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Article

Longitudinal Study of Thyroid Hormones between Conventional and Organic Farmers in Thailand

1
Department of Occupational Health and Safety, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, 420/1 Rajvidhi Road, Phayathai, Rajthavee, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
2
Center of Excellence on Environmental Health and Toxicology, EHT, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
3
Mahidol University, Nakhonsawan Campus, Nakhon Sawan 60130, Thailand
4
Department of Medical Technology and Clinical Pathology, Buddhachinaraj Phitsanulok Hospital, 90 Sithamma Traipidok Road, Muang, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
5
Department of Public Health, University of Massachusetts Lowell, One University Ave, Lowell, MA 01854-2867, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxics 2020, 8(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040082
Received: 7 September 2020 / Revised: 28 September 2020 / Accepted: 2 October 2020 / Published: 5 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Exposures Contributing to Thyroid Cancer Risk)
Many pesticides are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that can interfere with hormone levels. This study aimed to assess the longitudinal impact of exposure to pesticides on thyroid hormone levels, including Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Free Triiodothyronine (FT3), Free Thyroxine (FT4), Triiodothyronine (T3), and Thyroxine (T4). Both conventional (i.e., pesticide using) and organic farmers were interviewed using questionnaires, and blood samples were collected at 7–9 a.m. to determine thyroid hormone levels for four rounds, with a duration of eight months between each round. A linear mixed model of the natural log of the individual hormone levels used random intercepts for subjects while controlling gender, baseline age, and body mass index (BMI) was used to compare between conventional and organic farmers or the impact of cumulative days of spraying insecticides, herbicides or fungicides. The estimated marginal means of the thyroid hormone levels (TSH, FT3, T3, and T4) estimated from the linear mixed models were significantly higher among the conventional farmers than organic farmers. As cumulative spray days of insecticide, herbicide or fungicide increased, TSH and FT3 increased significantly. FT4 decreased significantly as cumulative spray days of insecticide or fungicide increased. These findings suggest that the insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides sprayed by conventional farmers exert endocrine-disrupting activities, altering the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis homeostasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Thyroid hormones; conventional farmers; organic farmers; longitudinal study Thyroid hormones; conventional farmers; organic farmers; longitudinal study
MDPI and ACS Style

Nankongnab, N.; Kongtip, P.; Kallayanatham, N.; Pundee, R.; Yimsabai, J.; Woskie, S. Longitudinal Study of Thyroid Hormones between Conventional and Organic Farmers in Thailand. Toxics 2020, 8, 82. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040082

AMA Style

Nankongnab N, Kongtip P, Kallayanatham N, Pundee R, Yimsabai J, Woskie S. Longitudinal Study of Thyroid Hormones between Conventional and Organic Farmers in Thailand. Toxics. 2020; 8(4):82. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040082

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nankongnab, Noppanun, Pornpimol Kongtip, Nichcha Kallayanatham, Ritthirong Pundee, Jutharak Yimsabai, and Susan Woskie. 2020. "Longitudinal Study of Thyroid Hormones between Conventional and Organic Farmers in Thailand" Toxics 8, no. 4: 82. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040082

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