Next Article in Journal
Vegetable Soups and Creams: Raw Materials, Processing, Health Benefits, and Innovation Trends
Next Article in Special Issue
Relationship between Vessel Formation and Seasonal Changes in Leaf Area of Evergreen and Deciduous Species with Different Vessel Arrangements
Previous Article in Journal
The Epidemiology of Plant Virus Disease: Towards a New Synthesis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Ontogeny and Anatomy of the Dimorphic Pitchers of Nepenthes rafflesiana Jack
Open AccessArticle

Pitfall Flower Development and Organ Identity of Ceropegia sandersonii (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae)

1
School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg 3209, South Africa
2
Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Darwinweg 2, 2333 CR Leiden, The Netherlands
3
Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, Sylviusweg 72, 2333 BE Leiden, The Netherlands
4
Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute (IOCRI), Jl. Raya Ciherang, Pacet-Cianjur 43253, Indonesia
5
Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Applied Sciences Leiden, Zernikedreef 11, 2333 CK Leiden, The Netherlands
6
Institute of Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2020, 9(12), 1767; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121767
Received: 31 October 2020 / Revised: 10 December 2020 / Accepted: 11 December 2020 / Published: 14 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Anatomy and Biochemistry)
Deceptive Ceropegia pitfall flowers are an outstanding example of synorganized morphological complexity. Floral organs functionally synergise to trap fly-pollinators inside the fused corolla. Successful pollination requires precise positioning of flies headfirst into cavities at the gynostegium. These cavities are formed by the corona, a specialized organ of corolline and/or staminal origin. The interplay of floral organs to achieve pollination is well studied but their evolutionary origin is still unclear. We aimed to obtain more insight in the homology of the corona and therefore investigated floral anatomy, ontogeny, vascularization, and differential MADS-box gene expression in Ceropegia sandersonii using X-ray microtomography, Light and Scanning Electronic Microscopy, and RT-PCR. During 10 defined developmental phases, the corona appears in phase 7 at the base of the stamens and was not found to be vascularized. A floral reference transcriptome was generated and 14 MADS-box gene homologs, representing all major MADS-box gene classes, were identified. B- and C-class gene expression was found in mature coronas. Our results indicate staminal origin of the corona, and we propose a first ABCDE-model for floral organ identity in Ceropegia to lay the foundation for a better understanding of the molecular background of pitfall flower evolution in Apocynaceae. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ceropegia; MADS-box genes; micro-CT scanning; RT-PCR; vascularization; SEM; transcriptomics Ceropegia; MADS-box genes; micro-CT scanning; RT-PCR; vascularization; SEM; transcriptomics
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Heiduk, A.; Pramanik, D.; Spaans, M.; Gast, L.; Dorst, N.; van Heuven, B.J.; Gravendeel, B. Pitfall Flower Development and Organ Identity of Ceropegia sandersonii (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae). Plants 2020, 9, 1767. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121767

AMA Style

Heiduk A, Pramanik D, Spaans M, Gast L, Dorst N, van Heuven BJ, Gravendeel B. Pitfall Flower Development and Organ Identity of Ceropegia sandersonii (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae). Plants. 2020; 9(12):1767. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121767

Chicago/Turabian Style

Heiduk, Annemarie; Pramanik, Dewi; Spaans, Marlies; Gast, Loes; Dorst, Nemi; van Heuven, Bertie J.; Gravendeel, Barbara. 2020. "Pitfall Flower Development and Organ Identity of Ceropegia sandersonii (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae)" Plants 9, no. 12: 1767. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants9121767

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop