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Open AccessReview

A Brief Overview of the Antitumoral Actions of Leelamine

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Paris Descartes, 75006 Paris, France
Department of Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117600, Singapore
College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 24 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomedicines 2019, 7(3), 53;
Received: 18 June 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Compounds in Biomedicine)
PDF [789 KB, uploaded 19 July 2019]


For the last couple of decades, natural products, either applied singly or in conjunction with other cancer therapies including chemotherapy and radiotherapy, have allowed us to combat different types of human cancers through the inhibition of their initiation and progression. The principal sources of these useful compounds are isolated from plants that were described in traditional medicines for their curative potential. Leelamine, derived from the bark of pine trees, was previously reported as having a weak agonistic effect on cannabinoid receptors and limited inhibitory effects on pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs). It has been reported to possess a strong lysosomotropic property; this feature enables its assembly inside the acidic compartments within a cell, such as lysosomes, which may eventually hinder endocytosis. In this review, we briefly highlight the varied antineoplastic actions of leelamine that have found implications in pharmacological research, and the numerous intracellular targets affected by this agent that can effectively negate the oncogenic process. View Full-Text
Keywords: leelamine; malignancies; molecular mechanisms, preclinical models leelamine; malignancies; molecular mechanisms, preclinical models

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Merarchi, M.; Jung, Y.Y.; Fan, L.; Sethi, G.; Ahn, K.S. A Brief Overview of the Antitumoral Actions of Leelamine. Biomedicines 2019, 7, 53.

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