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Article

Lifetime Cadmium Exposure and Mortality for Renal Diseases in Residents of the Cadmium-Polluted Kakehashi River Basin in Japan

1
Department of Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan
2
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chuoku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan
3
Department of Community Health Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0942, Japan
4
Department of Social and Environmental Medicine, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxics 2020, 8(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040081
Received: 29 August 2020 / Revised: 24 September 2020 / Accepted: 25 September 2020 / Published: 1 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxic Metals, Chronic Diseases and Related Cancers)
Very few studies have investigated the dose–response relationship between external cadmium (Cd) exposure and mortality. We aim to investigate the relationship between lifetime Cd intake (LCd) and mortality in the Cd-polluted Kakehashi River basin in Japan. Mortality risk ratios for a unit of increase of LCd and urinary Cd were analyzed using Cox’s proportional model. LCd was estimated based on residency and Cd in rice produced in their living areas. In men, mortality for all causes was significantly increased for a 10-μg/g Cr increase in urinary Cd, but not for a 1-g increase in LCd. In women, mortality risks for all causes and renal diseases, particularly renal failure, were significantly increased for a 10-μg/g Cr increase in urinary Cd. Similarly, mortality risks for renal diseases and renal failure were significantly increased for a 1-g increase of LCd in women. Comparing the contribution of two exposure markers to increased mortality in women, LCd was more effective for increasing mortality risks for renal diseases and renal failure, while urinary Cd contributed more to increased mortality risk for all causes. LCd may show a better dose–response relationship with mortality risk for renal diseases in women. View Full-Text
Keywords: cadmium; mortality; lifetime cadmium intake; renal diseases; urinary cadmium; a follow-up study cadmium; mortality; lifetime cadmium intake; renal diseases; urinary cadmium; a follow-up study
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nishijo, M.; Nogawa, K.; Suwazono, Y.; Kido, T.; Sakurai, M.; Nakagawa, H. Lifetime Cadmium Exposure and Mortality for Renal Diseases in Residents of the Cadmium-Polluted Kakehashi River Basin in Japan. Toxics 2020, 8, 81. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040081

AMA Style

Nishijo M, Nogawa K, Suwazono Y, Kido T, Sakurai M, Nakagawa H. Lifetime Cadmium Exposure and Mortality for Renal Diseases in Residents of the Cadmium-Polluted Kakehashi River Basin in Japan. Toxics. 2020; 8(4):81. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040081

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nishijo, Muneko, Kazuhiro Nogawa, Yasushi Suwazono, Teruhiko Kido, Masaru Sakurai, and Hideaki Nakagawa. 2020. "Lifetime Cadmium Exposure and Mortality for Renal Diseases in Residents of the Cadmium-Polluted Kakehashi River Basin in Japan" Toxics 8, no. 4: 81. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040081

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