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Open AccessArticle

Preparation of Terpenoid-Invasomes with Selective Activity against S. aureus and Characterization by Cryo Transmission Electron Microscopy

1
Thin Films & Physics of Nanostructures, Bielefeld University, Universitätsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany
2
Department of Cell Biology, Bielefeld University, Universitätsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany
3
Fermentation and Formulation of Biologicals and Chemicals, Bielefeld University of Applied Sciences, Interaktion 1, 33619 Bielefeld, Germany
4
Molecular Neurobiology, Bielefeld University, Universitätsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Biomedicines 2020, 8(5), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8050105
Received: 7 April 2020 / Revised: 28 April 2020 / Accepted: 30 April 2020 / Published: 1 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Medicine in Therapy)
Terpenoids are natural plant-derived products that are applied to treat a broad range of human diseases, such as airway infections and inflammation. However, pharmaceutical applications of terpenoids against bacterial infection remain challenging due to their poor water solubility. Here, we produce invasomes encapsulating thymol, menthol, camphor and 1,8-cineol, characterize them via cryo transmission electron microscopy and assess their bactericidal properties. While control- and cineol-invasomes are similarly distributed between unilamellar and bilamellar vesicles, a shift towards unilamellar invasomes is observable after encapsulation of thymol, menthol or camphor. Thymol- and camphor-invasomes show a size reduction, whereas menthol-invasomes are enlarged and cineol-invasomes remain unchanged compared to control. While thymol-invasomes lead to the strongest growth inhibition of S. aureus, camphor- or cineol-invasomes mediate cell death and S. aureus growth is not affected by menthol-invasomes. Flow cytometric analysis validate that invasomes comprising thymol are highly bactericidal to S. aureus. Notably, treatment with thymol-invasomes does not affect survival of Gram-negative E. coli. In summary, we successfully produce terpenoid-invasomes and demonstrate that particularly thymol-invasomes show a strong selective activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Our findings provide a promising approach to increase the bioavailability of terpenoid-based drugs and may be directly applicable for treating severe bacterial infections such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus. View Full-Text
Keywords: terpenoids; invasomes; thymol; menthol; camphor; cineol; S. aureus; E. coli; bactericidal terpenoids; invasomes; thymol; menthol; camphor; cineol; S. aureus; E. coli; bactericidal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kaltschmidt, B.P.; Ennen, I.; Greiner, J.F.W.; Dietsch, R.; Patel, A.; Kaltschmidt, B.; Kaltschmidt, C.; Hütten, A. Preparation of Terpenoid-Invasomes with Selective Activity against S. aureus and Characterization by Cryo Transmission Electron Microscopy. Biomedicines 2020, 8, 105.

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