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Open AccessArticle

Does Fermentation Really Increase the Phenolic Content in Cereals? A Study on Millet

1
Department of NEUROFARBA, Nutraceutical section, University of Florence, Via Ugo Schiff 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
2
Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology, National Council of Research, CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa, Italy
3
Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences “Mario Serio”, University of Florence, Viale Morgagni 50, 50134 Firenze, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(3), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030303
Received: 5 February 2020 / Revised: 2 March 2020 / Accepted: 4 March 2020 / Published: 7 March 2020
Millet is underutilized in Europe, despite its advantages compared to other common cereals. In Asia and Africa, millet is mainly eaten in fermented form; its consumption has beneficial properties on human health. Three millet batches were compared in terms of free and bound phenols by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS). The richest one in terms of bound phenols was selected for testing via a basic (0.1 M NaOH) and an acidic (1.2 M H2SO4) hydrolysis, in which 149.3 and 193.6 mg/100 g of phenols were recovered, respectively. The ability of fermentation, with yeast and Lactobacilli, to increase the content of phenolic compounds was verified. Five withdrawalswere performed to verify the influence of fermentation time on the total phenolic content. The greatest phenolic content was observed after 72 h. Fermentation increased the cinnamic acids and flavonoids contents by approximately 30%. Vitexin and vitexin 2″-O-rhamnoside contents were significantly higher in the fermented millet; these compounds partially inhibit the protein tyrosine phosphatase enzyme, which is overexpressed in type-2 diabetes. A molecular dynamic simulation showed the two flavonoids to be allosteric inhibitors. The phenolic extract from fermented millet demonstrated a higher level of antioxidant protection on human erythrocytes by ex vivo cellular antioxidant activity in red blood cells. In this context, functional foods based on fermented millet could represent a new trend in European markets. View Full-Text
Keywords: fermented millet; Lactobacilli; flavonoids; cinnamic acids; PTP1B enzyme; molecular dynamic fermented millet; Lactobacilli; flavonoids; cinnamic acids; PTP1B enzyme; molecular dynamic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Balli, D.; Bellumori, M.; Pucci, L.; Gabriele, M.; Longo, V.; Paoli, P.; Melani, F.; Mulinacci, N.; Innocenti, M. Does Fermentation Really Increase the Phenolic Content in Cereals? A Study on Millet. Foods 2020, 9, 303. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030303

AMA Style

Balli D, Bellumori M, Pucci L, Gabriele M, Longo V, Paoli P, Melani F, Mulinacci N, Innocenti M. Does Fermentation Really Increase the Phenolic Content in Cereals? A Study on Millet. Foods. 2020; 9(3):303. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030303

Chicago/Turabian Style

Balli, Diletta; Bellumori, Maria; Pucci, Laura; Gabriele, Morena; Longo, Vincenzo; Paoli, Paolo; Melani, Fabrizio; Mulinacci, Nadia; Innocenti, Marzia. 2020. "Does Fermentation Really Increase the Phenolic Content in Cereals? A Study on Millet" Foods 9, no. 3: 303. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030303

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