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Article

Gathered Wild Food Plants among Diverse Religious Groups in Jhelum District, Punjab, Pakistan

1
Department of Botany, Hafiz Hayat Campus, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Punjab 50700, Pakistan
2
University of Gastronomic Sciences, Piazza Vittorio Emanuele II 9, 12042 Pollenzo/Bra (Cuneo), Italy
3
Department of Medical Analysis, Tishk International University, Erbil 4401, Iraq
4
Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Via Torino 155, 30172 Mestre, Italy
5
Department of Ethnobotany, Institute of Botany, Ilia State University, Tbilisi 0162, Georgia
6
Department of Botany, Govt. Hashmat Ali Islamia Degree College Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi 46000, Pakistan
7
Department of Botany, Sargodha Campus, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of Lahore, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan
8
Department of Botany, Women University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Bagh 12500, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2021, 10(3), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030594
Submission received: 5 February 2021 / Revised: 22 February 2021 / Accepted: 4 March 2021 / Published: 11 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ethnobiology of Wild Foods)

Abstract

:
Recent ethnobotanical studies have raised the hypothesis that religious affiliation can, in certain circumstances, influence the evolution of the use of wild food plants, given that it shapes kinship relations and vertical transmission of traditional/local environmental knowledge. The local population living in Jhelum District, Punjab, Pakistan comprises very diverse religious and linguistic groups. A field study about the uses of wild food plants was conducted in the district. This field survey included 120 semi-structured interviews in 27 villages, focusing on six religious groups (Sunni and Shia Muslims, Christians, Hindus, Sikhs, and Ahmadis). We documented a total of 77 wild food plants and one mushroom species which were used by the local population mainly as cooked vegetables and raw snacks. The cross-religious comparison among six groups showed a high homogeneity of use among two Muslim groups (Shias and Sunnis), while the other four religious groups showed less extensive, yet diverse uses, staying within the variety of taxa used by Islamic groups. No specific plant cultural markers (i.e., plants gathered only by one community) could be identified, although there were a limited number of group-specific uses of the shared plants. Moreover, the field study showed erosion of the knowledge among the non-Muslim groups, which were more engaged in urban occupations and possibly underwent stronger cultural adaption to a modern lifestyle. The recorded traditional knowledge could be used to guide future development programs aimed at fostering food security and the valorization of the local bio-cultural heritage.

1. Introduction

Wild food plants have remained an important ingredient of traditional food basket systems especially in remote communities around the globe [1]. However, due to dramatic socio-cultural shifts local communities are facing and global climate change, dependence on wild food plants has drastically decreased in many areas. Food industrialization and globalization have severely impacted traditional food systems, especially in rural communities [2]. Consequently, traditional/local environmental knowledge (TEK) linked to wild food plants is becoming more and more endangered, and in some places of the world, it has already disappeared [3]. In recent decades, scientists have recorded several complex TEK systems associated to wild food plants, especially in marginalized areas. However, very few ethnobotanical field studies have focused on the cross-cultural and cross-regional comparison of TEK associated to wild food plants, despite the fact that cultural diversity shapes TEK [4,5,6,7,8,9].
In many regions of the world, inhabitants of rural areas depend on wild plants as food [10] and a large number of wild plant species occurring in a great variety of habitats are consumed [11,12]. Recent works have addressed the role that religious affiliation may play in shaping folk wild food plant uses and cuisines, since this factor shapes in many areas of the world kinship relations and the vertical transmission of plant and gastronomic knowledge [13,14,15]. However, all over the world wild plants have been more frequently consumed in the past [10]. There are over 20,000 species of wild edible plants in the world, yet fewer than 20 cultivated species now provide 90% of our main staples [16].
The collection and culinary use of wild plants for food are part of the bio-cultural heritage of local communities and therefore can foster their future sustainability [17,18]. During the last decades, a large number of publications have documented the ethnobotany of wild food plants, but only sporadically scholars have tried to articulate the evaluation of socio-cultural and economic factors possibly influencing foraging [19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32]; simultaneously, research on specific domains of the plant foodscape, such as that of fermentation of local plants (sometimes wild) is exponentially growing [33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45].
Pakistan comprises remarkable natural resources, and a large variety of religious faiths and linguistic communities using a wide range of wild food plants [46]. Many rural communities in Pakistan live closely attached to their natural resources [47] and wild food plants are often consumed for food [48]. A few comparative studies have very recently addressed the cross-cultural dimension of wild food plants gathering and use in Pakistan, and highlighted the role of diverse linguistic and religious groups [49,50,51].
In order to further evaluate this trajectory, the current study focused on six religious groups (Sunni and Shia Muslims, Christians, Hindus, Sikhs, and Ahmadis—also named Qadiani in official Pakistani documents, despite this term is considered sometime derogatory by the community), speaking eleven different languages (Urdu, Punjabi, Phtohari, Gojri, Pahari, Hindko, Saraiki, Sindhi, Pashto, Kashmiri, and Hindi) in Jhelum District, Punjab, NE Pakistan.
The main aim of our research was to record local knowledge related to wild food plants and also to provide baseline documentation to help local stakeholders revitalizing their food traditions. We particularly explored the impact of religious and linguistic affiliation on the gathering, utilization and consumption of wild food plants in 27 villages in Jhelum district, Punjab, Pakistan, hypothesizing that there could be some differences between different faiths.
The specific research objectives of this study were:
  • to explore and record the diversity of wild food plants gathered in Jhelum,
  • to evaluate the local food and possible traditional perceptions,
  • to compare the mentioned wild food plants among the six selected religious faith groups in order to possibly understand cross-cultural similarities and differences and to better understand the cultural context supporting the use of wild food plants found in Jhelum district.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Study Area

The study area of Jhelum district is located North of the river Jhelum and is bordered by Rawalpindi district in the North, Sargodha and Gujrat districts in the South, Azad Jammu and Kashmir in the East, and Chakwal district in the West [52,53]. The population of the district is 1.22 million, and 71% of the population lives in rural areas, while the remaining 29% are urban [54]. The climatic conditions are semi-arid, warm-subtropical, characterized by warm summers and severe winters. Jhelum is a semi-mountainous area (Figure 1), with a mean annual rainfall of 880 mm. The annual average temperature reaches 23.6 °C. Jhelum is home to the world’s second largest salt mine (Khewra) covering about 1000 ha [53,55]. The people of Jhelum have a diverse culture with distinct modes of life, traditions, and beliefs [56]. The ethnic groups of the area show a strong connection to wild plants which often have cultural and medicinal significance [57].
The study was conducted in 27 remote villages (Figure 2), all of which contained rivers, mountains, forests, salt mines, and valleys. Some typical and important attributes including landscapes, vegetation, geology and soil, and rangeland are shown in Figure 1.

2.2. Field Study

The ethnobotanical field research was conducted from March to November 2020. Study participants were selected through snowball sampling focusing on middle-aged and elderly inhabitants (range: 40–90 years old), especially farmers, herders, and housewives. Selected interviewees belonged to different religious faiths and different language groups. Twenty participants (men and women) from each religious group were selected and participated in the survey. The characteristics of the study participants from the 27 visited villages and their different socio-cultural and economic attributes are reported in Table 1.
Prior to starting an interview, oral informed consent was obtained, and the Code of Ethics of the International Society of Ethnobiology [58] was followed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in the national language, Urdu, and some local languages (Punjabi, Saraiki, Pothohari, Gojri, Hinko, Pahari, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Hindi) with the help of translators. The information collected focused on the gathering and consumption patterns of wild plants as cooked vegetables, raw snacks, salads, herbal drinks, recreational herbal teas, jams, and for fermentation following Kujawska and Łuczaj [59]. Particular questions were focused on the use of wild plants in daily food habits or in food fermentation, and the consumption of edible wild food plants [49]. Local names of collected taxa were recorded in eleven different local languages.
During the interviews qualitative ethnographic data was documented following Termote et al. [60]. The recorded wild food plants were collected from the study area and were identified using the Flora of Pakistan [61,62,63]. After correct identification, each taxon was given a voucher specimen number and deposited in the Herbarium of the Department of Botany, University of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan. For nomenclature, the Plant List database [64] was followed for plants, and the Index Fungorum [65] for the single recorded mushroom taxon. The plant family nomenclature follows the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group [66].

2.3. Data Analysis

The documented data was stored in two main binary data spreadsheets (1. Species gathered for any use; 2. Species gathered for specific use) across the six local religious communities and compared through Venn diagrams and pairwise Jaccard’s dissimilarity using the R Statistical Package [67,68,69].
The Jaccard Index (JI) was calculated as:
J(X, Y) = |X∩Y|/|X∪Y|
X = Individual set of plant usages documented by group X
Y = Individual set of plant usages documented by group Y
By using JI, Jaccard’s distance (JD) was calculated as:
D(X,Y) = 1 − J(X,Y)
Moreover, a qualitative comparison with other studies on wild food plants carried out in Pakistan [49,50,51,52,70,71,72] was conducted.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Reported Wild Food Plants and Their Uses

A total of seventy-eight taxa (77 vascular plants and one mushroom) were gathered and consumed in different ways in the study area (Table 2). The most commonly used wild food plant species were native, with the exception of Agave americana, Amaranthus spinosus, Sonchus oleraceus, Tephrosia purpurea, Trigonella corniculata, Salvia moorcroftiana, Salvia nubicola, Solanum incanum, Chenopodium album, and Portulaca quadrifida, which were grown as herbs or grew wild as weeds in anthropogenically disturbed locations. A total of nine different typologies of food preparations were identified: chutneys (a family of spicy condiments and sauces prototypical of South Asian cuisines); cooked vegetables; fermented preparations; herbal drinks (plant material infused in cold water); herbal teas (plant material infused in hot water); jams; raw snacks (consumed singly, mostly in the field at the collection site); salads (raw plants consumed at the dining table as a starter and/or in conjunction with other food items); and seasoning/spices.
The most commonly quoted wild food plants and the typologies of their food preparations are reported in Figure 3.
The most important site for the gathering of wild food plants were grasslands, found sometimes at high elevations, where people normally bring animals for grazing. Summer herders were the most knowledgeable ethnobotanical informants and this show the importance of the link between resilience of wild food plant knowledge and the survival of pastoralist activities. However, the transmission of ethnobotanical practices from elders to the younger generation is continuously decreasing due to the generation gap and fast changing lifestyle. With the modernization of life, the younger generation is moving towards cities for education and business opportunities, which is one of the major reasons for the decline of TEK described in many ethnobotanical studies.
Some important wild food plants (Figure 4) and dishes prepared by the visited communities were available for photographing (Figure 5). Traditional culinary processing included cooking the plants as vegetables (43 mentions), followed by raw snacks (33), confirming what documented in other ethnobotanical studies too [73,74,75]. Raw snacks were eaten especially by transhumant herders, and it has been shown that herding develops specific linkages between humans and their surrounding ecosystem [76,77,78,79]. Herding is also linked to the use of particular types of wild food plants: for example, in Iraq and Kurdistan shepherds consumed more raw snacks than nearby horticulturists [9,76]. Moreover, pastures have been documented as very important gathering habitats of wild food plants [80,81].
Leaves were the most used plant part (38 times used), especially in salads, herbal teas, herbal drinks, as raw snacks, in chutneys, and as cooked vegetables. One third of the reported plants (27 taxa) were only gathered during the spring season.
It was noted that sweet fruits in particular were consumed as raw snacks especially by local communities with a herding lifestyle. Thirty wild food plants were consumed as raw snacks by all religious faith groups, especially Capparis decidua, Caragana ambigua, Cucumis melo, Lathyrus aphaca, Lathyrus sativus, Phoenix sylvestris, Salvadora persica, Solanum americanum, Solanum incanum, Solanum villosum, Ziziphus jujube, Ziziphus nummularia, Ziziphus oxyphylla, and Ziziphus spina-christi, many also earlier reported by Sõukand and Kalle [82]. Although Solanum americanum was recognized as containing toxic alkaloids [83], especially in its fruit [84], informants used fruits as raw snacks without reporting any toxic effects. Similarly, some other important food preparations in the study area were herbal drinks, salads and chutney (Figure 5).
On a global scale, it has been found that folk knowledge has been decreasing, mostly due to modern lifestyle changes and urbanization [50,71,85,86,87,88,89,90]. Gathering wild food plants is linked to local biodiversity and especially local cultural practices [91] and in our field study wild plant knowledge among younger informants was limited, similar to what was found in many other studies, for example, Kalle and Sõukand [92].

3.2. Cross-Religious Comparison

Cross-religious comparison of the used wild food plants (Figure 6) shows a remarkable homogeneity and the absence of any plant cultural markers (i.e., plants used by one group only); at the same time, however, not a single taxa is used by all the six considered groups and the majority of recorded wild food plants are used by three to four groups.
However, the Jaccard’s distance heat map (Figure 7) shows high dissimilarity between some groups. While both Muslim groups, Shias and Sunnis, appeared to be closest in their selection of the wild food plants, Hindus and Christians are the most distant.
The heat map (Figure 7) allows us to distinguish two easily comparable clusters within the six religious groups: a subgroup of Shias, Sunnis, and Sikhs, which used the highest number of plants (from 56 to 73) and a subgroup using far fewer taxa (Christians, Hindus, and Ahmadis (from 34 to 47). Bearing in mind that Shias and Sunnis together used all 78 listed taxa, there is a clear pattern of dissimilarity among the second subgroup (Figure 8).
Sunnis, using a slightly higher number of taxa than Shias, had more similarities with all the other groups. This could be due to the fact that the Sunni faith is the dominant one in the study area.
Figure 9 shows the comparison among the six groups in terms of specific food uses of the recorded wild food plants; the diagram shows a high diversity as well as a few specific cultural markers.
The similarity heat maps on the typology of wild plants food uses (Figure 10) demonstrates similar tendencies, outlining even greater differences between Christians and Ahmadis compared to Hindus, and also showing more divergences even among Sunnis and Shias. This suggests that there is a higher similarity in the used wild food plants than the way taxa are actually consumed in the study area; moreover, each considered group retains unique wild food plant utilizations.
While our results show remarkable social and cultural exchanges between the different religious groups (sharing the same repertoire of plants), we can also see clear differences among the ways local food plants are actually used. This may to be linked to the different exposure the diverse religious groups have to traditional rural lifestyles and to nature. Nowadays, only Shias, Sunnis and Ahmadis have for example retained traditional livelihood practices (farming), while the local community members belonging to the three other faiths (Christians, Hindus, and Sikhs) are partially employed in city jobs, and some of them even practice as professional herbalists. The different relationships to farming that shape the differences in wild food plants-centered TEK among the groups may also be due to diverse levels of land access and land ownership.
While members of the different religions in the study area generally do not intermarry, they very regularly interact in urban settings and this, over centuries, may have contributed to a homogenization of TEK and cultural adaptation to the dominant groups.
The study participants confirmed that the use of wild plant species as daily food has significantly decreased, as well as the use of wild food plants on special occasions and religious festivities. This may be due to the fact that study participants perceive nowadays foraging (collecting wild food plants) as very time consuming, while cultivated plants are relatively easy to purchase in the immediate vicinity, and especially in bulk if and when required on special occasions. These trends may further lead to rapid TEK erosion in the near future, and further ethnobotanical works documenting local uses of wild food plants could be crucial for the food security and the preservation of the bio-cultural heritage of rural communities [93,94].
Food taboos restricting the consumption of some plants and fruits under certain conditions have been described from many regions of the world, involving followers of various religions including Hindus [95]. Similarly, in this study, some Hindus participants reported that the fruits of Ziziphus oxyphylla and Ziziphus jujuba were gathered only in mountain areas, hilly slopes and scrubland in time of need as famine foods only. Hence, the Hindus, but others possibly as well, follow the specific rules in what they consume, especially like when pregnant or menstruating. Food taboos might influence the uses of certain wild plants with regard to seasons or a consumer’s health condition, gender or age [95]. The participants pointed out a few other idiosyncratic food uses of wild plants within specific groups as well; these uses mostly included medicinal foods, i.e., food preparations considered consumed for counteracting specific diseases or health conditions, or ritual uses linked to specific cultural beliefs. For example, the gum of Acacia modesta and Acacia nilotica is added in “halwa” (a local sweet prepared by using clarified butter and wheat bran), and recommended to women after childbirth to avoid general weakness and back pains among the Muslim participants. Similarly, Sikhs conveyed that a limited dosage (about 250–300 mL) of a herbal drink made with Cannabis sativa can induce activeness; the informants claimed that their ancestors use the same preparation during battles in the 19th and 20th century. The herbal tea prepared by using fruits of Tribulus terrestris is drunk by Hindu women in order to improve lactation. Finally, Muslims add leaves of Ziziphus jujuba and Ziziphus numularia in boiling water, and use them for bathing dead persons, as they perceive that would delay their decomposition until burial. The rest of documented wild edible plant species as food in this study may applicable to all gender, religion and age groups equally, and no associated food taboo is mentioned by any participant.

3.3. Comparison with the Pakistani Food Ethnobotanical Literature

The comprehensive comparison with the Pakistani wild food ethnobotanical literature [49,50,51,52,70,71,72] of Pakistan showed that a remarkable number of species were documented as wild food plants, for the first time, in the study regions: Acacia modesta, Acacia nilotica, Agave americana, Boerhavia repens, Capparis decidua, Chenopodium murale, Chenopodium vulvaria, Coprinus comatus, Corchorus depressus, Corchorus tridens, Cucumis melo, Dysphania ambrosioides, Fagonia indica, Gisekia pharnaceoides, Indigofera hochstetteri, Lathyrus sativus, Lepidium apetalum, Mentha arvensis, Mentha pulegium, Olea europaea, Phoenix sylvestris, Pistia stratiotes, Prosopis cineraria, Prosopis juliflora, Rhynchosia minima, Salvadora oleoides, Salvadora persica, Senna italica, Senna occidentalis, Solanum incanum, Tephrosia purpurea, Tribulus terrestris, Trigonella anguina, Trigonella corniculata, and Withania coagulans.
Despite the fact that in our study three quarters of the wild food plants were reported also in other areas of northern Pakistan [50,52], pairwise Jaccard’s distance between our findings and those arising from field studies recently conducted in various regions of Pakistan shows little similarity and a very large diversification of wild food plant uses within the country (Figure 11). This may be explained by the very diverse geography and natural environments, as well as a remarkable cultural diversity, which ultimately and most importantly affect the diversity of food customs of the country.
Based on a comprehensive literature review, we found that some wild food plant species recorded in the current study have rarely been documented as food ingredients elsewhere in Pakistan and its neighboring countries. These include Aerva javanica, Agave americana, Amaranthus spinosus, Boerhavia repens, Caragana ambigua, Commelina benghalensis, Convolvulus arvensis, Corchorus depressus, Corchorus tridens, Gisekia pharnaceoides, Indigofera hochstetteri, Lathyrus aphaca, Lepidium apetalum, Mentha royleana, Opuntia dillenii, Oxalis corniculata, Physalis divaricata, Pistia stratiotes, Polygonum plebeium, Rhynchosia minima, Trigonella anguina, Trigonella corniculata, and Veronica anagallis-aquatica.

4. Conclusions

Our study reported seventy-seven plant taxa and one mushroom used as cultural foods among six different religions. The cross-religious comparison showed high overlap in the used taxa between Shias and Sunnis, who together used all listed taxa in the study region and contributed the most detailed information about specific, commonly used wild food plants. Comparison of the other four religious groups showed much less overlap between the groups and greater variation in the numbers of used plants. Urban Hindus and Christians used the least number of plants, followed by rural Sikhs and urban Ahmadis. A comparative analysis with the wild food plant literature of Pakistan showed a high diversification of wild plant uses in the study region, due to both environmental and cultural factors. This study also concluded that there is relatively higher homogeneity in use of plant species as food compared to method (preparations) of use of the same among the religious groups. Therefore, if one religious group prepares herbal drink of a plant species, the other might prefer to prepare jam of the same, depicting possession of unique recipes.
The inherited cultural knowledge of wild food plants of Hindus, Sikhs, Christians, and Ahmadis, in particular, faces the greatest challenges, as these groups have apparently undergone cultural adaptation to an urban, “modern” lifestyle. The present study may provide a foundation for the promotion of eco-tourism and for supporting sustainable development programs. Several of the recorded wild food plants are still sold in local markets (e.g., Capparis, Mentha, Olea, Phoenix, Rhynchosia, Salvadora, Salvia, Senna, Solanum, Trigonella, Vicia, and Ziziphus spp.) and this could represent the basis of wild food plant-centered local projects, aiming to revitalize TEK and generate small-scale economies providing some cash-income for rural communities.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, M.S.A., A.P., and M.M.; methodology, A.P. and M.S.A.; validation, K.H.B. and S.K.C.; formal analysis, A.M.K. and R.S.; investigation, M.M.; resources, M.M., R.S., M.A.A., and A.P.; data curation, M.M.; writing—original draft preparation, M.M. and M.S.A.; writing—review and editing, A.M.K., R.W.B., A.P., and R.S.; supervision, M.S.A. and K.H.B. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Funding

This study has not been financially supported by any funding agency/organization.

Institutional Review Board Statement

The study was conducted according to the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki, and approved by the Institutional Review Board (or Ethics Committee) of Department of Botany, University of Gujrat, Pakistan (protocol code 2019-12A; date of approval Wednesday, 16 January 2019)

Informed Consent Statement

Prior informed consent was verbally obtained from all the study participants and Code of Ethics of the International Society of Ethnobiology (http://www.ethnobiology.net/what-we-do/core-programs/ise-ethics-program/code-of-ethics/, accessed on 6 March 2020) was strictly followed.

Data Availability Statement

The data presented in this study are available on request from the corresponding author. The data are not publicly available due to avoid any inter-controversies among the studied religious groups.

Acknowledgments

We are thankful to all the study participants who generously shared their traditional knowledge on wild food plant uses.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Figure 1. Diverse landscapes of Jhelum study area, NE Pakistan; (ad): landscape depicting leading plant species associations (indicator species: Acacia modesta, Acacia nilotica, Prosopis juliflora, Ziziphus numularia, Justicia adhatoda and Dodonea viscosa); (eg): exposed sedimentary bedrock stratification (age: Pre-Cambrian to Pliocene; composition: limestone, sandstone, shale, and dolomite) and sandy loam textured soil; (h): rangeland for livestock grazing.
Figure 1. Diverse landscapes of Jhelum study area, NE Pakistan; (ad): landscape depicting leading plant species associations (indicator species: Acacia modesta, Acacia nilotica, Prosopis juliflora, Ziziphus numularia, Justicia adhatoda and Dodonea viscosa); (eg): exposed sedimentary bedrock stratification (age: Pre-Cambrian to Pliocene; composition: limestone, sandstone, shale, and dolomite) and sandy loam textured soil; (h): rangeland for livestock grazing.
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Figure 2. The map of the study area displaying the studied sites/village locations.
Figure 2. The map of the study area displaying the studied sites/village locations.
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Figure 3. Most commonly used wild food plants and their uses.
Figure 3. Most commonly used wild food plants and their uses.
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Figure 4. Some examples of wild food plants of Jhelum district: (a) Solanum surattense; (b) Agave americana; (c) Solanum incanum; (d) Rumex dentatus; (e) Solanum americanum; (f) Tribulus terrestris; (g) Cucumis melo; (h) Acacia modesta; (i) Sonchus asper; (j) Fagonia indica; (k) Capparis decidua; (l) Ziziphus jujuba; (m) Oxalis corniculata; (n) Amaranthus spinosus; (o) Chenopodium murale; (p) Rhynchosia minima; (q) Opuntia dillenii; (r) Convolvulus arvensis; (s) Citrullus colocynthis; (t) Gisekia pharnaceoides; (u) Lathyrus sativus; (v) Withania coagulans; (w) Trigonella corniculata; (x) Phoenix sylvestris.
Figure 4. Some examples of wild food plants of Jhelum district: (a) Solanum surattense; (b) Agave americana; (c) Solanum incanum; (d) Rumex dentatus; (e) Solanum americanum; (f) Tribulus terrestris; (g) Cucumis melo; (h) Acacia modesta; (i) Sonchus asper; (j) Fagonia indica; (k) Capparis decidua; (l) Ziziphus jujuba; (m) Oxalis corniculata; (n) Amaranthus spinosus; (o) Chenopodium murale; (p) Rhynchosia minima; (q) Opuntia dillenii; (r) Convolvulus arvensis; (s) Citrullus colocynthis; (t) Gisekia pharnaceoides; (u) Lathyrus sativus; (v) Withania coagulans; (w) Trigonella corniculata; (x) Phoenix sylvestris.
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Figure 5. Traditional culinary uses of wild food plants by different linguistic and religious communities reported from the study area: (a) mixture of black pepper and Mentha royleana; (b) mixture of chilies and Mentha pulegium; (c) powdered Citrullus colocynthis; (d) powedered Mentha arvensis in yogurt; (e) bread made with rice flour with Opuntia dillenii pulp; (f) rice cooked with Amaranthus viridis seeds and Cucumis melo as salad; (g) herbal drink made with Cannabis sativa; (h) jam made by Prosopis cineraria fruits.
Figure 5. Traditional culinary uses of wild food plants by different linguistic and religious communities reported from the study area: (a) mixture of black pepper and Mentha royleana; (b) mixture of chilies and Mentha pulegium; (c) powdered Citrullus colocynthis; (d) powedered Mentha arvensis in yogurt; (e) bread made with rice flour with Opuntia dillenii pulp; (f) rice cooked with Amaranthus viridis seeds and Cucumis melo as salad; (g) herbal drink made with Cannabis sativa; (h) jam made by Prosopis cineraria fruits.
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Figure 6. Venn diagram showing the overlaps of the recorded wild food plants among the six considered groups.
Figure 6. Venn diagram showing the overlaps of the recorded wild food plants among the six considered groups.
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Figure 7. Hierarchical clustering tree coupled with heat map depicting Jaccard Dissimilarity Indices calculated by comparing the wild food plants quoted by the six considered groups.
Figure 7. Hierarchical clustering tree coupled with heat map depicting Jaccard Dissimilarity Indices calculated by comparing the wild food plants quoted by the six considered groups.
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Figure 8. Intuitive best fit Venn diagrams comparing the recorded wild food plants among the six religious groups divided into two clusters.
Figure 8. Intuitive best fit Venn diagrams comparing the recorded wild food plants among the six religious groups divided into two clusters.
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Figure 9. Venn diagram showing the number of overlaps of the recorded wild food plant uses among the studied religious groups; the diagram shows also the food uses uniquely recorded within each group.
Figure 9. Venn diagram showing the number of overlaps of the recorded wild food plant uses among the studied religious groups; the diagram shows also the food uses uniquely recorded within each group.
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Figure 10. Hierarchical clustering tree coupled with heat map depicting Jaccard Dissimilarity Indices calculated by comparing the actual food utilizations of the recorded wild food plants among the six considered groups.
Figure 10. Hierarchical clustering tree coupled with heat map depicting Jaccard Dissimilarity Indices calculated by comparing the actual food utilizations of the recorded wild food plants among the six considered groups.
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Figure 11. Pairwise Jaccard Dissimilarity Indices calculated by comparing the current study with other wild food ethnobotanical field works previously conducted in Pakistan.
Figure 11. Pairwise Jaccard Dissimilarity Indices calculated by comparing the current study with other wild food ethnobotanical field works previously conducted in Pakistan.
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Table 1. Characteristics of the study participants.
Table 1. Characteristics of the study participants.
Religious GroupSunnisShiasHindusSikhsChristiansAhmadis
Brief historical sketchIslam arrived in the 8th century, the majority converted to Sunni Islam during in the 11th–16th centuries; minor fractions migrated from Middle Eastern and African countriesThe majority converted to Shia Islam during the 16th–18th centuries; minor fractions migrated from the Middle EastAutochthonousConverted around the 15th centuryEmerged with British colonialism in the 18th and 19th centuriesConverted in the 19th century
Approx. number of inhabitants in Jhelum District, Pakistan (2020)1.01 million0.21 million2000500070006000
Study villagesDhoke Padhal, Dharyala,
Chakoha, Mohal, Natain, Zinda Shah Madar, Surghdan,
Chak Jamal, Kundal, Pindori, Nathot
Chak Akka, Nathwala,
Nakodar,
Pari Darweza
Dhaniala, Nougran,
Adranah
Nagial, Kot Umar,
Dharyala Jalap
Naka Kalan,
Rajipur,
Kharala,
Wara Phophra, Langer Pur
Spoken languagesPothwari, Kashmiri, PashtoSaraiki, Pahari, PothwariHindku, Hindi, SindhiPunjabi, GojriEnglish, UrduUrdu
Inter-marriagesRarely exogamic with ShiaRarely exogamic with SunniEndogamicStrictly endogamicEndogamicStrictly endogamic
Main occupationsForestry and farmingForestry and farmingFarming and urban occupationsPastoralism and urban occupationsHorticulturalism and urban occupationsHorticulturalism
Estimated average socio-economic status of the study participantsMiddleMiddleLowLowLowMiddle low
Number of study participants202020202020
Percent of female participants30%25%25%45%45%30%
Overall mean age of the study participants475364665969
Table 2. Recorded wild food plants and their local uses.
Table 2. Recorded wild food plants and their local uses.
Plant Species, Family, and Voucher Specimen NumberLocal NamesParts UsedGathering Area and SeasonLocal Culinary Uses and Quotation FrequencyFrequency of Consumption
Acacia modesta Wall.;
Leguminosae;
827/MM//2020
PholaiUR, PN, PT, HN
PaliPH, GJ
Jangli KikerSR
PalosaPS
Angrezi BaburSN
Kiker KulKM
Gum,
Leaves
DL, FO, HS, RS, SP, WP; March–AprilFermentationHN**, SI*
JamSH*, SN
Very commonSH
CommonHN
RareSN
Very rareSI
Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile;
Leguminosae;
783/MM//2020
KikarUR, PN, PT, HN, HI
KikrSR, PH, GJ, KM
KikharPS
Sindhi BaburSN
Gum,
Pods
DL, FO, HS, RS, SP, WP; March–AprilFermentationSH**, QA*
JamSI**, SN
Very commonSH
CommonQA
RareSN
Very rareSI
Aerva javanica (Burm. f.) Juss. ex Schult.;
Amaranthaceae;
544/MM//2020
BoenUR
ThooPN
BoiPT, PH, GJ, KM
Niki BoienSR
ShorakaiPS
SparokaiPS
BoohSN
Safed BuiHI
Flowers,
Leaves,
Seeds
DL, FO, GR, HS, SP, SL, WP; February–AprilCookingCR**, QA*, SH, SN**Very commonSH
CommonSN
RareCR
Very rareQA
Agave americana L.;
Asparagaceae;
675/MM//2020
Jangli Kwar GandalUR
LaphraPN, PH, GJ
Kanwar PharaSR
Desi Kwar GandalPT
Kamal GandKM
KeuroSN
ZargiraPS
Kamal CactusHN
Bin KatoraHI
LeavesAL, DL, FO, GL, GR, RS, SP, WP; August–SeptemberCookingSN, SH, HN*, QA **Very commonSH
CommonSN
RareQA
Very rareHN
Allium carolinianum DC.;
Amaryllidaceae;
409/MM//2020
Jangli PyazUR, KM, HN
Jangli GandaPN, PT, GJ
Jangli WasalSR
KhokhaiPS
BulbsDL, FO, GL, SP, SH; August–SeptemberCookingCR*, SN*
SaladQA*, SH*
Very commonSN
CommonCR
RareSH
Very rareQA
Amaranthus spinosus L.;
Amaranthaceae;
787/MM//2020
CholaiUR
KonjelPN
Surkh GunahrPH, PT
BattoSR
GhinyarGJ, KM
ChalveryHN
SarmayPS
KalgaSN
GuleeKM
GanharHN
Kanta ChaulaiHI
LeavesAL, GL, HS, RS, SL, SH, WP; August–SeptemberCookingCR*, SH***, SI**, SNVery commonSN
CommonSI
RareCR
Very rareSH
Amaranthus viridis L.;
Amaranthaceae;
878/MM//2020
Jangli ChoolaiUR
TandlaPT, GJ, PH
TandulaSR
TanduliPN
LuturSN
SaagPS
RanzakaPS
GanyarHN
GanarKM
LeavesAL, GL, HS, RS, SL, SH, WP;
August–September
CookingQA*, SH, SI**, SNVery commonSN
CommonSI
RareSH
Very rareQA
Boerhavia repens L.;
Nyctaginaceae;
816/MM//2020
Looni BootiUR
LornkiPN, PT
LorankSR
BakhroSN
LeavesAL, FO, GL, GR, HS, RS, SH, WP; August–SeptemberCookingSN**, SH, SI**, CR**Very commonSN
CommonSH
RareCR
Very rareSI
Cannabis sativa L.;
Cannabaceae;
669/MM//2020
BhangUR, SN, SR, GJ, PH, KM
PangPN, PT, HN
KammPS
Leaves,
Seeds
AL, GL, GR, RS, SH, WP, WL;
March–April
Herbal drinkSN, SH*, SI**, QAVery commonSN
CommonSH
RareQA
Very rareSI
Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew.;
Capparaceae;
532/MM//2020
KarirUR
PichuUR
KarinhaPN, GJ
KariSR
KareenhPT, PH, KM
KareerHN
DelaGJ, KM
KreetaPT
KareenhSR
KiraPS
JabaPS
KirarSN
KairHI
FruitsDL, FO, GR, HS, SP;
August-September
FermentationSN**
JamSH*
Raw snacksSI**, CR*
Very commonSH
CommonSN
RareCR
Very rare SI
Caragana ambigua Stocks.;
Leguminosae;
409/MM//2020
Jangli PhaliUR, PN, PT, GJ
BaiphliSR
ZarayPS
Flowers,
Pods
RS, SL, SH, WP; June–JulyCookingCR*
Raw snacksSN*, SI
SaladHN**
Very commonSN
CommonSI
RareCR
Very rareHN
Chenopodium album L.;
Amaranthaceae;
748/MM//2020
Jangli BathooUR
Desi BathooPN, PT, PH, GJ
Desi BattoonSR
SurmaPS
SormiPS
Spin SobaPS
ButhiaPS
UdharamHN
ChilSN
BathwaKM
GoyaloHI
Branches, LeavesAL, FO, GL, GR, HS, RS, SL, SH, WP;
March–April,
August–September
CookingSN**, SI***, CR*, SH**Very commonSN
CommonSI
RareCR
Very rareSH
Chenopodium murale L.;
Amaranthaceae;
805/MM//2020
KarndUR, PH, GJ, KM
Karwa BathooPN
BathooPT
Kora BatoonSR
Thor SurmaPS
LulurSN
KurundHN
GoyaloHI
Branches, LeavesFO, GL, GR, HS, RS, SL; March–AprilCookingSN, SH**, CR*, QAVery commonSI
CommonSN
RareSH
Very rareQA
Chenopodium vulvaria L.;
Amaranthaceae;
611/MM//2020
Sufaid BathooUR, KM
Jangli BatoonPN, PT, PH
Chitta BatoonSR
LulurSN
KurundHN
GoyaloHI
Branches,
Leaves
AL, DL, RS;
March–April, August–September
CookingSN*, SH, SI*, QA*Very commonSI
CommonSN
RareSH
Very rareQA
Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.;
Asteracae;
761/MM//2020
LeehUR
LehiPN, PT
LehPH
LiahGJ
WanvahriSR
Da Khwarak AzghaiPS
KandiaraSN
KundKM
StemsDL, FO, GL, GR, HS, SP, SH, WP; March–AprilRaw snacksSN*, SH***, HN*, QA*Very commonSH
CommonQA
RareHN
Very rareSN
Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.;
Cucurbitaceae;
638/MM//2020
TummaUR
Kaud TumbhaPN, GJ, PH
Kor TummaPT, SR, KM
PirpandyanPS
MarghonePS
Tarha MarhaPS
AndrainPS
HanzalPS
TroohSN
IndrayanHI
FruitsAL, DL, FO, GL, GR, HS, RS, SP, SL, SH, WP; May–JuneFermentationCR***
JamSI**
SpiceSN*, SH***
Very commonSI
CommonSN
RareCR
Very rareSH
Commelina benghalensis L.;
Commelinaceae;
795/MM//2020
KaniPN, SR
JawarzaalPS
ChuraKM
LeavesFO, GL, HS, RS, SL, SH, WP, WL; March–AprilCookingSN, SH*, SI***, QA**Very commonSH
CommonSN
RareSI
Very rareQA
Convolvulus arvensis L.;
Convolvulaceae;
728/MM//2020
LehiUR
LehliPN, GJ
Hiran KahriPT, PH
VanvaihreSR
ParvatyPS
NaaroSN
Speaker BootiHN
HirapadiKM
LeavesAL, FO, GL, GR, RS, SH, WL; March–AprilCookingSH, SI**, CR**, QAVery commonSH
CommonQA
RareCR
Very rareSI
Corchorus depressus (L.) Stocks;
Malvaceae;
591/MM//2020
Bahu PhaliUR
BaephliSR
MunderiSN
Whole plantDL, GR, HS, MS, SP, SL; March–AprilHerbal drinkSN, SI***, CR**, QA*Very commonSI
CommonQA
RareSN
Very rareCR
Corchorus tridens L.;
Malvaceae;
417/MM//2020
PhaliUR, PN, PT, GJ, KM
DadiSR
PodsGL, GR, HS, MS; March–MayHerbal drinkSN, SH*, SI*, QA*Very commonSH
CommonQA
RareSN
Very rareSI
Cucumis melo L.;
Cucurbitaceae;
527/MM//2020
ChibarUR, PN
ChibbarhSR
ChibharPH, PT, GJ, KM
MiteroSN
FruitsAL, GL;
June–July
ChutneySN***
FermentationQA**
JamSI*
Raw snacksHN***
SaladSN***
Very commonSI
CommonHN
RareQA
Very rareSN
Digera muricata (L.) Mart.;
Amaranthaceae;
694/MM//2020
TandlaUR
TandoliPT, GJ, PH
LeswaKM
TandalaPN
Mareeri SaagSR
AthiHN
TartaraPS
Nazam HooraPS
LulurSN
ChanchaliHI
LahsuvaHI
Branches,
Leaves
FO, GL, GR, HS, RS, SH, WP, WL;
August–September
CookingSI*, CR**, SN*, QAVery commonSI
CommonSN
RareCR
Very rareQA
Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants;
Amaranthaceae;
856/MM//2020
Desi BathooUR
BathooPN, PT
Jangli BattoonSR
Babre NagdiPS
BathuGJ, PH
BathwaHN, KM
Branches,
Leaves
AL, DL, FO, GL, GR, HS, RS, SL, SH, WP; August–SeptemberCookingSH**, CR**, SN*, QA**Very commonSH
CommonSN
RareCR
Very rareQA
Fagonia indica Burm. f.;
Zygophyllaceae;
842/MM//2020
JamahonUR, PN, PT
DamanhPN, KM, GJ
Jawanh BootiSR
DramahoSN
Whole plantDL, FO, GR, HS, RS, SP, SL; July–AugustHerbal drinkSN*, SH, SI**, QAVery commonSH
CommonSI
RareQA
Very rareSN
Galium aparine L.;
Rubiaceae;
589/MM//2020
WanwairPN, PT, GJ
Wanwair BootiSR, PH
CochnaPS
LahndraKM
LeavesAL, FO, GL, GR, HS, RS, SL, SH, WP; June–JulyHerbal DrinkSN**, SI, CR, QAVery commonSI
CommonQA
RareSN
Very rareCR
Gisekia pharnaceoides L.;
Gisekiaceae;
644/MM//2020
Balu Ka SagUR
Jangli SagPN, PT, SR
LeavesAL, FO, GL, GR, RS, SP, SH, WP;
July–August
CookingSN*, SH**, SI**, CR**Very commonCR
CommonSH
RareSN
Very rareSI
Indigofera hochstetteri Baker.;
Leguminosae;
499/MM//2020
KanoUR
RaariPN, PT, GJ, PH
MareeriSR
ZindKM
JhillSN
Flowers,
Seeds
GL, GR, HS, MS; August–OctoberJamSH, SI*, CR*, QAVery commonSI
CommonQA
RareSH
Very rareCR
Lathyrus aphaca L.;
Leguminosae;
844/MM//2020
Jangli MatterUR, PN, PT
Jangli MattriSR
Marghayo HpayPS
KukarmanyPS
Jangli PhaliKM
PodsAL, FO, GL, RS, SH, WP, WL; September–OctoberFermentationHN**, SI***
Raw snacksQA**, SH***
Very commonSH
CommonQA
RareHN
Very rareSI
Lathyrus sativus L.;
Leguminosae;
572/MM//2020
Jangli MatterUR, PN, PT
Jangli MattriSR
Marghayo HpayPS
KukarmanyPS
Jangli MatarSN
PodsAL, FO, GL, HS, RS, WP, WL; March–AprilCookingCR**, SN**
Raw snacksSH*, SI**
Very commonSN
CommonSH
RareCR
Very rareSI
Launaea procumbens (Roxb.) Ramayya & Rajagopal;
Asteracae;
821/MM//2020
DodakUR, PN
BhathalaPT
HundPH, GJ, KM
DodhkSR
SondrashiPS
AlakooPS
BhattarSN
LeavesAL, FO, GL, GR, RS, SH, WP, WL; March–AprilRaw snacksSN***, SI*, CR**, QAVery commonSI
CommonSN
RareQA
Very rareCR
Lepidium apetalum Willd.;
Brassicaceae;
505/MM//2020
Jangli Khoob KalanUR
BashkyPS, PH, PT
Desi HalyunSR
BurchanHN
HanonPS
HarfPS
HaleemPS
LeavesFO, GL, HS, MS, SH, WP, WL; July–AugustCookingSN, CR**, HN*, QA**Very commonSN
CommonCR
RareQA
Very rareHN
Lepidium draba L.;
Brassicaceae;
459/MM//2020
SennaUR
Suchi SennaPN, PH, GJ, PT
Koori SanaSR
Ghora WalSN
DadhwalSN
Leaves,
Seeds
DL, FO, GR; April–JulyRaw snacksQA*, SI*
SaladHN*, SN*
Very commonSN
CommonQA
RareHN
Very rareSI
Malva neglecta Wallr.;
Malvaceae;
665/MM//2020
Sitara SunchalPN, SR
TikalayPS
Jungali SoxalKM
SonchalUR, HN, PT, PH
KhubasiHI
LeavesAL, DL, FO, GL, GR, RS, SH, WP, WL; March–AprilCookingSN**, SH***, SI*, QA*Very commonSI
CommonQA
RareSN
Very rareSH
Malva parviflora L.;
Malvaceae;
510/MM//2020
Jangli SonchalUR, PN, PT, HN
Jungali SoxalKM
Jangli KhubasiHI
FruitsAL, DL, FO, GL, GR, RS, SH, WP, WL; March–AprilCookingSH, QA*
Herbal teaCR*, SN**
Very commonSH
CommonQA
RareCR
Very rareSN
Malva sylvestris L.;
Malvaceae;
564/MM//2020
Jamni PhoolUR
MethraiPN, PS, SR
KhawazamaryPS
SamchalPT, PH, KM
KhabaziHN
LeavesRS, SH; April–MayCookingSH**, SI***, QA, SN**Very commonSN
CommonSI
RareSH
Very rareQA
Mentha arvensis L.;
Lamiaceae;
693/MM//2020
PodinaUR, PN, PT, PH
PodnaSR
ShinshobaiPS
PodinaGJ, HN
LeavesAL, GL;
March–April, August–September
ChutneySH***, SN***, SI**
CookingSH*, SN**, SI**, CR*
Herbal teaHN**, SI**
SpiceCR**, SH*, SN*
Very commonHN
CommonCR, SI
RareSI
Very rareSH
Mentha longifolia (L.) L.;
Lamiaceae;
698/MM//2020
Jangli PodinaUR, PN, KM
Chita PodnaSR, HN, PT, PH
VaylanaiPS
ShinshobaiPS
BareenaSN
LeavesFO, GL, HS, SL, SH, WL;
May–June, August–September
ChutneySN**, SH**
CookingSN*, SH*
Herbal teaSI***, CR**
SpiceCR*, SI**, QA**
Very commonSI
CommonCR
RareQA
Very rareSN
Mentha pulegium L.;
Lamiaceae;
659/MM//2020
Jamni PodinaUR, PN, PT, PH
Desi PodnaSR
PudinaKM
LeavesAL, FO, GL, HS, RS, SL, SH, WL;
March–April, August–September
ChutneyHN*, SI**
Herbal teaQA**, SN**
Very commonHN
CommonSN
RareSI
Very rareQA
Mentha royleana Wall. ex Benth.;
Lamiaceae;
631/MM//2020
Sofaid PodinaUR, PN, PT, PH
Chitta PodnaSR, HN
Jangli PodinaKM
LeavesAL, FO, GL, HS, RS, SL, SH, WL;
March–April
ChutneySH**, SN*
CookingSH*, SN*
Herbal teaCR***, HN*
Very commonSN
CommonSH
RareHN
Very rareCR
Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (Wall. & G. Don) Cif.;
Oleaceae;
746/MM//2020
KahouUR, PN, PT
KaoGJ, KM, PH, SR
ShwawanPS
KhunaPS
KaowHN
KahoHN
FruitsAL; August–SeptemberRaw snacksQA**, SH**, SI*, HN*Very commonSH
CommonSI
RareQA
Very rareHN
Opuntia dillenii (Ker Gawl.) Haw.;
Cactaceae;
699/MM//2020
KhashiUR
ThorPH, GJ, KM
Peeli SaroonPN
Peela SaroonPT
Peela RayeaSR
WorakiPS
ShershamPS
Hoob SublanPS
HakseerPS
LeavesAL, GL, HS, RS, SH, WP; March–AprilCookingSN**, SH*, HN*, QAVery commonHN
CommonSH
RareQA
Very rare SN
Oxalis corniculata L.;
Oxalidaceae;
732/MM//2020
Peeli BootiUR
Choti lonakPN
LonakSR
TherwashkaPS
Bibi ShaftalaPS
TarookayPS
Khati ButiHN
KhatiKM
LeavesAL, FO, GL, GR, HS, RS, SH, WP, WL; February–MarchChutneyCR**, QA*
CookingSI**, SN**
Very commonCR
CommonSI
RareQA
Very rareSN
Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb.;
Arecaceae;
501/MM//2020
Jangli KhajoorUR, PN, PT, HN
Desi KhajoorGJ, PH, KM
PindSR
Chotti KhagoorPS
KhajiSN
KhajurHI
FruitsAL, DL, GL, RS; June–JulyJamQA*
Raw snacksSN*, HN, SH
Very commonSH
CommonSN
RareHN
Very rareQA
Physalis divaricata D. Don;
Solanaceae;
569/MM//2020
Jungli BerryUR
Jangli TamatorPN, SR
HundusiGJ, PT, PH, KM
Band MalkhovjPS
DelhuuSN
FruitsFO, GL, HS, SL, SH, WP; August–SeptemberRaw SnacksSN*, SI*, HN**, QA**Very commonSI
CommonQA
RareHN
Very rareSN
Pistia stratiotes L.;
Araceae;
515/MM//2020
Jall KhumbiUR, HI, KM
Jall ShamkalaGJ, PT, PH
NargisPN, PT
JaruSN
LeavesWP; March–AprilCookingSN*, SH, SI***
SaladQA*
Very commonSN
CommonSI
RareSH
Very rareQA
Polygonum plebeium R.Br.;
Polygonaceae;
531/MM//2020
Gorakh PanUR
DroonkPN
BandokiPS
Gull SrahPS
KhowarSN
Chimati SaagHI
StemsAL, FO, GL, GR, HS, MS, RS, SL, SH, WP, WL; March–AprilCookingSN**, SI**, CR*, HNVery commonSI
CommonCR
RareHN
Very rareSN
Portulaca oleracea L.;
Portulacaceae;
865/MM//2020
Kulfa LonakUR, PN
Lorniki BootiPT, GJ, KM
Lorni BootiSR
VarhoriPS
LoonkSN
KhurfaHN
Leaves,
Stems
FO, GL, HS, RS, SH, WP, WL; August–SeptemberCookingSN**, SH*, HN*, QA**Very commonSH
CommonHN
RareSN
Very rareQA
Portulaca quadrifida L.;
Portulacaceae;
753/MM//2020
Lornak BootiUR, PN
LorankiPT, GJ, PH
LonakSR
WakhoraiPS
PakharaiPS
LoonkSN
LunakKM
KolfaHN
Leaves,
Stems
FO, GL, GR, HS, MS, RS, SL, SH, WP; August–SeptemberCookingSH**, SN*, CR*, QAVery commonCR
CommonSN
RareSH
Very rareQA
Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce;
Leguminosae;
745/MM//2020
JandUR, PN, PT, PH, KM
JandiSR
KandiSN
Jangli MatarKM
JhandHI
KhejriHI
Gum,
Pods
DL, FO, GR, HS, RS, SP, SL, WP; August–SeptemberFermentationSN*, CR**
JamQA**, SH*
Very commonQA
CommonSH
RareCR
Very rareSN
Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.;
Leguminosae;
547/MM//2020
KikarUR
Phari KikarPN, PT, GJ, KM, SR
Sindhi KikarPH
KikarPS
Angrezi BaburSN
Velayti KikarHN
Jungli KikarHI
Gum,
Pods
AL, FO, GR, HS, RS, WP;
August–September
FermentationSI, HN*, CR
JamSH**, SN*
Very commonSH
CommonSN
RareHN
Very rareSI, CR
Rhynchosia minima (L.) DC.;
Leguminosae;
855/MM//2020
Jangli LobiaUR, PN, PH, KM
Jangli ArwanPT
HerdalSR
PodsAL, FO, HS, RS, WP, WL; March–AprilCookingSN, SH*, SI**, CRVery commonCR
CommonSI
RareSN
Very rareSH
Rumex dentatus L.;
Polygonaceae;
812/MM//2020
KhatkalPN, PT, PH, KM
Jangli PalakUR, GJ, SR
Sarkari PalakPS
ZamdaPS
Jangli PalakSN
HullahHN
OlaHN
LeavesAL, FO, GL, HS, RS, SL, SH, WP, WL; March–AprilCookingSN**, SH**, SI**, HNVery commonSI
CommonHN
RareSH
Very rareSN
Salvadora oleoides Decne.;
Salvadoraceae;
690/MM//2020
JallUR
VanGJ, KM
JhalPT, PH
PiluPN,SR
KhabbarPS
KhabarSN
KallijariHN
FruitsDL, FO, GR, HS, SP, WP;
August–September
ChutneyHN*, CR*
FermentationSH*, SN**
JamSH*, HN*, CR*
Very commonSH
CommonSN
RareCR
Very rareHN
Salvadora persica L.;
Salvadoraceae;
747/MM//2020
PeloUR, SR, GJ
KhabarSN
PiluPN, PT, PH, KM
DiyarSN
KallijariHN
JaalHI
FruitsDL, GR, RS, SP, SL, WP; August–SeptemberFermentationSH*, SN*
JamSI*, HN**
Very commonSH
CommonSN
RareSI
Very rareHN
Salvia moorcroftiana Wall. ex Benth.;
Lamiaceae;
530/MM//2020
Tokham BelagaUR
LapraPN
BelangooSR
DersaiPS
SidraiPS
Jungle TamookhKM
ShwankoSN
KallijariHN
Khesari DaalHI
StemsFO, HS, SL, SH, WP; May–JuneRaw snacksSN***, SH, QA **, CR*Very commonSH
CommonQA
RareCR
Very rareSN
Salvia nubicola Wall. ex Sweet;
Lamiaceae;
841/MM//2020
HernarPN
DarshoolPS
KallijariHN
Khesari DaalHI
LeavesFO, HS, RS, SH, WP, WL; August–SeptemberCookingSH**, SI*, HN***, QAVery commonSI
CommonSH
RareHN
Very rareQA
Senna italica Mill.;
Leguminosae;
479/MM//2020
Ghora WalSNSeedsGL, GR, HS, MS, RS; April–JuneRaw snacksSN*, SH*, SI, QA**Very commonSN
CommonQA
RareSH
Very rareSI
Senna occidentalis (L.) Link;
Leguminosae;
576/MM//2020
LobiaUR, PN, GJ, KM
Desi ArwanSR, PT, PH
Ghora WalSN
PodsAL, FO, HS, RS, WP, WL; March–AprilCookingSN**, SH, CR*, QAVery commonCR
CommonSN
RareQA
Very rareSH
Sisymbrium irio L.;
Brassicaceae;
750/MM//2020
Khud-e-KalanKM
KhashiUR, PN, PT, PH
Peeli BootiSR
WorakiPS
ShershamPS
Hoob SublanPS
HakseerPS
KhubkalanHN
KhakasiHN
LeavesAL, GL, HS, RS, SH, WP; March–AprilCookingSN, SH**, SI***, HN**Very commonSI
CommonSN
RareHN
Very rareSH
Solanum americanum Mill.;
Solanaceae;
636/MM//2020
MakaoUR
Kainch MainchPN
Katch MatchPT
MohkriPH, GJ, KM
KarveloonSR
Kach machaoPS
MalkhovjPS
MalgabaiPS
FruitsAL, FO, GL, GR, HS, RS, SH, WP; June–JulyChutneySI*, SH
Herbal drinkSN**, SI
Raw snacksHN*, SH, SI*, SN**
Very commonSH
CommonSI
RareHN
Very rareSN
Solanum incanum L.;
Solanaceae;
727/MM//2020
Jangli KhashiUR
Jangli BainganPN, PT
MahokariPS
Kori WalSR
MahoraSN
FruitsFO, GL, HS, SH, WP; June–JulyChutneySH, SN*
Raw snacksQA**, HN**
Very commonSH
CommonQA
RareHN
Very rareSN
Solanum surattense Burm. f.;
Solanaceae;
758/MM//2020
Neeli Khurd KataiUR
Choti KandiariPN
MahoriPT, GJ, PH, KM
Kandiari WalhSR
MarkondayePS
SpeenazghaiPS
KanderiSN
MohkreeHN
FruitsDL, FO, GR, HS, MS, RS, SP, SL; October–NovemberRaw SnacksSN, CR*, HN*, QA*Very commonHN
CommonQA
RareCR
Very rareSN
Solanum villosum Mill.;
Solanaceae;
415/MM//2020
MakoUR, SN
Kaach MachPN, PT, GJ, KM
KarveloonSR
FruitsGL, GR, HS, MS; March–MayChutneySI*, HN*
Raw snacksSH**, SN**
Very commonSI
CommonSH
RareSN
Very rareHN
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill;
Asteracae;
666/MM//2020
BhattalUR
Malai BootiPN
DodhiPT, PH, GJ
DodhakSR
Soon LattiPS
KasniSN
DodalKM
LeavesDL, FO, GL, HS, RS, SL, SH; March–AprilCookingSH**, HN***, SNVery commonSH
CommonSN
Very rareHN
Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L.;
Asteracae;
713/MM//2020
BhattalUR
Malai BootiPN
DodhakPT
Peeli DodhakSR
TarizhaPS
Soon DodakPS
KasniSN
LeavesAL, FO, GR, RS, SH; March–AprilCookingSN*, SI**, HN***, QA**Very commonSI
CommonQA
RareHN
Very rareSN
Stellaria media (L.) Vill.;
Caryophyllaceae;
796/MM//2020
Kangni BootiUR
Phoolan CheeriPN
Cheeri PtaPT
StalliPH, GJ, KM
Chitti BootiSR
VilaghoriPS
Badsha SabaPS
Bin BatorhiPS
Buch-BuchaHI
LeavesAL, FO, GL, HS, MS, RS, SL, SH, WP; March–AprilCookingSN***, SH**
Herbal teaCR**, SI
Very commonSH
CommonSN
RareCR
Very rareSI
Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers.;
Leguminosae;
429/MM//2020
Bansa-BansuPN, PT, PH, GJ, KM
SarphookaPS
HaldriSR
MaheeroSN
Ban NilHI
PodsGL, GR, HS; March–MayCookingSN**, SH*, SI, QA*Very commonSI
CommonSH
RareQA
Very rareSN
Tribulus terrestris L.;
Zygophyllaceae;
539/MM//2020
PakhraPS, PT, KM
BhakhraUR, SR
BakhroSN
MelaiPS
GhokruHN
FruitsDL, FO, GL, GR, HS, MS, RS, SP, SL, SH, WP; August–SeptemberHerbal teaSN*, SH, SI**, HN*Very commonSH
CommonSI
RareHN
Very rareSN
Trigonella anguina Delile;
Leguminosae;
568/MM//2020
Jangli MeethreUR, PN, PT,GJ, SR
Jungle MathKM
Leaves,
Seeds
AL, DL, FO, GL, GR, HS, RS, SH, WP, WL; March–AprilFermentationSH**, HN*, SI*
Raw snacksSN
Very commonSH
CommonHN
RareSN
Very rareSI
Trigonella corniculata Sibth. & Sm.;
Leguminosae;
615/MM//2020
MeethreUR, PN, PT,GJ, SR
Jungle MathKM
Leaves,
Seeds
AL; March–AprilFermentationQA*, CR, SN*, SH*Very commonCR
CommonQA
RareSN
Very rareSH
Veronica anagallis-aquatica L.;
Plantaginaceae;
834/MM//2020
Hazar DaniUR
Obo SabaPS
LeavesAL, FO, GL, HS, RS, SH, WP; March–AprilCookingSN***, SH, SI*, QA*Very commonQA
CommonSI
RareSH
Very rareSN
Vicia sativa L.;
Leguminosae;
767/MM//2020
Jangli LobiaUR
Jangli RewariPN, GJ
Jangli RawanSR
MutriKM, PT, PH
PervathaPS
ChilowPS
PodsAL, FO, GL, HS, SL, SH, WP, WL; March–AprilCookingSN**, SH*, SI**, CR**Very commonSN
CommonSH
RareCR
Very rareSI
Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal;
Solanaceae;
741/MM//2020
PaneerUR
Jangly ChanaPT
AkriPN, PH, SR
KhamzoraPS
AshwgandhasSN
Asgandh NagoriSN
Leaves,
Fruits
DL, FO, GL, SP, SH; March–AprilHerbal drinkSN, SH, SI*, CRVery commonSH
CommonSI
RareCR
Very rareSN
Ziziphus jujuba Mill.;
Rhamnaceae;
726/MM//2020
BairiUR, PN
Seo BairPT, SR
Jand BeriPH, GJ
BeraPS
Moti BerPS
KarkanraPS
BerSN
BerKM
FruitsDL, FO, GL, GR, HS, RS, SP; August–SeptemberRaw snacksSN**, HN***, SI**, SH**Very commonSI
CommonHN
RareSN
Very rareSH
Ziziphus nummularia (Burm. f.) Wight & Arn.;
Rhamnaceae;
612/MM//2020
Jangli BairiUR, PN, GJ
Kathy BeerPT, SR
KarkanrPS
Chotti BerPS
AnanePS
Bada BeraPS
Jhangugli BerSN
Jahri BerHN
FruitsFO, GL, HS, RS, SP; April–MayRaw snacksSN**, HN***, CR**, SH**Very commonSH
CommonHN
RareSN
Very rareCR
Ziziphus oxyphylla Edgew.;
Rhamnaceae;
409/MM//2020
Surkh BairUR, PN
Saib BairSR, PH, PT, GJ
HeilaneiyPS
PhitniHN
FruitsFO, GL, HS, RS, SP; April–MayRaw snacksSN*, SH*, SI***, CR*Very commonSI
CommonCR
RareSN
Very rareSH
Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf.;
Rhamnaceae;
413/MM//2020
Jangli BairUR
Jhar BeriPN, PT, GJ, KM
Jangali BairSR
BerSN
FruitsGL, GR, HS, MS, RS; March–JuneRaw snacksSN*, SI*, SH*, CR*Very commonCR
CommonSH
RareSN
Very rareSI
Coprinus comatus (O.F. Müll.) Pers.;
Agaricaceae;
400/MM//2020
KhumbhiUR, PN, PT, GJ, SR
GuchiPS
KlikichokPS
Arial partsGL, GR, HS; August–SeptemberCookingSN*, SH, SI*, HN**Very commonSI
CommonSH
RareSN
Very rareHN
Gathering areas: AL: arable land, DL: dry land, FO: forest, GL: grassland, GR: graveyard, HS: hilly slopes, MS: mountain summits, RS: roadside, SP: sandy places, SL: scrubland, SH: shady places, WP: paste places, WL: wet land; Local Languages: UR: Urdu, PN: Punjabi, PT: Pothwari, PH, Pahari, GJ, Gojri, HN: Hindko, SR: Saraiki, SN: Sindhi, PS: Pashto, KS: Kashmiri, HI: Hindi; Religious faith: SN: Sunnis, SH: Shias, SI: Sikhs, HN: Hindus, CR: Christians, QA: Ahmadis (Qadiani); Quotation frequency in percent: 1–25% = without asterisk, 26–50% = *, 51–75% = **, 76–100% = ***.
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MDPI and ACS Style

Majeed, M.; Bhatti, K.H.; Pieroni, A.; Sõukand, R.; Bussmann, R.W.; Khan, A.M.; Chaudhari, S.K.; Aziz, M.A.; Amjad, M.S. Gathered Wild Food Plants among Diverse Religious Groups in Jhelum District, Punjab, Pakistan. Foods 2021, 10, 594. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030594

AMA Style

Majeed M, Bhatti KH, Pieroni A, Sõukand R, Bussmann RW, Khan AM, Chaudhari SK, Aziz MA, Amjad MS. Gathered Wild Food Plants among Diverse Religious Groups in Jhelum District, Punjab, Pakistan. Foods. 2021; 10(3):594. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030594

Chicago/Turabian Style

Majeed, Muhammad, Khizar Hayat Bhatti, Andrea Pieroni, Renata Sõukand, Rainer W. Bussmann, Arshad Mahmood Khan, Sunbal Khalil Chaudhari, Muhammad Abdul Aziz, and Muhammad Shoaib Amjad. 2021. "Gathered Wild Food Plants among Diverse Religious Groups in Jhelum District, Punjab, Pakistan" Foods 10, no. 3: 594. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030594

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