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Open AccessArticle

Orthosiphon stamineus Standardized Extract Reverses Streptozotocin-Induced Alzheimer’s Disease-Like Condition in a Rat Model

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Neuropharmacology Research Strength, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor 47500, Malaysia
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Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) Platform, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor 47500, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomedicines 2020, 8(5), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8050104
Received: 7 April 2020 / Revised: 28 April 2020 / Accepted: 29 April 2020 / Published: 30 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Medicine in Therapy)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative brain disease that is characterized by impairment in cognitive functioning as well as the presence of intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and extracellular senile plaques. There is a growing interest in the potential of phytochemicals to improve memory, learning, and general cognitive abilities. The Malaysian herb Orthosiphon stamineus is a traditional remedy that possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and free-radical scavenging abilities, all of which are known to protect against AD. Previous studies have reported that intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of streptozotocin (STZ) mimics a condition similar to that observed in AD. This experiment thus aimed to explore if an ethanolic leaf extract of O. stamineus has the potential to be a novel treatment for AD in a rat model and can reverse the STZ- induced learning and memory dysfunction. The results of this study indicate that O. stamineus has the potential to be potentially effective against AD-like condition, as both behavioral models employed in this study was observed to be able to reverse memory impairment. Treatment with the extract was able to decrease the up-regulated expression levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP), microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT), Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFᴋB), glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha (GSK3α), and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) genes indicating the extract’s neuroprotective ability. These research findings suggest that the O. stamineus ethanolic extract demonstrated an improved effect on memory, and hence, could serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; cognitive function; streptozotocin; Orthosiphon stamineus; oxidative stress Alzheimer’s disease; cognitive function; streptozotocin; Orthosiphon stamineus; oxidative stress
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Retinasamy, T.; Shaikh, M.F.; Kumari, Y.; Zainal Abidin, S.A.; Othman, I. Orthosiphon stamineus Standardized Extract Reverses Streptozotocin-Induced Alzheimer’s Disease-Like Condition in a Rat Model. Biomedicines 2020, 8, 104.

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