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Open AccessArticle

Mass Spectral Fragmentation of Pelargonium graveolens Essential Oil Using GC–MS Semi-Empirical Calculations and Biological Potential

1
Molecular and Atomic Physics Unit, Experimental Nuclear Physics Dept, Nuclear Research Centre, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759, Egypt
2
Plant Production Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
3
Floriculture, Ornamental Horticulture, and Garden Design Department, Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby), Alexandria University, Alexandria 21545, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(2), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8020128
Received: 7 January 2020 / Revised: 19 January 2020 / Accepted: 20 January 2020 / Published: 21 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction, Characterization and Pharmacology of Natural Products)
The volatile constituents of the essential oil of local Pelargonium graveolens growing in Egypt was investigated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and the main constituents were citronellol (27.67%), cis-Menthone (10.23%), linalool (10.05%), eudesmol (9.40%), geraniol formate 6.87%, and rose oxide (5.77%), which represent the major components in the obtained GC total ion chromatogram. The structural determination of the main constitutes based on their electron ionization mass spectra have been investigated. The MS of these compounds are absolutely identical in mass values of peaks of fragment ions, where their relative intensities have minor differences. In the spectra of all studied compounds, the observed characteristic ions were [M-H2O]+ and [M-CH3]+. The latter has a structure with m/z 69, 83. Different quantum parameters were obtained using Modified Neglect of Diatomic Overlap (MNDO) semi-empirical method as total energy, binding energy, heat of formations, ionization energy, the energy of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), energy gap Δ, and dipole moment. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of P. graveolens essential oil and identified compounds were tested against wide collection of organisms. The individual identified compounds in the essential oil—citronellol, cis-Menthone, and linalool (except eudesmol)—showed comparable activity to antibiotics. The most active isolated compound was the citronellol and the lowest MIC was found against E. coli. The essential oil showed high antifungal effects and this activity was attributed to cis-Menthone, eudesmol, and citronellol (excluding linalool). cis-Menthone was the most active compound against selected fungi followed by the eudesmol The study recommends local P. graveolens and identified active compounds for further applications in the pharmaceutical industries. View Full-Text
Keywords: essential oils; Pelargonium graveolens; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; semi-empirical calculations; antibacterial; antifungal essential oils; Pelargonium graveolens; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; semi-empirical calculations; antibacterial; antifungal
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S. M. Abd El-Kareem, M.; A. Rabbih, M.; Elansary, H.O.; A. Al-Mana, F. Mass Spectral Fragmentation of Pelargonium graveolens Essential Oil Using GC–MS Semi-Empirical Calculations and Biological Potential. Processes 2020, 8, 128.

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