqueous ammonia solution has been used as [...] Read more.
Spectrophotometric measurement applied on saturated granular activated carbon (GAC) is not yet explored. A colorimetric method in the visible range has been developed in order to determine the exhaustion level of GAC used in rum production. Aqueous ammonia solution has been used as an indicative agent to determine the extraction rate of taste compounds within the rum production process and the exhaustion degree of the GAC. The colorimetric results showed excellent correlation with the iodine number and the contact pH. The proposed colorimetric method opens possibilities for rum producers to improve the management and economical use of the activated carbon at the industrial scale. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Physicochemical Optimization and Acceptability of a Cashew Nut-Based Beverage Varying in Mango Juice and Sugar: A Pilot Study
Beverages 2016, 2(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages2030023 - 20 Sep 2016
Viewed by 1919
Abstract
The development of a lactose-free beverage comes as a new feeding alternative to a product with excellent nutritional and functional characteristics to individuals with food restrictions related to milk. Thus, this study aimed to develop a cashew nut beverage with added mango juice [...] Read more.
The development of a lactose-free beverage comes as a new feeding alternative to a product with excellent nutritional and functional characteristics to individuals with food restrictions related to milk. Thus, this study aimed to develop a cashew nut beverage with added mango juice and prebiotic substances by means of evaluating its sensory characteristics and physicochemical optimization. A 22 central composite rotatable design with five repetitions at the central point was applied to evaluate the effect of sugar and juice contents on the analyzed parameters. Data were evaluated by means of the response surface methodology, analysis of variance, and the means comparison test. Formulations with greater combined concentrations of juice and sugar obtained satisfactory acceptance. The means comparison test showed that the formulation that allows for the beverage’s greatest acceptance must contain 40% mango juice and 8% sugar. Soluble solids content was influenced only by the addition of sugar, where the formulations that presented greater solids concentration were the ones which obtained greater sensory acceptance. The beverage’s acidity was influenced only by the juice content, which, besides making formulations significantly more acid, did not affect their acceptance. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Fruit Juice Production Using Ultraviolet Pasteurization: A Review
Beverages 2016, 2(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages2030022 - 05 Aug 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2841
Abstract
Ultraviolet (UV-C at 253.7 nm) technology has been the go-to alternative pasteurization and shelf-life extension treatment for beverages for the last two decades. It has been the focal point of non-thermal methods for fruit juice processing and has been studied extensively. UV-C technology [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet (UV-C at 253.7 nm) technology has been the go-to alternative pasteurization and shelf-life extension treatment for beverages for the last two decades. It has been the focal point of non-thermal methods for fruit juice processing and has been studied extensively. UV-C technology has been proven to produce microbiologically safe products with minimal negative impact towards quality of the products. However, due to the physicochemical characteristics of fruit juice, application of UV-C does have certain limitations and thus, there is a need to further study the effects of UV-C-treatment and equipment design. Critical decisions on the type of fruit product, juice color, juice composition, and juice physical characteristics, among other variables, are imperative to produce a safe and wholesome juice. Therefore, this paper serves as a source for development of UV-C technology for pasteurization and shelf-life extension of fruit juice to successfully obtain a final product with minimal changes of its nutritional component without neglecting the microbial safety. It reviews previous literatures involving ultraviolet-treated fruit juices, ranging from popular apple and orange juice to lesser-known pummelo and pitaya juice. The review also covers the aspect of microbiological and chemical safety, quality, and sensory characteristics as well as hurdle technology involving UV-C as the main method and the market potential with its cost implication of UV-C technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technology in Beverage Processing)
Open AccessArticle
Brewing Technique of Mbege, a Banana Beer Produced in Northeastern Tanzania
Beverages 2016, 2(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages2030021 - 03 Aug 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2532
Abstract
Mbege is a beer made of banana (Musa spp.) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana). It is the most popular indigenous alcoholic beverage in northeastern Tanzania, and plays an important role in the economy of the region. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Mbege is a beer made of banana (Musa spp.) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana). It is the most popular indigenous alcoholic beverage in northeastern Tanzania, and plays an important role in the economy of the region. In this study, we observed and recorded a detailed traditional technique for brewing mbege. We observed that mbege production was divided into three major steps: nyalu preparation, mso preparation, and mixing. Fermented porridge made of ripened banana, called nyalu, was used as a source of yeasts. As a source of fermentable sugars, a sweet porridge made of germinated finger millet called mso was used. In mso preparation, a brewing technique to enhance the effectiveness of saccharification was used. After the preparation, these two types of porridge were mixed. The ethanol concentration of the mixture increased when it was fermented for 6 h, and it then became mbege. It was supposed that yeasts in the nyalu converted fermentable sugars in the mso into ethanol. We found that the brewing technique used in the production of mbege in northeast Tanzania was similar to that used in southern Tanzania. We also demonstrated that the stem bark of Rauvolfia caffra, which was called msesewe and used as an additive in mbege production, accelerated the fermentation of nyalu and therefore increased the rate of ethanol production in the brewing of mbege. This result was consistent with the traditional knowledge in the field about the effect of msesewe on mbege production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Beverages)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Microbial Glycosidases for Wine Production
Beverages 2016, 2(3), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages2030020 - 02 Aug 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2107
Abstract
Winemaking is a complex process involving the interaction of different microbes. The two main groups of microorganisms involved are yeasts and bacteria. The yeasts present in spontaneous fermentation may be divided into two groups: the Saccharomyces yeasts, particularly S. cerevisiae; and the [...] Read more.
Winemaking is a complex process involving the interaction of different microbes. The two main groups of microorganisms involved are yeasts and bacteria. The yeasts present in spontaneous fermentation may be divided into two groups: the Saccharomyces yeasts, particularly S. cerevisiae; and the non-Saccharomyces yeasts, which include members of the genera Rhodotorula, Pichia, Candida, Debaryomyces, Metschtnikowia, Hansenula, and Hanseniaspora. S. cerevisiae yeasts are able to convert sugar into ethanol and CO2 via fermentation. They have been used by humans for thousands of years for the production of fermented beverages and foods, including wine. Their enzymes provide interesting organoleptic characteristics in wine. Glycosidases with oenological implications have been widely reported in yeasts, bacteria, and fungi. β-Glucosidase activity is involved in the release of terpenes to wine, thus contributing to varietal aroma. α-Rhamnosidase, α-arabinosidase, or β-apiosidase activities have also been reported to contribute to the wine production process. Oenococcus oeni (a lactic acid bacteria present in wine) also has numerous glycosidases, and their activities contribute to the liberation of several aromatic compounds which contribute to floral and fruity wine characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Beverages)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Understanding Consumer Preferences for Australian Sparkling Wine vs. French Champagne
Beverages 2016, 2(3), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages2030019 - 26 Jul 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2383
Abstract
Sparkling wine represents a small but significant proportion of the Australian wine industry’s total production. Yet, Australia remains a significant importer of French Champagne. This study investigated consumer preferences for Australian sparkling wine vs. French Champagne and any compositional and/or sensorial bases for [...] Read more.
Sparkling wine represents a small but significant proportion of the Australian wine industry’s total production. Yet, Australia remains a significant importer of French Champagne. This study investigated consumer preferences for Australian sparkling wine vs. French Champagne and any compositional and/or sensorial bases for these preferences. A range of French and Australian sparkling wines were analyzed by MIR spectroscopy to determine if sparkling wines could be differentiated according to country of origin. A subset of wines, comprising two French Champagnes, a French sparkling wine and three Australian sparkling wines, were selected for (i) descriptive analysis to characterize their sensory profiles and (ii) acceptance tests to determine consumer liking (n = 95 Australian wine consumers). Significant differences were observed between liking scores; on average, the $70 French Champagne was liked least and the $12 Australian sparkling wine liked most, but segmentation (based on individual liking scores) identified clusters comprising consumers with distinct wine preferences. Interestingly, when consumers were shown wine bottle labels, they considered French wines to be more expensive than Australian wines, demonstrating a clear country of origin influence. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Phenolic Composition and Color of Single Cultivar Young Red Wines Made with Mencia and Alicante-Bouschet Grapes in AOC Valdeorras (Galicia, NW Spain)
Beverages 2016, 2(3), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages2030018 - 25 Jul 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1944
Abstract
Single cultivar wines made with two different red grape cultivars from AOC Valdeorras (Galicia, NW Spain), Mencia and Alicante Bouschet, were studied with the aim of determining their color and phenolic composition. Two sets of analyses were made on 30 wine samples of [...] Read more.
Single cultivar wines made with two different red grape cultivars from AOC Valdeorras (Galicia, NW Spain), Mencia and Alicante Bouschet, were studied with the aim of determining their color and phenolic composition. Two sets of analyses were made on 30 wine samples of 2014 vintage, after malolactic fermentation took place, to evaluate several physicochemical characteristics from these wines related to color and polyphenols. Several parameters related with color and the general phenolic composition of wines (total phenols index, color intensity, hue, total anthocyans, total anthocyanins, colored anthocyanins, chemical age index, and total tannins) were determined by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Those analyses revealed that Alicante Bouschet wines presented, in general, a higher content of polyphenols and a more intense color than Mencia wines. Using HPLC-DAD, five anthocyanin monoglucosides and nine acylated anthocyanins were identified in both types of wine; each type of wine showed a distinctive anthocyanin fingerprint, as Alicante Bouschet wines contained a higher proportion of cyanidin-derived anthocyanins. Multivariate statistic studies were performed to both datasets to explore relationships among variables and among samples. These studies revealed relationships among several variables considered, and were capable to group the samples in two different classes using principal component analysis (PCA). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Beverages)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Influence of Steep Time on Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Black, Green, Rooibos, and Herbal Teas
Beverages 2016, 2(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages2030017 - 01 Jul 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3203
Abstract
Potential health benefits of tea consumption are often attributed to the antioxidant activity of polyphenols. Whether steep time, often variable in a real-life situation, makes a biological difference in terms of polyphenol content and antioxidant activity is uncertain. The study objective was to [...] Read more.
Potential health benefits of tea consumption are often attributed to the antioxidant activity of polyphenols. Whether steep time, often variable in a real-life situation, makes a biological difference in terms of polyphenol content and antioxidant activity is uncertain. The study objective was to characterize eight popular and commercially available teas for total polyphenol content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity in relation to steep time. Dragonwell (DW), Sencha (S), English Breakfast (EB), Golden Monkey (GM), Green Rooibos (GR), Red Rooibos (RR), Chamomile (C), and Peppermint (P) loose leaf teas were individually steeped in water for 1–10 min at 1 min intervals. TPC increased with longer durations of steep time; however, the majority of polyphenols observed after 10 minutes were extracted in the first 5 min regardless of tea type. After 5 min of steeping, differences (p < 0.05) in TPC were observed across teas (JS~EB~P > DW > GM~GR~RR > C). Different teas also varied in their ability to inhibit the free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) when normalized for polyphenol concentration (1 µg/mL) and there was no effect due to steep time. Predicted antioxidant capacity of teas also demonstrated significant differences among teas after 5 and 10 min. In conclusion, steep time modulates TPC but not the antioxidative capacity of tea polyphenols. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop