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Mathematics, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2015) , Pages 945-1273

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Open AccessArticle
Two Dimensional Temperature Distributions in Plate Heat Exchangers: An Analytical Approach
Mathematics 2015, 3(4), 1255-1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/math3041255
Received: 20 June 2015 / Revised: 26 November 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1406 | PDF Full-text (603 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Analytical solutions are developed to work out the two-dimensional (2D) temperature changes of flow in the passages of a plate heat exchanger in parallel flow and counter flow arrangements. Two different flow regimes, namely, the plug flow and the turbulent flow are considered. [...] Read more.
Analytical solutions are developed to work out the two-dimensional (2D) temperature changes of flow in the passages of a plate heat exchanger in parallel flow and counter flow arrangements. Two different flow regimes, namely, the plug flow and the turbulent flow are considered. The mathematical formulation of problems coupled at boundary conditions are presented, the solution procedure is then obtained as a special case of the two region Sturm-Liouville problem. The results obtained for two different flow regimes are then compared with experimental results and with each other. The agreement between the analytical and experimental results is an indication of the accuracy of solution method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical physics)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling ITNs Usage: Optimal Promotion Programs Versus Pure Voluntary Adoptions
Mathematics 2015, 3(4), 1241-1254; https://doi.org/10.3390/math3041241
Received: 2 October 2015 / Revised: 21 November 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 11 December 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1183 | PDF Full-text (358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We consider a mosquito-borne epidemic model, where the adoption by individuals of insecticide–treated bed–nets (ITNs) is taken into account. Motivated by the well documented strong influence of behavioral factors in ITNs usage, we propose a mathematical approach based on the idea of information–dependent [...] Read more.
We consider a mosquito-borne epidemic model, where the adoption by individuals of insecticide–treated bed–nets (ITNs) is taken into account. Motivated by the well documented strong influence of behavioral factors in ITNs usage, we propose a mathematical approach based on the idea of information–dependent epidemic models. We consider the feedback produced by the actions taken by individuals as a consequence of: (i) the information available on the status of the disease in the community where they live; (ii) an optimal health-promotion campaign aimed at encouraging people to use ITNs. The effects on the epidemic dynamics of each of these feedback are assessed and compared with the output of classical models. We show that behavioral changes of individuals may sensibly affect the epidemic dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimal Control and Management of Infectious Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Robust Finite-Time Anti-Synchronization of Chaotic Systems with Different Dimensions
Mathematics 2015, 3(4), 1222-1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/math3041222
Received: 14 July 2015 / Revised: 26 October 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 8 December 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1164 | PDF Full-text (1379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we demonstrate that anti-synchronization (AS) phenomena of chaotic systems with different dimensions can coexist in the finite-time with under the effect of both unknown model uncertainty and external disturbance. Based on the finite-time stability theory and using the master-slave system [...] Read more.
In this paper, we demonstrate that anti-synchronization (AS) phenomena of chaotic systems with different dimensions can coexist in the finite-time with under the effect of both unknown model uncertainty and external disturbance. Based on the finite-time stability theory and using the master-slave system AS scheme, a generalized approach for the finite-time AS is proposed that guarantee the global stability of the closed-loop for reduced order and increased order AS in the finite time. Numerical simulation results further verify the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed finite-time reduced order and increased order AS schemes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
From Cayley-Dickson Algebras to Combinatorial Grassmannians
Mathematics 2015, 3(4), 1192-1221; https://doi.org/10.3390/math3041192
Received: 23 August 2015 / Revised: 26 November 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2173 | PDF Full-text (402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Given a 2N -dimensional Cayley-Dickson algebra, where 3 ≤ N ≤ 6 , we first observe that the multiplication table of its imaginary units ea , 1 ≤ a ≤ 2N - 1 , is encoded in the properties of [...] Read more.
Given a 2N -dimensional Cayley-Dickson algebra, where 3 ≤ N ≤ 6 , we first observe that the multiplication table of its imaginary units ea , 1 ≤ a ≤ 2N - 1 , is encoded in the properties of the projective space PG(N - 1,2) if these imaginary units are regarded as points and distinguished triads of them {ea, eb , ec} , 1 ≤ a < b < c ≤ 2N - 1 and eaeb = ±ec , as lines. This projective space is seen to feature two distinct kinds of lines according as a + b = c or a + b ≠ c . Consequently, it also exhibits (at least two) different types of points in dependence on how many lines of either kind pass through each of them. In order to account for such partition of the PG(N - 1,2) , the concept of Veldkamp space of a finite point-line incidence structure is employed. The corresponding point-line incidence structure is found to be a specific binomial configuration CN; in particular, C3 (octonions) is isomorphic to the Pasch (62, 43) -configuration, C4 (sedenions) is the famous Desargues (103) -configuration, C5 (32-nions) coincides with the Cayley-Salmon (154, 203) -configuration found in the well-known Pascal mystic hexagram and C6 (64-nions) is identical with a particular (215, 353) -configuration that can be viewed as four triangles in perspective from a line where the points of perspectivity of six pairs of them form a Pasch configuration. Finally, a brief examination of the structure of generic CN leads to a conjecture that CN is isomorphic to a combinatorial Grassmannian of type G2(N + 1). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Construction of Periodic Wavelet Frames Generated by the Walsh Polynomials
Mathematics 2015, 3(4), 1171-1191; https://doi.org/10.3390/math3041171
Received: 24 August 2015 / Revised: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 20 November 2015 / Published: 3 December 2015
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Abstract
An explicit method for the construction of a tight wavelet frame generated by the Walsh polynomials with the help of extension principles was presented by Shah (Shah, 2013). In this article, we extend the notion of wavelet frames to periodic wavelet frames generated [...] Read more.
An explicit method for the construction of a tight wavelet frame generated by the Walsh polynomials with the help of extension principles was presented by Shah (Shah, 2013). In this article, we extend the notion of wavelet frames to periodic wavelet frames generated by the Walsh polynomials on R+ by using extension principles. We first show that under some mild conditions, the periodization of any wavelet frame constructed by the unitary extension principle is still a periodic wavelet frame on R + . Then, we construct a pair of dual periodic wavelet frames generated by the Walsh polynomials on R + using the machinery of the mixed extension principle and Walsh–Fourier transforms. Full article
Open AccessArticle
HIV vs. the Immune System: A Differential Game
Mathematics 2015, 3(4), 1139-1170; https://doi.org/10.3390/math3041139
Received: 17 July 2015 / Revised: 6 November 2015 / Accepted: 19 November 2015 / Published: 3 December 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1443 | PDF Full-text (575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A differential game is formulated in order to model the interaction between the immune system and the HIV virus. One player is represented by the immune system of a patient subject to a therapeutic treatment and the other player is the HIV virus. [...] Read more.
A differential game is formulated in order to model the interaction between the immune system and the HIV virus. One player is represented by the immune system of a patient subject to a therapeutic treatment and the other player is the HIV virus. The aim of our study is to determine the optimal therapy that allows to prevent viral replication inside the body, so as to reduce the damage caused to the immune system, and allow greater survival and quality of life. We propose a model that considers all the most common classes of antiretroviral drugs taking into account different immune cells dynamics. We validate the model with numerical simulations, and determine optimal structured treatment interruption (STI) schedules for medications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimal Control and Management of Infectious Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Free W*-Dynamical Systems From p-Adic Number Fields and the Euler Totient Function
Mathematics 2015, 3(4), 1095-1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/math3041095
Received: 26 May 2015 / Revised: 18 September 2015 / Accepted: 23 September 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
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Abstract
In this paper, we study relations between free probability on crossed product W * -algebras with a von Neumann algebra over p-adic number fields ℚp (for primes p), and free probability on the subalgebra Φ, generated by the Euler totient function ϕ, [...] Read more.
In this paper, we study relations between free probability on crossed product W * -algebras with a von Neumann algebra over p-adic number fields ℚp (for primes p), and free probability on the subalgebra Φ, generated by the Euler totient function ϕ, of the arithmetic algebra A , consisting of all arithmetic functions. In particular, we apply such free probability to consider operator-theoretic and operator-algebraic properties of W * -dynamical systems induced by ℚp under free-probabilistic (and hence, spectral-theoretic) techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical physics)
Open AccessArticle
The San Francisco MSM Epidemic: A Retrospective Analysis
Mathematics 2015, 3(4), 1083-1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/math3041083
Received: 30 July 2015 / Accepted: 13 November 2015 / Published: 24 November 2015
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Abstract
We investigate various scenarios for ending the San Francisco MSM (men having sex with men) HIV/AIDS epidemic (1978–1984). We use our previously developed model and explore changes due to prevention strategies such as testing, treatment and reduction of the number of contacts. Here [...] Read more.
We investigate various scenarios for ending the San Francisco MSM (men having sex with men) HIV/AIDS epidemic (1978–1984). We use our previously developed model and explore changes due to prevention strategies such as testing, treatment and reduction of the number of contacts. Here we consider a “what-if” scenario, by comparing different treatment strategies, to determine which factor has the greatest impact on reducing the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The factor determining the future of the epidemic is the reproduction number R0; if R0 < 1, the epidemic is stopped. We show that treatment significantly reduces the total number of infected people. We also investigate the effect a reduction in the number of contacts after seven years, when the HIV/AIDS threat became known, would have had in the population. Both reduction of contacts and treatment alone, however, would not have been enough to bring R0 below one; but when combined, we show that the effective R0 becomes less than one, and therefore the epidemic would have been eradicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimal Control and Management of Infectious Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
A Class of Extended Mittag–Leffler Functions and Their Properties Related to Integral Transforms and Fractional Calculus
Mathematics 2015, 3(4), 1069-1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/math3041069
Received: 30 March 2015 / Revised: 11 October 2015 / Accepted: 26 October 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1427 | PDF Full-text (296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In a joint paper with Srivastava and Chopra, we introduced far-reaching generalizations of the extended Gammafunction, extended Beta function and the extended Gauss hypergeometric function. In this present paper, we extend the generalized Mittag–Leffler function by means of the extended Beta function. We [...] Read more.
In a joint paper with Srivastava and Chopra, we introduced far-reaching generalizations of the extended Gammafunction, extended Beta function and the extended Gauss hypergeometric function. In this present paper, we extend the generalized Mittag–Leffler function by means of the extended Beta function. We then systematically investigate several properties of the extended Mittag–Leffler function, including, for example, certain basic properties, Laplace transform, Mellin transform and Euler-Beta transform. Further, certain properties of the Riemann–Liouville fractional integrals and derivatives associated with the extended Mittag–Leffler function are investigated. Some interesting special cases of our main results are also pointed out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fractional Calculus and Its Applications)
Open AccessArticle
Pointwise Reconstruction of Wave Functions from Their Moments through Weighted Polynomial Expansions: An Alternative Global-Local Quantization Procedure
Mathematics 2015, 3(4), 1045-1068; https://doi.org/10.3390/math3041045
Received: 15 July 2015 / Revised: 15 October 2015 / Accepted: 26 October 2015 / Published: 5 November 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1282 | PDF Full-text (592 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many quantum systems admit an explicit analytic Fourier space expansion, besides the usual analytic Schrödinger configuration space representation. We argue that the use of weighted orthonormal polynomial expansions for the physical states (generated through the power moments) can define an L2 convergent, non-orthonormal, [...] Read more.
Many quantum systems admit an explicit analytic Fourier space expansion, besides the usual analytic Schrödinger configuration space representation. We argue that the use of weighted orthonormal polynomial expansions for the physical states (generated through the power moments) can define an L2 convergent, non-orthonormal, basis expansion with sufficient pointwise convergent behaviors, enabling the direct coupling of the global (power moments) and local (Taylor series) expansions in configuration space. Our formulation is elaborated within the orthogonal polynomial projection quantization (OPPQ) configuration space representation previously developed The quantization approach pursued here defines an alternative strategy emphasizing the relevance of OPPQ to the reconstruction of the local structure of the physical states. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Fast O(N log N) Finite Difference Method for the One-Dimensional Space-Fractional Diffusion Equation
Mathematics 2015, 3(4), 1032-1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/math3041032
Received: 4 August 2015 / Accepted: 15 October 2015 / Published: 27 October 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1513 | PDF Full-text (306 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes an approach for the space-fractional diffusion equation in one dimension. Since fractional differential operators are non-local, two main difficulties arise after discretization and solving using Gaussian elimination: how to handle the memory requirement of O(N2) for storing [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an approach for the space-fractional diffusion equation in one dimension. Since fractional differential operators are non-local, two main difficulties arise after discretization and solving using Gaussian elimination: how to handle the memory requirement of O(N2) for storing the dense or even full matrices that arise from application of numerical methods and how to manage the significant computational work count of O(N3) per time step, where N is the number of spatial grid points. In this paper, a fast iterative finite difference method is developed, which has a memory requirement of O(N) and a computational cost of O(N logN) per iteration. Finally, some numerical results are shown to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the new method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Cohomology Theory for Commutative Monoids
Mathematics 2015, 3(4), 1001-1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/math3041001
Received: 21 September 2015 / Revised: 15 October 2015 / Accepted: 16 October 2015 / Published: 27 October 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1334 | PDF Full-text (351 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Extending Eilenberg–Mac Lane’s cohomology of abelian groups, a cohomology theory is introduced for commutative monoids. The cohomology groups in this theory agree with the pre-existing ones by Grillet in low dimensions, but they differ beyond dimension two. A natural interpretation is given for [...] Read more.
Extending Eilenberg–Mac Lane’s cohomology of abelian groups, a cohomology theory is introduced for commutative monoids. The cohomology groups in this theory agree with the pre-existing ones by Grillet in low dimensions, but they differ beyond dimension two. A natural interpretation is given for the three-cohomology classes in terms of braided monoidal groupoids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Homological and Homotopical Algebra and Category Theory)
Open AccessArticle
Gauge Invariance and Symmetry Breaking by Topology and Energy Gap
Mathematics 2015, 3(4), 984-1000; https://doi.org/10.3390/math3040984
Received: 16 July 2015 / Revised: 8 October 2015 / Accepted: 12 October 2015 / Published: 22 October 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1371 | PDF Full-text (234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For the description of observables and states of a quantum system, it may be convenient to use a canonical Weyl algebra of which only a subalgebra A, with a non-trivial center Z, describes observables, the other Weyl operators playing the role of intertwiners [...] Read more.
For the description of observables and states of a quantum system, it may be convenient to use a canonical Weyl algebra of which only a subalgebra A, with a non-trivial center Z, describes observables, the other Weyl operators playing the role of intertwiners between inequivalent representations of A. In particular, this gives rise to a gauge symmetry described by the action of Z. A distinguished case is when the center of the observables arises from the fundamental group of the manifold of the positions of the quantum system. Symmetries that do not commute with the topological invariants represented by elements of Z are then spontaneously broken in each irreducible representation of the observable algebra, compatibly with an energy gap; such a breaking exhibits a mechanism radically different from Goldstone and Higgs mechanisms. This is clearly displayed by the quantum particle on a circle, the Bloch electron and the two body problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical physics)
Open AccessArticle
Optimal Intervention Strategies for a SEIR Control Model of Ebola Epidemics
Mathematics 2015, 3(4), 961-983; https://doi.org/10.3390/math3040961
Received: 30 July 2015 / Revised: 16 September 2015 / Accepted: 10 October 2015 / Published: 21 October 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1537 | PDF Full-text (508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A SEIR control model describing the Ebola epidemic in a population of a constant size is considered over a given time interval. It contains two intervention control functions reflecting efforts to protect susceptible individuals from infected and exposed individuals. For this model, the [...] Read more.
A SEIR control model describing the Ebola epidemic in a population of a constant size is considered over a given time interval. It contains two intervention control functions reflecting efforts to protect susceptible individuals from infected and exposed individuals. For this model, the problem of minimizing the weighted sum of total fractions of infected and exposed individuals and total costs of intervention control constraints at a given time interval is stated. For the analysis of the corresponding optimal controls, the Pontryagin maximum principle is used. According to it, these controls are bang-bang, and are determined using the same switching function. A linear non-autonomous system of differential equations, to which this function satisfies together with its corresponding auxiliary functions, is found. In order to estimate the number of zeroes of the switching function, the matrix of the linear non-autonomous system is transformed to an upper triangular form on the entire time interval and the generalized Rolle’s theorem is applied to the converted system of differential equations. It is found that the optimal controls of the original problem have at most two switchings. This fact allows the reduction of the original complex optimal control problem to the solution of a much simpler problem of conditional minimization of a function of two variables. Results of the numerical solution to this problem and their detailed analysis are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimal Control and Management of Infectious Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Reformulated First Zagreb Index of Some Graph Operations
Mathematics 2015, 3(4), 945-960; https://doi.org/10.3390/math3040945
Received: 18 July 2015 / Accepted: 13 October 2015 / Published: 16 October 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1734 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The reformulated Zagreb indices of a graph are obtained from the classical Zagreb indices by replacing vertex degrees with edge degrees, where the degree of an edge is taken as the sum of degrees of the end vertices of the edge minus 2. [...] Read more.
The reformulated Zagreb indices of a graph are obtained from the classical Zagreb indices by replacing vertex degrees with edge degrees, where the degree of an edge is taken as the sum of degrees of the end vertices of the edge minus 2. In this paper, we study the behavior of the reformulated first Zagreb index and apply our results to different chemically interesting molecular graphs and nano-structures. Full article
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