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Open AccessArticle

Efficaciousness of Low Affinity Compared to High Affinity TSPO Ligands in the Inhibition of Hypoxic Mitochondrial Cellular Damage Induced by Cobalt Chloride in Human Lung H1299 Cells

1
The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion Institute of Technology, Haifa 31096, Israel
2
Department of Pharmacy–Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, 70125 Bari, Italy
3
Institute for Chemical and Physical Processes (IPCF)-CNR SS Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari, Italy
4
Research Unit at Geha Mental Health Center and Laboratory of Biological Psychiatry at Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Petah Tikva 4910002, Israel
5
Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Biomedicines 2020, 8(5), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8050106
Received: 5 April 2020 / Revised: 29 April 2020 / Accepted: 30 April 2020 / Published: 2 May 2020
The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) plays an important role in apoptotic cell death, including apoptosis induced by the hypoxia mimicking agent cobalt chloride (CoCl2). In this study, the protective effects of a high (CB86; Ki = 1.6 nM) and a low (CB204; Ki = 117.7 nM) affinity TSPO ligands were investigated in H1299 lung cancer cell line exposed to CoCl2. The lung cell line H1299 was chosen in the present study since they express TSPO and able to undergo programmed cell death. The examined cell death markers included: ATP synthase reversal, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) depolarization, cellular toxicity, and cellular viability. Pretreatment of the cells with the low affinity ligand CB204 at a concentration of 100 µM suppressed significantly (p < 0.05 for all) CoCl2-induced cellular cytotoxicity (100%), ATP synthase reversal (67%), ROS generation (82%), Δψm depolarization (100%), reduction in cellular density (97%), and also increased cell viability (85%). Furthermore, the low affinity TSPO ligand CB204, was harmless when given by itself at 100 µM. In contrast, the high affinity ligand (CB86) was significantly effective only in the prevention of CoCl2–induced ROS generation (39%, p < 0.001), and showed significant cytotoxic effects when given alone at 100 µM, as reflected in alterations in ADP/ATP ratio, oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and cell death. It appears that similar to previous studies on brain-derived cells, the relatively low affinity for the TSPO target enhances the potency of TSPO ligands in the protection from hypoxic cell death. Moreover, the high affinity TSPO ligand CB86, but not the low affinity ligand CB204, was lethal to the lung cells at high concentration (100 µM). The low affinity TSPO ligand CB204 may be a candidate for the treatment of pulmonary diseases related to hypoxia, such as pulmonary ischemia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD. View Full-Text
Keywords: translocator protein (TSPO); CoCl2; mitochondrial membrane potential; reactive oxygen species (ROS); cell viability; cell death; lung cancer cell line translocator protein (TSPO); CoCl2; mitochondrial membrane potential; reactive oxygen species (ROS); cell viability; cell death; lung cancer cell line
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Zeineh, N.; Denora, N.; Laquintana, V.; Franco, M.; Weizman, A.; Gavish, M. Efficaciousness of Low Affinity Compared to High Affinity TSPO Ligands in the Inhibition of Hypoxic Mitochondrial Cellular Damage Induced by Cobalt Chloride in Human Lung H1299 Cells. Biomedicines 2020, 8, 106.

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