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Article

Protective Effects of Centella asiatica on Cognitive Deficits Induced by D-gal/AlCl3 via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Attenuation of Acetylcholinesterase Level

1
Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, 600230 Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
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Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Kampus Puncak Alam, 42300 Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
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Department of Human Anatomy, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR), Bandar Sungai Long, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
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Atta-ur-Rahman Institute for Natural Product Discovery, Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Kampus Puncak Alam, 42300 Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
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Department of Human Anatomy, College of Medical Sciences, Gombe State University, 760211 Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxics 2019, 7(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020019
Received: 19 January 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 30 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity of Chemical Mixtures)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with cholinergic dysfunctions and impaired redox homeostasis. The plant Centella asiatica (CA) is renowned for its nutritional benefits and herbal formulas for promoting health, enhancing cognition, and its neuroprotective effects. The present study aims to investigate the protective role of CA on D-gal/AlCl3-induced cognitive deficits in rats. The rats were divided into six groups and administered with donepezil 1 mg/kg/day, CA (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day) and D-gal 60 mg/kg/day + AlCl3 200 mg/kg/day for 10 weeks. The ethology of the rats was evaluated by the Morris water maze test. The levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), phosphorylated tau (P-tau), malondialdehyde (MDA) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Additionally, the ultrastructure of the prefrontal cortex of the rats’ was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Rats administered with D-gal/AlCl3 exhibited cognitive deficits, decreased activities of SOD, and marked increase in AChE and MDA levels. Further, prominent alterations in the ultrastructure of the prefrontal cortex were observed. Conversely, co-administration of CA with D-gal/AlCl3 improved cognitive impairment, decreased AChE levels, attenuated the oxidative stress in hippocampus and cerebral cortex, and prevented ultrastructural alteration of neurons in the prefrontal cortex. Irrespective of the dose of CA administered, the protective effects were comparable to donepezil. In conclusion, this study suggests that CA attenuated the cognitive deficits in rats by restoring cholinergic function, attenuating oxidative stress, and preventing the morphological aberrations. View Full-Text
Keywords: Centella asiatica; cognitive deficit; Alzheimer’s disease; morphological aberration; acetylcholinesterase; oxidative stress Centella asiatica; cognitive deficit; Alzheimer’s disease; morphological aberration; acetylcholinesterase; oxidative stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chiroma, S.M.; Baharuldin, M.T.H.; Mat Taib, C.N.; Amom, Z.; Jagadeesan, S.; Ilham Adenan, M.; Mahdi, O.; Moklas, M.A.M. Protective Effects of Centella asiatica on Cognitive Deficits Induced by D-gal/AlCl3 via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Attenuation of Acetylcholinesterase Level. Toxics 2019, 7, 19. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020019

AMA Style

Chiroma SM, Baharuldin MTH, Mat Taib CN, Amom Z, Jagadeesan S, Ilham Adenan M, Mahdi O, Moklas MAM. Protective Effects of Centella asiatica on Cognitive Deficits Induced by D-gal/AlCl3 via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Attenuation of Acetylcholinesterase Level. Toxics. 2019; 7(2):19. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020019

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chiroma, Samaila M., Mohamad T.H. Baharuldin, Che N. Mat Taib, Zulkhairi Amom, Saravanan Jagadeesan, Mohd Ilham Adenan, Onesimus Mahdi, and Mohamad A.M. Moklas. 2019. "Protective Effects of Centella asiatica on Cognitive Deficits Induced by D-gal/AlCl3 via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Attenuation of Acetylcholinesterase Level" Toxics 7, no. 2: 19. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics7020019

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