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Mathematics, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2016) – 20 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Birkhoff Normal Forms, KAM Theory and Time Reversal Symmetry for Certain Rational Map
Mathematics 2016, 4(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/math4010020 - 18 Mar 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1878
Abstract
By using the KAM(Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser) theory and time reversal symmetries, we investigate the stability of the equilibrium solutions of the system: x n + 1 = 1 y n , y n + 1 = β x n 1 + y n , n [...] Read more.
By using the KAM(Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser) theory and time reversal symmetries, we investigate the stability of the equilibrium solutions of the system: x n + 1 = 1 y n , y n + 1 = β x n 1 + y n , n = 0 , 1 , 2 , , where the parameter β > 0 , and initial conditions x 0 and y 0 are positive numbers. We obtain the Birkhoff normal form for this system and prove the existence of periodic points with arbitrarily large periods in every neighborhood of the unique positive equilibrium. We use invariants to find a Lyapunov function and Morse’s lemma to prove closedness of invariants. We also use the time reversal symmetry method to effectively find some feasible periods and the corresponding periodic orbits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Solution of Differential Equations with Polynomial Coefficients with the Aid of an Analytic Continuation of Laplace Transform
Mathematics 2016, 4(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/math4010019 - 17 Mar 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1675
Abstract
In a series of papers, we discussed the solution of Laplace’s differential equation (DE) by using fractional calculus, operational calculus in the framework of distribution theory, and Laplace transform. The solutions of Kummer’s DE, which are expressed by the confluent hypergeometric functions, are [...] Read more.
In a series of papers, we discussed the solution of Laplace’s differential equation (DE) by using fractional calculus, operational calculus in the framework of distribution theory, and Laplace transform. The solutions of Kummer’s DE, which are expressed by the confluent hypergeometric functions, are obtained with the aid of the analytic continuation (AC) of Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative (fD) and the distribution theory in the space D′R or the AC of Laplace transform. We now obtain the solutions of the hypergeometric DE, which are expressed by the hypergeometric functions, with the aid of the AC of Riemann–Liouville fD, and the distribution theory in the space D′r,R, which is introduced in this paper, or by the term-by-term inverse Laplace transform of AC of Laplace transform of the solution expressed by a series. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Skew Continuous Morphisms of Ordered Lattice Ringoids
Mathematics 2016, 4(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/math4010017 - 16 Mar 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 988
Abstract
Skew continuous morphisms of ordered lattice semirings and ringoids are studied. Different associative semirings and non-associative ringoids are considered. Theorems about properties of skew morphisms are proved. Examples are given. One of the main similarities between them is related to cones in algebras [...] Read more.
Skew continuous morphisms of ordered lattice semirings and ringoids are studied. Different associative semirings and non-associative ringoids are considered. Theorems about properties of skew morphisms are proved. Examples are given. One of the main similarities between them is related to cones in algebras of non locally compact groups. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Dynamics and the Cohomology of Measured Laminations
Mathematics 2016, 4(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/math4010018 - 15 Mar 2016
Viewed by 1351
Abstract
In this paper, the interconnection between the cohomology of measured group actions and the cohomology of measured laminations is explored, the latter being a generalization of the former for the case of discrete group actions and cocycles evaluated on abelian groups. This relation [...] Read more.
In this paper, the interconnection between the cohomology of measured group actions and the cohomology of measured laminations is explored, the latter being a generalization of the former for the case of discrete group actions and cocycles evaluated on abelian groups. This relation gives a rich interplay between these concepts. Several results can be adapted to this setting—for instance, Zimmer’s reduction of the coefficient group of bounded cocycles or Fustenberg’s cohomological obstruction for extending the ergodicity \(\mathbb{Z}\)-action to a skew product relative to an \(S^{1}\) evaluated cocycle. Another way to think about foliated cocycles is also shown, and a particular application is the characterization of the existence of certain classes of invariant measures for smooth foliations in terms of the \(L^{\infty}\)-cohomology class of the infinitesimal holonomy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algebraic and Geometric Topology)
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Open AccessArticle
New Method of Randomized Forecasting Using Entropy-Robust Estimation: Application to the World Population Prediction
Mathematics 2016, 4(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/math4010016 - 11 Mar 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1463
Abstract
We propose a new method of randomized forecasting (RF-method), which operates with models described by systems of linear ordinary differential equations with random parameters. The RF-method is based on entropy-robust estimation of the probability density functions (PDFs) of model parameters and measurement noises. [...] Read more.
We propose a new method of randomized forecasting (RF-method), which operates with models described by systems of linear ordinary differential equations with random parameters. The RF-method is based on entropy-robust estimation of the probability density functions (PDFs) of model parameters and measurement noises. The entropy-optimal estimator uses a limited amount of data. The method of randomized forecasting is applied to World population prediction. Ensembles of entropy-optimal prognostic trajectories of World population and their probability characteristics are generated. We show potential preferences of the proposed method in comparison with existing methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Optimal Malaria Control Strategies in Kenya
Mathematics 2016, 4(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/math4010014 - 09 Mar 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2439
Abstract
Malaria remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among the children under five and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa, but it is preventable and controllable provided current recommended interventions are properly implemented. Better utilization of malaria intervention strategies will ensure the gain [...] Read more.
Malaria remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among the children under five and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa, but it is preventable and controllable provided current recommended interventions are properly implemented. Better utilization of malaria intervention strategies will ensure the gain for the value for money and producing health improvements in the most cost effective way. The purpose of the value for money drive is to develop a better understanding (and better articulation) of costs and results so that more informed, evidence-based choices could be made. Cost effectiveness analysis is carried out to inform decision makers on how to determine where to allocate resources for malaria interventions. This study carries out cost effective analysis of one or all possible combinations of the optimal malaria control strategies (Insecticide Treated Bednets—ITNs, Treatment, Indoor Residual Spray—IRS and Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Pregnant Women—IPTp) for the four different transmission settings in order to assess the extent to which the intervention strategies are beneficial and cost effective. For the four different transmission settings in Kenya the optimal solution for the 15 strategies and their associated effectiveness are computed. Cost-effective analysis using Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) was done after ranking the strategies in order of the increasing effectiveness (total infections averted). The findings shows that for the endemic regions the combination of ITNs, IRS, and IPTp was the most cost-effective of all the combined strategies developed in this study for malaria disease control and prevention; for the epidemic prone areas is the combination of the treatment and IRS; for seasonal areas is the use of ITNs plus treatment; and for the low risk areas is the use of treatment only. Malaria transmission in Kenya can be minimized through tailor-made intervention strategies for malaria control which produces health improvements in the most cost effective way for different epidemiological zones. This offers the good value for money for the public health programs and can guide in the allocation of malaria control resources for the post-2015 malaria eradication strategies and the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimal Control and Management of Infectious Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Conformal Maps, Biharmonic Maps, and the Warped Product
Mathematics 2016, 4(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/math4010015 - 08 Mar 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1337
Abstract
In this paper we study some properties of conformal maps between equidimensional manifolds, we construct new example of non-harmonic biharmonic maps and we characterize the biharmonicity of some maps on the warped product manifolds. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Existence Results for a New Class of Boundary Value Problems of Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations
Mathematics 2016, 4(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/math4010013 - 04 Mar 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1682
Abstract
In this article, we study the following fractional boundary value problem D 0 + α c u ( t ) + 2 r D 0 + α 1 c u ( t ) + r 2 D 0 + α 2 [...] Read more.
In this article, we study the following fractional boundary value problem D 0 + α c u ( t ) + 2 r D 0 + α 1 c u ( t ) + r 2 D 0 + α 2 c u ( t ) = f ( t , u ( t ) ) , r > 0 , 0 < t < 1 , u ( 0 ) = u ( 1 ) , u ( 0 ) = u ( 1 ) , u ( ξ ) + r u ( ξ ) = η , ξ ( 0 , 1 ) Where 2 α < 3 , D 0 + α i c ( i = 0 , 1 , 2 ) are the standard Caputo derivative and η is a positive real number. Some new existence results are obtained by means of the contraction mapping principle and Schauder fixed point theorem. Some illustrative examples are also presented. Full article
Open AccessCommunication
Inverse Eigenvalue Problems for Two Special Acyclic Matrices
Mathematics 2016, 4(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/math4010012 - 03 Mar 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1879
Abstract
In this paper, we study two inverse eigenvalue problems (IEPs) of constructing two special acyclic matrices. The first problem involves the reconstruction of matrices whose graph is a path, from given information on one eigenvector of the required matrix and one eigenvalue of [...] Read more.
In this paper, we study two inverse eigenvalue problems (IEPs) of constructing two special acyclic matrices. The first problem involves the reconstruction of matrices whose graph is a path, from given information on one eigenvector of the required matrix and one eigenvalue of each of its leading principal submatrices. The second problem involves reconstruction of matrices whose graph is a broom, the eigen data being the maximum and minimum eigenvalues of each of the leading principal submatrices of the required matrix. In order to solve the problems, we use the recurrence relations among leading principal minors and the property of simplicity of the extremal eigenvalues of acyclic matrices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Solution of Excited Non-Linear Oscillators under Damping Effects Using the Modified Differential Transform Method
Mathematics 2016, 4(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/math4010011 - 02 Mar 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1912
Abstract
The modified differential transform method (MDTM), Laplace transform and Padé approximants are used to investigate a semi-analytic form of solutions of nonlinear oscillators in a large time domain. Forced Duffing and forced van der Pol oscillators under damping effect are studied to investigate [...] Read more.
The modified differential transform method (MDTM), Laplace transform and Padé approximants are used to investigate a semi-analytic form of solutions of nonlinear oscillators in a large time domain. Forced Duffing and forced van der Pol oscillators under damping effect are studied to investigate semi-analytic forms of solutions. Moreover, solutions of the suggested nonlinear oscillators are obtained using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical solution method. A comparison of the result by the numerical Runge-Kutta fourth-order accuracy method is compared with the result by the MDTM and plotted in a long time domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Mathematics and Mechanics)
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Open AccessArticle
A Note on Burg’s Modified Entropy in Statistical Mechanics
Mathematics 2016, 4(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/math4010010 - 27 Feb 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1839
Abstract
Burg’s entropy plays an important role in this age of information euphoria, particularly in understanding the emergent behavior of a complex system such as statistical mechanics. For discrete or continuous variable, maximization of Burg’s Entropy subject to its only natural and mean constraint [...] Read more.
Burg’s entropy plays an important role in this age of information euphoria, particularly in understanding the emergent behavior of a complex system such as statistical mechanics. For discrete or continuous variable, maximization of Burg’s Entropy subject to its only natural and mean constraint always provide us a positive density function though the Entropy is always negative. On the other hand, Burg’s modified entropy is a better measure than the standard Burg’s entropy measure since this is always positive and there is no computational problem for small probabilistic values. Moreover, the maximum value of Burg’s modified entropy increases with the number of possible outcomes. In this paper, a premium has been put on the fact that if Burg’s modified entropy is used instead of conventional Burg’s entropy in a maximum entropy probability density (MEPD) function, the result yields a better approximation of the probability distribution. An important lemma in basic algebra and a suitable example with tables and graphs in statistical mechanics have been given to illustrate the whole idea appropriately. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Mathematics and Mechanics)
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Open AccessArticle
Coefficient Inequalities of Second Hankel Determinants for Some Classes of Bi-Univalent Functions
Mathematics 2016, 4(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/math4010009 - 25 Feb 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1434
Abstract
In this paper, we investigate two sub-classes S (θ, β) and K (θ, β) of bi-univalent functions in the open unit disc Δ that are subordinate to certain analytic functions. For functions belonging to these classes, we obtain an upper bound [...] Read more.
In this paper, we investigate two sub-classes S (θ, β) and K (θ, β) of bi-univalent functions in the open unit disc Δ that are subordinate to certain analytic functions. For functions belonging to these classes, we obtain an upper bound for the second Hankel determinant H2 (2). Full article
Open AccessArticle
Tight State-Independent Uncertainty Relations for Qubits
Mathematics 2016, 4(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/math4010008 - 24 Feb 2016
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 2702
Abstract
The well-known Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty relations have state-dependent lower bounds, which are trivial for certain states. We present a general approach to deriving tight state-independent uncertainty relations for qubit measurements that completely characterise the obtainable uncertainty values. This approach can give such relations for [...] Read more.
The well-known Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty relations have state-dependent lower bounds, which are trivial for certain states. We present a general approach to deriving tight state-independent uncertainty relations for qubit measurements that completely characterise the obtainable uncertainty values. This approach can give such relations for any number of observables, and we do so explicitly for arbitrary pairs and triples of qubit measurements. We show how these relations can be transformed into equivalent tight entropic uncertainty relations. More generally, they can be expressed in terms of any measure of uncertainty that can be written as a function of the expectation value of the observable for a given state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematics of Quantum Uncertainty)
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Open AccessArticle
Nevanlinna’s Five Values Theorem on Annuli
Mathematics 2016, 4(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/math4010007 - 18 Feb 2016
Viewed by 1434
Abstract
By using the second main theorem of the meromorphic function on annuli, we investigate the problem on two meromorphic functions partially sharing five or more values and obtain some theorems that improve and generalize the previous results given by Cao and Yi. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Microtubules Nonlinear Models Dynamics Investigations through the exp(−Φ(ξ))-Expansion Method Implementation
Mathematics 2016, 4(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/math4010006 - 04 Feb 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1777
Abstract
In this research article, we present exact solutions with parameters for two nonlinear model partial differential equations(PDEs) describing microtubules, by implementing the exp(−Φ(ξ))-Expansion Method. The considered models, describing highly nonlinear dynamics of microtubules, can be reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations. While the [...] Read more.
In this research article, we present exact solutions with parameters for two nonlinear model partial differential equations(PDEs) describing microtubules, by implementing the exp(−Φ(ξ))-Expansion Method. The considered models, describing highly nonlinear dynamics of microtubules, can be reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations. While the first PDE describes the longitudinal model of nonlinear dynamics of microtubules, the second one describes the nonlinear model of dynamics of radial dislocations in microtubules. The acquired solutions are then graphically presented, and their distinct properties are enumerated in respect to the corresponding dynamic behavior of the microtubules they model. Various patterns, including but not limited to regular, singular kink-like, as well as periodicity exhibiting ones, are detected. Being the method of choice herein, the exp(−Φ(ξ))-Expansion Method not disappointing in the least, is found and declared highly efficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Mathematics and Mechanics)
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Open AccessArticle
Modular Forms and Weierstrass Mock Modular Forms
Mathematics 2016, 4(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/math4010005 - 02 Feb 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1686
Abstract
Alfes, Griffin, Ono, and Rolen have shown that the harmonic Maass forms arising from Weierstrass ζ-functions associated to modular elliptic curves “encode” the vanishing and nonvanishing for central values and derivatives of twisted Hasse-Weil L-functions for elliptic curves. Previously, Martin and [...] Read more.
Alfes, Griffin, Ono, and Rolen have shown that the harmonic Maass forms arising from Weierstrass ζ-functions associated to modular elliptic curves “encode” the vanishing and nonvanishing for central values and derivatives of twisted Hasse-Weil L-functions for elliptic curves. Previously, Martin and Ono proved that there are exactly five weight 2 newforms with complex multiplication that are eta-quotients. In this paper, we construct a canonical harmonic Maass form for these five curves with complex multiplication. The holomorphic part of this harmonic Maass form arises from the Weierstrass ζ-function and is referred to as the Weierstrass mock modular form. We prove that the Weierstrass mock modular form for these five curves is itself an eta-quotient or a twist of one. Using this construction, we also obtain p-adic formulas for the corresponding weight 2 newform using Atkin’s U-operator. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Mathematics in 2015
Mathematics 2016, 4(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/math4010004 - 25 Jan 2016
Viewed by 2760
Abstract
The editors of Mathematics would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2015. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Multiplicative Expression for the Coefficient in Fermionic 3–3 Relation
Mathematics 2016, 4(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/math4010003 - 20 Jan 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1517
Abstract
Recently, a family of fermionic relations were discovered corresponding to Pachner move 3–3 and parameterized by complex-valued 2-cocycles, where the weight of a pentachoron (4-simplex) is a Grassmann–Gaussian exponent. Here, the proportionality coefficient between Berezin integrals in the l.h.s. and r.h.s. of such [...] Read more.
Recently, a family of fermionic relations were discovered corresponding to Pachner move 3–3 and parameterized by complex-valued 2-cocycles, where the weight of a pentachoron (4-simplex) is a Grassmann–Gaussian exponent. Here, the proportionality coefficient between Berezin integrals in the l.h.s. and r.h.s. of such relations is written in a form multiplicative over simplices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algebraic and Geometric Topology)
Open AccessArticle
Barrier Option Under Lévy Model : A PIDE and Mellin Transform Approach
Mathematics 2016, 4(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/math4010002 - 04 Jan 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1935
Abstract
We propose a stochastic model to develop a partial integro-differential equation (PIDE) for pricing and pricing expression for fixed type single Barrier options based on the Itô-Lévy calculus with the help of Mellin transform. The stock price is driven by a class of [...] Read more.
We propose a stochastic model to develop a partial integro-differential equation (PIDE) for pricing and pricing expression for fixed type single Barrier options based on the Itô-Lévy calculus with the help of Mellin transform. The stock price is driven by a class of infinite activity Lévy processes leading to the market inherently incomplete, and dynamic hedging is no longer risk free. We first develop a PIDE for fixed type Barrier options, and apply the Mellin transform to derive a pricing expression. Our main contribution is to develop a PIDE with its closed form pricing expression for the contract. The procedure is easy to implement for all class of Lévy processes numerically. Finally, the algorithm for computing numerically is presented with results for a set of Lévy processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical Finance)
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Open AccessArticle
On Diff(M)-Pseudo-Differential Operators and the Geometry of Non Linear Grassmannians
Mathematics 2016, 4(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/math4010001 - 25 Dec 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1259
Abstract
We consider two principal bundles of embeddings with total space E m b ( M , N ) , with structure groups D i f f ( M ) and D i f f + ( M ) , where D i f [...] Read more.
We consider two principal bundles of embeddings with total space E m b ( M , N ) , with structure groups D i f f ( M ) and D i f f + ( M ) , where D i f f + ( M ) is the groups of orientation preserving diffeomorphisms. The aim of this paper is to describe the structure group of the tangent bundle of the two base manifolds: B ( M , N ) = E m b ( M , N ) / D i f f ( M ) and B + ( M , N ) = E m b ( M , N ) / D i f f + ( M ) from the various properties described, an adequate group seems to be a group of Fourier integral operators, which is carefully studied. It is the main goal of this paper to analyze this group, which is a central extension of a group of diffeomorphisms by a group of pseudo-differential operators which is slightly different from the one developped in the mathematical litterature e.g. by H. Omori and by T. Ratiu. We show that these groups are regular, and develop the necessary properties for applications to the geometry of B ( M , N ) . A case of particular interest is M = S 1 , where connected components of B + ( S 1 , N ) are deeply linked with homotopy classes of oriented knots. In this example, the structure group of the tangent space T B + ( S 1 , N ) is a subgroup of some group G L r e s , following the classical notations of (Pressley, A., 1988). These constructions suggest some approaches in the spirit of one of our previous works on Chern-Weil theory that could lead to knot invariants through a theory of Chern-Weil forms. Full article
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