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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 9, Issue 7 (July 2020) – 53 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This work implements an open-source approach for multidimensional vector and raster geospatial data visualization and multidimensional raster geospatial data processing. The results of this research are provided through a geoportal comprised of multiple applications related to the 3D visualization of cities, ground deformation, land cover, land consumption and mobility. The datasets handled are considered to be large in volume in a subset of the applications. The geospatial data are visualized on dynamic and interactive virtual globes to enable visual exploration. To achieve the aforementioned results, the existing web technologies for geovisualization and geospatial data processing were examined, and exemplary and innovative software was developed in a way that extends the state of the art. View this paper
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Article
Spatial Metadata Usability Evaluation
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070463 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
Spatial metadata is a critical part of any spatial data infrastructure, which enables the organising, sharing, discovery and use of spatial data. This paper highlights a knowledge gap in the usability of the metadata systems for the end–users. It then addresses the gap [...] Read more.
Spatial metadata is a critical part of any spatial data infrastructure, which enables the organising, sharing, discovery and use of spatial data. This paper highlights a knowledge gap in the usability of the metadata systems for the end–users. It then addresses the gap by applying the User Centred Design approach to investigate the usability of metadata records. The research engages with end–users concerning efficiency and effectiveness of metadata systems, and end–users’ satisfaction and expectations. The results indicate significant gaps with the effectiveness and efficiency of metadata systems for spatial data discovery and selection. Inconsistency and irrelevant information in the metadata records were found in the title, keywords, abstracts, data quality and other elements of the metadata. Additionally, essential improvements were identified for user interfaces. Discouraging presentation of the metadata is a prominent problem found in the interface of the metadata systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Metadata)
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Article
Change Detection in Multispectral Remote Sensing Images with Leader Intelligence PSO and NSCT Feature Fusion
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070462 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 817
Abstract
Change detection (CD) using Remote sensing images have been a challenging problem over the years. Particularly in the unsupervised domain it is even more difficult. A novel automatic change detection technique in the unsupervised framework is proposed to address the real challenges involved [...] Read more.
Change detection (CD) using Remote sensing images have been a challenging problem over the years. Particularly in the unsupervised domain it is even more difficult. A novel automatic change detection technique in the unsupervised framework is proposed to address the real challenges involved in remote sensing change detection. As the accuracy of change map is highly dependent on quality of difference image (DI), a set of Normalized difference images and a complementary set of Normalized Ratio images are fused in the Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) domain to generate high quality difference images. The NSCT is chosen as it is efficient in suppressing noise by utilizing its unique characteristics such as multidirectionality and shift-invariance that are suitable for change detection. The low frequency sub bands are fused by averaging to combine the complementary information in the two DIs, and, the higher frequency sub bands are merged by minimum energy rule, for preserving the edges and salient features in the image. By employing a novel Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm with Leader Intelligence (LIPSO), change maps are generated from fused sub bands in two different ways: (i) single spectral band, and (ii) combination of spectral bands. In LIPSO, the concept of leader and followers has been modified with intelligent particles performing Lévy flight randomly for better exploration, to achieve global optima. The proposed method achieved an overall accuracy of 99.64%, 98.49% and 97.66% on the three datasets considered, which is very high. The results have been compared with relevant algorithms. The quantitative metrics demonstrate the superiority of the proposed techniques over the other methods and are found to be statistically significant with McNemar’s test. Visual quality of the results also corroborate the superiority of the proposed method. Full article
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Article
Spatiotemporal Variation of Urban Heat Islands for Implementing Nature-Based Solutions: A Case Study of Kurunegala, Sri Lanka
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070461 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1735
Abstract
Changes in the urban landscape resulting from rapid urbanisation and climate change have the potential to increase land surface temperature (LST) and the incidence of the urban heat island (UHI). An increase in urban heat directly affects urban livelihoods and systems. This study [...] Read more.
Changes in the urban landscape resulting from rapid urbanisation and climate change have the potential to increase land surface temperature (LST) and the incidence of the urban heat island (UHI). An increase in urban heat directly affects urban livelihoods and systems. This study investigated the spatiotemporal variation of the UHI in the Kurunegala urban area (KUA) of North-Western Province, Sri Lanka. The KUA is one of the most intensively developing economic and administrative capitals in Sri Lanka with an urban system that is facing climate vulnerabilities and challenges of extreme heat conditions. We examined the UHI formation for the period 1996–2019 and its impact on the urban-systems by exploring nature-based solutions (NBS). This study used annual median temperatures based on Landsat data from 1996 to 2019 using the Google Earth Engine (GEE). Various geospatial approaches, including spectral index-based land use/cover mapping (1996, 2009 and 2019), urban-rural gradient zones, UHI profile, statistics and grid-based analysis, were used to analyse the data. The results revealed that the mean LST increased by 5.5 °C between 1996 and 2019 mainly associated with the expansion pattern of impervious surfaces. The mean LST had a positive correlation with impervious surfaces and a negative correlation with the green spaces in all the three time-points. Impacts due to climate change, including positive temperature and negative rainfall anomalies, contributed to the increase in LST. The study recommends interactively applying NBS to addressing the UHI impacts with effective mitigation and adaptation measures for urban sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Information Science in Planning and Development of Smart Cities)
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Article
Assessing the Governance Context Support for Creating a Pluvial Flood Risk Map with Climate Change Scenarios: The Flemish Subnational Case
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070460 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 920
Abstract
Climate change has increased pluvial flood risks in cities around the world. To mitigate floods, pluvial risk maps with climate change scenarios have been developed to help major urban areas adapt to a changing climate. In some cases, subnational governments have played a [...] Read more.
Climate change has increased pluvial flood risks in cities around the world. To mitigate floods, pluvial risk maps with climate change scenarios have been developed to help major urban areas adapt to a changing climate. In some cases, subnational governments have played a key role to develop these maps. However, governance research about the role of subnational governments in geospatial data development in urban water transitions has received little attention. To address this gap, this research applies the Governance Assessment Tool as an evaluative framework to increase our understanding of the governance factors that support the development of pluvial flood risk maps at the subnational level. For this research, we selected the region of Flanders in Belgium. This region is considered among the frontrunners when it comes to the creation of a pluvial flood risk map with climate change scenarios. Data have been collected through in-depth interviews with steering committee actors involved in the development process of the map. The research identified that the current governance context is supportive of the creation of the flood risk map. The government of Flanders plays a key role in this process. The most supportive qualities of the governance context are those related to the degree of fragmentation (extent and coherence), while the less supportive ones are those related to the “quest for control” (flexibility and intensity). Under this governance context, government actors play the primary role. The Flemish government led the maps’ creation process and it was supported by the lower governmental levels. As the provincial government was an important actor to increase local participation, collaboration with private and non-governmental actors in the steering committee was more limited. The financial resources were also limited and the process required a continuous development of trust. Yet, the Flemish Environmental Agency, with the use of technology, was able to increase such trust during the process. Full article
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Article
Urban Crime Risk Prediction Using Point of Interest Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070459 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1387
Abstract
Geographical information systems have found successful applications to prediction and decision-making in several areas of vital importance to contemporary society. This article demonstrates how they can be combined with machine learning algorithms to create crime prediction models for urban areas. Selected point of [...] Read more.
Geographical information systems have found successful applications to prediction and decision-making in several areas of vital importance to contemporary society. This article demonstrates how they can be combined with machine learning algorithms to create crime prediction models for urban areas. Selected point of interest (POI) layers from OpenStreetMap are used to derive attributes describing micro-areas, which are assigned crime risk classes based on police crime records. POI attributes then serve as input attributes for learning crime risk prediction models with classification learning algorithms. The experimental results obtained for four UK urban areas suggest that POI attributes have high predictive utility. Classification models using these attributes, without any form of location identification, exhibit good predictive performance when applied to new, previously unseen micro-areas. This makes them capable of crime risk prediction for newly developed or dynamically changing neighborhoods. The high dimensionality of the model input space can be considerably reduced without predictive performance loss by attribute selection or principal component analysis. Models trained on data from one area achieve a good level of prediction quality when applied to another area, which makes it possible to transfer or combine crime risk prediction models across different urban areas. Full article
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Article
Modeling Major Rural Land-Use Changes Using the GIS-Based Cellular Automata Metronamica Model: The Case of Andalusia (Southern Spain)
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070458 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1367
Abstract
The effective and efficient planning of rural land-use changes and their impact on the environment is critical for land-use managers. Many land-use growth models have been proposed for forecasting growth patterns in the last few years. In this work; a cellular automata (CA)-based [...] Read more.
The effective and efficient planning of rural land-use changes and their impact on the environment is critical for land-use managers. Many land-use growth models have been proposed for forecasting growth patterns in the last few years. In this work; a cellular automata (CA)-based land-use model (Metronamica) was tested to simulate (1999–2007) and predict (2007–2035) land-use dynamics and land-use changes in Andalucía (Spain). The model was calibrated using temporal changes in land-use covers and was evaluated by the Kappa index. GIS-based maps were generated to study major rural land-use changes (agriculture and forests). The change matrix for 1999–2007 showed an overall area change of 674971 ha. The dominant land uses in 2007 were shrubs (30.7%), woody crops on dry land (17.3%), and herbaceous crops on dry land (12.7%). The comparison between the reference and the simulated land-use maps of 2007 showed a Kappa index of 0.91. The land-cover map for the projected PRELUDE scenarios provided the land-cover characteristics of 2035 in Andalusia; developed within the Metronamica model scenarios (Great Escape; Evolved Society; Clustered Network; Lettuce Surprise U; and Big Crisis). The greatest differences were found between Great Escape and Clustered Network and Lettuce Surprise U. The observed trend (1999–2007–2035) showed the greatest similarity with the Big Crisis scenario. Land-use projections facilitate the understanding of the future dynamics of land-use change in rural areas; and hence the development of more appropriate plans and policies Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Informatics in Resource Management)
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Article
An Event-Based Inventory Approach in Landslide Hazard Assessment: The Case of the Skolis Mountain, Northwest Peloponnese, Greece
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070457 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 943
Abstract
Assessment of landslide hazard across mountains is imperative for public safety. Pre- and post-earthquake landslide mapping envisage that landslides show significant size changes during earthquake activity. One of the purposes of earthquake-induced landslide investigation is to determine the landslide state and geometry and [...] Read more.
Assessment of landslide hazard across mountains is imperative for public safety. Pre- and post-earthquake landslide mapping envisage that landslides show significant size changes during earthquake activity. One of the purposes of earthquake-induced landslide investigation is to determine the landslide state and geometry and draw conclusions on their mobility. This study was based on remote sensing data that covered 72 years, and focused on the west slopes of the Skolis Mountains, in the northwest Peloponnese. On 8 June 2008, during the strong Movri Mountain earthquake (Mw = 6.4), we mapped the extremely abundant landslide occurrence. Historical seismicity and remote sensing data indicate that the Skolis Mountain west slope is repeatedly affected by landslides. The impact of the earthquakes was based on the estimation of Arias intensity in the study area. We recognized that 89 landslides developed over the last 72 years. These landslides increased their width (W), called herein as inflation or their length (L), termed as enlargement. Length and width changes were used to describe their aspect ratio (L/W). Based on the aspect ratio, the 89 landslides were classified into three types: I, J, and Δ. Taluses, developed at the base of the slope and belonging to the J- and Δ-landslide types, are supplied by narrow or irregular channels. During the earthquakes, the landslide channels migrated upward and downward, outlining the mobility of the earthquake-induced landslides. Landslide mobility was defined by the reach angle. The reach angle is the arctangent of the landslide’s height to length ratio. Furthermore, we analyzed the present slope stability across the Skolis Mountain by using the landslide density (LD), landslide area percentage (LAP), and landslide frequency (LF). All these parameters were used to evaluate the spatial and temporal landslide distribution and evolution with the earthquake activity. These results can be considered as a powerful tool for earthquake-induced landslide disaster mitigation Full article
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Article
A Deep Learning Approach to Urban Street Functionality Prediction Based on Centrality Measures and Stacked Denoising Autoencoder
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070456 - 20 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1167
Abstract
In urban planning and transportation management, the centrality characteristics of urban streets are vital measures to consider. Centrality can help in understanding the structural properties of dense traffic networks that affect both human life and activity in cities. Many cities classify urban streets [...] Read more.
In urban planning and transportation management, the centrality characteristics of urban streets are vital measures to consider. Centrality can help in understanding the structural properties of dense traffic networks that affect both human life and activity in cities. Many cities classify urban streets to provide stakeholders with a group of street guidelines for possible new rehabilitation such as sidewalks, curbs, and setbacks. Transportation research always considers street networks as a connection between different urban areas. The street functionality classification defines the role of each element of the urban street network (USN). Some potential factors such as land use mix, accessible service, design goal, and administrators’ policies can affect the movement pattern of urban travelers. In this study, nine centrality measures are used to classify the urban roads in four cities evaluating the structural importance of street segments. In our work, a Stacked Denoising Autoencoder (SDAE) predicts a street’s functionality, then logistic regression is used as a classifier. Our proposed classifier can differentiate between four different classes adopted from the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDT): principal arterial road, minor arterial road, collector road, and local road. The SDAE-based model showed that regular grid configurations with repeated patterns are more influential in forming the functionality of road networks compared to those with less regularity in their spatial structure. Full article
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Article
Nighttime Mobile Laser Scanning and 3D Luminance Measurement: Verifying the Outcome of Roadside Tree Pruning with Mobile Measurement of the Road Environment
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070455 - 19 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1379
Abstract
Roadside vegetation can affect the performance of installed road lighting. We demonstrate a workflow in which a car-mounted measurement system is used to assess the light-obstructing effect of roadside vegetation. The mobile mapping system (MMS) includes a panoramic camera system, laser scanner, inertial [...] Read more.
Roadside vegetation can affect the performance of installed road lighting. We demonstrate a workflow in which a car-mounted measurement system is used to assess the light-obstructing effect of roadside vegetation. The mobile mapping system (MMS) includes a panoramic camera system, laser scanner, inertial measurement unit, and satellite positioning system. The workflow and the measurement system were applied to a road section of Munkkiniemenranta, Helsinki, Finland, in 2015 and 2019. The relative luminance distribution on a road surface and the obstructing vegetation were measured before and after roadside vegetation pruning applying a luminance-calibrated mobile mapping system. The difference between the two measurements is presented, and the opportunities provided by the mobile 3D luminance measurement system are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research Based on Multi-Dimensional Point Cloud Analysis)
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Article
Population Trends and Urbanization: Simulating Density Effects Using a Local Regression Approach
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070454 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1049
Abstract
Density-dependent population growth regulates long-term urban expansion and shapes distinctive socioeconomic trends. Despite a marked heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of the resident population, Mediterranean European countries are considered more homogeneous than countries in other European regions as far as settlement structure and [...] Read more.
Density-dependent population growth regulates long-term urban expansion and shapes distinctive socioeconomic trends. Despite a marked heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of the resident population, Mediterranean European countries are considered more homogeneous than countries in other European regions as far as settlement structure and processes of metropolitan growth are concerned. However, rising socioeconomic inequalities among Southern European regions reflect latent demographic and territorial transformations that require further investigation. An integrated assessment of the spatio-temporal distribution of resident populations in more than 1000 municipalities (1961–2011) was carried out in this study to characterize density-dependent processes of metropolitan growth in Greece. Using geographically weighted regressions, the results of our study identified distinctive local relationships between population density and growth rates over time. Our results demonstrate that demographic growth rates were non-linearly correlated with other variables, such as population density, with positive and negative impacts during the first (1961–1971) and the last (2001–2011) observation decade, respectively. These findings outline a progressive shift over time from density-dependent processes of population growth, reflecting a rapid development of large metropolitan regions (Athens, Thessaloniki) in the 1960s, to density-dependent processes more evident in medium-sized cities and accessible rural regions in the 2000s. Density-independent processes of population growth have been detected in the intermediate study period (1971–2001). This work finally discusses how a long-term analysis of demographic growth, testing for density-dependent mechanisms, may clarify the intrinsic role of population concentration and dispersion in different phases of the metropolitan cycle in Mediterranean Europe. Full article
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Article
Generating and Mapping Amazonian Urban Regions Using a Geospatial Approach
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070453 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1671
Abstract
(1) background: Urban representations of the Amazon are urgently needed in order to better understand the complexity of urban processes in this area of the World. So far, limited work that represents Amazonian urban regions has been carried out. (2) methods: Our study [...] Read more.
(1) background: Urban representations of the Amazon are urgently needed in order to better understand the complexity of urban processes in this area of the World. So far, limited work that represents Amazonian urban regions has been carried out. (2) methods: Our study area is the Ecuadorian Amazon. We performed a K-means algorithm using six urban indicators: Urban fractal dimension, number of paved streets, urban radiant intensity (luminosity), and distances to the closest new deforested areas, to oil pollution sources, and to mining pollution sources. We also carried out fieldwork to qualitatively validate our geospatial and statistical analyses. (3) results: We generated six Amazonian urban regions representing different urban configurations and processes of major cities, small cities, and emerging urban zones. The Amazonian urban regions generated represent the urban systems of the Ecuadorian Amazon at a general scale, and correspond to the urban realities at a local scale. (4) conclusions: An Amazonian urban region is understood as a set of urban zones that are dispersed and share common urban characteristics such a similar distance to oil pollution sources or similar urban radiant intensity. Our regionalization model represents the complexity of the Amazonian urban systems, and the applied methodology could be transferred to other Amazonian countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measuring, Mapping, Modeling, and Visualization of Cities)
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Article
GIS-Based Mapping of Seismic Parameters for the Pyrenees
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070452 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 959
Abstract
In the present paper, three of the main seismic parameters, maximum magnitude -Mmax, b-value, and annual rate -AR, have been studied for the Pyrenees range in southwest Europe by a Geographic Information System (GIS). The [...] Read more.
In the present paper, three of the main seismic parameters, maximum magnitude -Mmax, b-value, and annual rate -AR, have been studied for the Pyrenees range in southwest Europe by a Geographic Information System (GIS). The main aim of this work is to calculate, represent continuously, and analyze some of the most crucial seismic indicators for this belt. To this end, an updated and homogenized Poissonian earthquake catalog has been generated, where the National Geographic Institute of Spain earthquake catalog has been considered as a starting point. Herein, the details about the catalog compilation, the magnitude homogenization, the declustering of the catalog, and the analysis of the completeness, are exposed. When the catalog has been produced, a GIS tool has been used to drive the parameters’ calculations and representations properly. Different grids (0.5 × 0.5° and 1 × 1°) have been created to depict a continuous map of these parameters. The b-value and AR have been obtained that take into account different pairs of magnitude–year of completeness. Mmax has been discretely obtained (by cells). The analysis of the results shows that the Central Pyrenees (mainly from Arudy to Bagnères de Bigorre) present the most pronounced seismicity in the range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Informatics in Resource Management)
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Article
A Machine Learning Approach to Delineating Neighborhoods from Geocoded Appraisal Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070451 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1343
Abstract
Identification of neighborhoods is an important, financially-driven topic in real estate. It is known that the real estate industry uses ZIP (postal) codes and Census tracts as a source of land demarcation to categorize properties with respect to their price. These demarcated boundaries [...] Read more.
Identification of neighborhoods is an important, financially-driven topic in real estate. It is known that the real estate industry uses ZIP (postal) codes and Census tracts as a source of land demarcation to categorize properties with respect to their price. These demarcated boundaries are static and are inflexible to the shift in the real estate market and fail to represent its dynamics, such as in the case of an up-and-coming residential project. Delineated neighborhoods are also used in socioeconomic and demographic analyses where statistics are computed at a neighborhood level. Current practices of delineating neighborhoods have mostly ignored the information that can be extracted from property appraisals. This paper demonstrates the potential of using only the distance between subjects and their comparable properties, identified in an appraisal, to delineate neighborhoods that are composed of properties with similar prices and features. Using spatial filters, we first identify regions with the most appraisal activity, and through the application of a spatial clustering algorithm, generate neighborhoods composed of properties sharing similar characteristics. Through an application of bootstrapped linear regression, we find that delineating neighborhoods using geolocation of subjects and comparable properties explains more variation in a property’s features, such as valuation, square footage, and price per square foot, than ZIP codes or Census tracts. We also discuss the ability of the neighborhoods to grow and shrink over the years, due to shifts in each housing submarket. Full article
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Article
LASDU: A Large-Scale Aerial LiDAR Dataset for Semantic Labeling in Dense Urban Areas
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070450 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1590
Abstract
The semantic labeling of the urban area is an essential but challenging task for a wide variety of applications such as mapping, navigation, and monitoring. The rapid advance in Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems provides this task with a possible solution using [...] Read more.
The semantic labeling of the urban area is an essential but challenging task for a wide variety of applications such as mapping, navigation, and monitoring. The rapid advance in Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems provides this task with a possible solution using 3D point clouds, which are accessible, affordable, accurate, and applicable. Among all types of platforms, the airborne platform with LiDAR can serve as an efficient and effective tool for large-scale 3D mapping in the urban area. Against this background, a large number of algorithms and methods have been developed to fully explore the potential of 3D point clouds. However, the creation of publicly accessible large-scale annotated datasets, which are critical for assessing the performance of the developed algorithms and methods, is still at an early age. In this work, we present a large-scale aerial LiDAR point cloud dataset acquired in a highly-dense and complex urban area for the evaluation of semantic labeling methods. This dataset covers an urban area with highly-dense buildings of approximately 1 km2 and includes more than three million points with five classes of objects labeled. Moreover, experiments are carried out with the results from several baseline methods, demonstrating the feasibility and capability of the dataset serving as a benchmark for assessing semantic labeling methods. Full article
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Article
A CityGML Multiscale Approach for the Conservation and Management of Cultural Heritage: The Case Study of the Old Town of Taranto (Italy)
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070449 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1079
Abstract
The aim of this article is to provide a dedicated approach to the realisation of a CityGML model for the valorisation and the conservation of existing cultural heritage. In particular, for the ancient city of Taranto (Italy), several levels of details (LODs) have [...] Read more.
The aim of this article is to provide a dedicated approach to the realisation of a CityGML model for the valorisation and the conservation of existing cultural heritage. In particular, for the ancient city of Taranto (Italy), several levels of details (LODs) have been built. CityGML models in LOD1 for the most representative periods were realised, which were characterised by urban changes from the mid-1800s until today. To achieve this aim, great importance was devoted to the process of integration of the different file formats. A geographic information system (GIS) approach has been put in place for the construction of the CityGML model in LOD1. In addition, the study also focused on the realisation of a CityGML model in LOD3 of a bridge of a particular historical and architectural interest, called “Ponte di Porta Napoli”, also situated in the city of Taranto. In the latter case, the CityGML model was realised starting from the geomatics survey. Therefore, the project structured in this way represents an important tool for the sharing of (georeferenced) territorial information. The CityGML models represent a valid support for spatial planning processes and measures for the protection, monitoring and conservation of urban elements. Full article
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Article
An Accurate Matching Method for Projecting Vector Data into Surveillance Video to Monitor and Protect Cultivated Land
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070448 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1089
Abstract
The integration of intelligent video surveillance and GIS (geograhical information system) data provides a new opportunity for monitoring and protecting cultivated land. For a GIS-based video monitoring system, the prerequisite is to align the GIS data with video image. However, existing methods or [...] Read more.
The integration of intelligent video surveillance and GIS (geograhical information system) data provides a new opportunity for monitoring and protecting cultivated land. For a GIS-based video monitoring system, the prerequisite is to align the GIS data with video image. However, existing methods or systems have their own shortcomings when implemented in monitoring cultivated land. To address this problem, this paper aims to propose an accurate matching method for projecting vector data into surveillance video, considering the topographic characteristics of cultivated land in plain area. Once an adequate number of control points are identified from 2D (two-dimensional) GIS data and the selected reference video image, the alignment of 2D GIS data and PTZ (pan-tilt-zoom) video frames can be realized by automatic feature matching method. Based on the alignment results, we can easily identify the occurrence of farmland destruction by visually inspecting the image content covering the 2D vector area. Furthermore, a prototype of intelligent surveillance video system for cultivated land is constructed and several experiments are conducted to validate the proposed approach. Experimental results show that the proposed alignment methods can achieve a high accuracy and satisfy the requirements of cultivated land monitoring. Full article
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Post-Earthquake Recovery Phase Monitoring and Mapping Based on UAS Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070447 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1035
Abstract
Geoinformatics plays an essential role during the recovery phase of a post-earthquake situation. The aim of this paper is to present the methodology followed and the results obtained by the utilization of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) 4K-video footage processing and the automation of [...] Read more.
Geoinformatics plays an essential role during the recovery phase of a post-earthquake situation. The aim of this paper is to present the methodology followed and the results obtained by the utilization of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) 4K-video footage processing and the automation of geo-information methods targeted at both monitoring the demolition process and mapping the demolished buildings. The field campaigns took place on the traditional settlement of Vrisa (Lesvos, Greece), which was heavily damaged by a strong earthquake (Mw=6.3) on June 12th, 2017. For this purpose, a flight campaign took place on 3rd February 2019 for collecting aerial 4K video footage using an Unmanned Aircraft. The Structure from Motion (SfM) method was applied on frames which derived from the 4K video footage, for producing accurate and very detailed 3D point clouds, as well as the Digital Surface Model (DSM) of the building stock of the Vrisa traditional settlement, twenty months after the earthquake. This dataset has been compared with the corresponding one which derived from 25th July 2017, a few days after the earthquake. Two algorithms have been developed for detecting the demolished buildings of the affected area, based on the DSMs and 3D point clouds, correspondingly. The results obtained have been tested through field studies and demonstrate that this methodology is feasible and effective in building demolition detection, giving very accurate results (97%) and, in parallel, is easily applicable and suit well for rapid demolition mapping during the recovery phase of a post-earthquake scenario. The significant advantage of the proposed methodology is its ability to provide reliable results in a very low cost and time-efficient way and to serve all stakeholders and national and local organizations that are responsible for post-earthquake management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomatics and Geo-Information in Earthquake Studies)
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Article
Measuring Accessibility to Various ASFs from Public Transit using Spatial Distance Measures in Indian Cities
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070446 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1110
Abstract
Nowadays, accessibility to facilities is one of the most discussed issues in sustainable urban planning. In the current research, two spatial distance accessibility measures were applied to evaluate the accessibility to amenities, services, and facilities (ASFs) from public transit (PT) by walking distance [...] Read more.
Nowadays, accessibility to facilities is one of the most discussed issues in sustainable urban planning. In the current research, two spatial distance accessibility measures were applied to evaluate the accessibility to amenities, services, and facilities (ASFs) from public transit (PT) by walking distance in six Indian cities. The first stage accounts for distance measures using the Euclidean distance with a new methodical approach derived from the built-up area with a spatial resolution of 30 m from Landsat data, and for the network distance method, the actual road distances using OpenStreetMap (OSM) for different threshold ranges of distances were derived. Meanwhile, in the second stage, indicators such as built-up area, network connectivity, and network density with the percentage of ASFs are evaluated and combined for normalization process for ranking the city. The present study assesses the accessibility to various ASFs from PT at city level and explores whether the actual road network access (by measuring distance) in Indian cities is contributing to a high level of accessibility. It adopts a unique approach using statistical tools while assessing both Euclidean and network distances. It models a framework for overall benchmarking in all six cities by ranking them for their accessibility. The results show various scenarios in terms of the rank of cities, which had been strongly affected by distance metrics (Euclidean vs. network) and thus emphasize the careful use of these measures as supporting tools for planning. This facilitates the identification of the local barriers and problems with network access that affect the actual distance. This unique approach can help policymakers to identify the gaps in PT coverage for reaching ASFs. Furthermore, it helps in crucial implementation by strategic planning that can be achieved using these distance criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measuring, Mapping, Modeling, and Visualization of Cities)
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Article
High Resolution Viewscape Modeling Evaluated Through Immersive Virtual Environments
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070445 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1348
Abstract
Visual characteristics of urban environments influence human perception and behavior, including choices for living, recreation and modes of transportation. Although geospatial visualizations hold great potential to better inform urban planning and design, computational methods are lacking to realistically measure and model urban and [...] Read more.
Visual characteristics of urban environments influence human perception and behavior, including choices for living, recreation and modes of transportation. Although geospatial visualizations hold great potential to better inform urban planning and design, computational methods are lacking to realistically measure and model urban and parkland viewscapes at sufficiently fine-scale resolution. In this study, we develop and evaluate an integrative approach to measuring and modeling fine-scale viewscape characteristics of a mixed-use urban environment, a city park. Our viewscape approach improves the integration of geospatial and perception elicitation techniques by combining high-resolution lidar-based digital surface models, visual obstruction, and photorealistic immersive virtual environments (IVEs). We assessed the realism of our viewscape models by comparing metrics of viewscape composition and configuration to human subject evaluations of IVEs across multiple landscape settings. We found strongly significant correlations between viewscape metrics and participants’ perceptions of viewscape openness and naturalness, and moderately strong correlations with landscape complexity. These results suggest that lidar-enhanced viewscape models can adequately represent visual characteristics of fine-scale urban environments. Findings also indicate the existence of relationships between human perception and landscape pattern. Our approach allows urban planners and designers to model and virtually evaluate high-resolution viewscapes of urban parks and natural landscapes with fine-scale details never before demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS-Based Analysis for Quality of Life and Environmental Monitoring)
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Article
Map Metadata: the Basis of the Retrieval System of Digital Collections
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070444 - 17 Jul 2020
Viewed by 883
Abstract
The article presents research on the evaluation of hidden map metadata. A hidden map is a map being part of a book that illustrates certain facts described in the book (e.g., military campaigns, political processes, migrations). The evaluation regards their completeness. Metadata completeness [...] Read more.
The article presents research on the evaluation of hidden map metadata. A hidden map is a map being part of a book that illustrates certain facts described in the book (e.g., military campaigns, political processes, migrations). The evaluation regards their completeness. Metadata completeness is the degree to which objects are described using all metadata elements. The analysis took into account the metadata of archival maps accessed via the GeoPortOst geoportal. Over 3000 hidden maps from the period 1572–2018 were analyzed, and the map set was divided into 8 collections. The main purpose of cartographers and librarians is to facilitate understanding of the relationship between individual information (librarians) and spatial data (cartographers). To this end, the research focused on the kind of information about old maps that should be stored in metadata to describe them in terms of space, time, content and context so as to increase their interoperability. The following metadata were taken into account in the assessment: title of content, type of content, date, date range, rights, language, subject, distribution format, geographic location, scale of map, reference system, mapping methods, map format, and source materials used to develop the map. The completeness of individual metadata as well as the completeness of metadata for individual collections was assessed. Finally, good practices of individual collections and metadata that could increase the interoperability of the entire collection were identified. The evaluation enables the owners to show the strengths and weaknesses of a given collection in a quick and easy way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geographic Information Extraction and Retrieval)
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Article
Performance Evaluation of GIS-Based Artificial Intelligence Approaches for Landslide Susceptibility Modeling and Spatial Patterns Analysis
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070443 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
The main purpose of this study was to apply the novel bivariate weights-of-evidence-based SysFor (SF) for landslide susceptibility mapping, and two machine learning techniques, namely the naïve Bayes (NB) and Radial basis function networks (RBFNetwork), as benchmark models. Firstly, by using aerial photos [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this study was to apply the novel bivariate weights-of-evidence-based SysFor (SF) for landslide susceptibility mapping, and two machine learning techniques, namely the naïve Bayes (NB) and Radial basis function networks (RBFNetwork), as benchmark models. Firstly, by using aerial photos and geological field surveys, the 263 landslide locations in the study area were obtained. Next, the identified landslides were randomly classified according to the ratio of 70/30 to construct training data and validation models, respectively. Secondly, based on the landslide inventory map, combined with the geological and geomorphological characteristics of the study area, 14 affecting factors of the landslide were determined. The predictive ability of the selected factors was evaluated using the LSVM model. Using the WoE model, the relationship between landslides and affecting factors was analyzed by positive and negative correlation methods. The above three hybrid models were then used to map landslide susceptibility. Thirdly, the ROC curve and various statistical data (SE, 95% CI and MAE) were used to verify and compare the predictive power of the model. Compared with the other two models, the Sysfor model had a larger area under the curve (AUC) of 0.876 (training dataset) and 0.783 (validation dataset). Finally, by quantitatively comparing the susceptibility values of each pixel, the differences in spatial morphology of landslide susceptibility maps were compared, and the model was found to have limitations and effectiveness. The landslide susceptibility maps obtained by the three models are reasonable, and the landslide susceptibility maps generated by the SysFor model have the highest comprehensive performance. The results obtained in this paper can help local governments in land use planning, disaster reduction and environmental protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of GIS and Soft Computing Methods in Water Resource Planning)
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Article
Capacitated Refuge Assignment for Speedy and Reliable Evacuation
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070442 - 16 Jul 2020
Viewed by 964
Abstract
When a large-scale disaster occurs, each evacuee should move to an appropriate refuge in a speedy and safe manner. Most of the existing studies on the refuge assignment consider the speediness of evacuation and refuge capacity while the safety of evacuation is not [...] Read more.
When a large-scale disaster occurs, each evacuee should move to an appropriate refuge in a speedy and safe manner. Most of the existing studies on the refuge assignment consider the speediness of evacuation and refuge capacity while the safety of evacuation is not taken into account. In this paper, we propose a refuge assignment scheme that considers both the speediness and safety of evacuation under the refuge capacity constraint. We first formulate the refuge assignment problem as a two-step integer linear program (ILP). Since the two-step ILP requires route candidates between evacuees and their possible refuges, we further propose a speedy and reliable route selection scheme as an extension of the existing route selection scheme. Through numerical results using the actual data of Arako district of Nagoya city in Japan, we show that the proposed scheme can improve the average route reliability among evacuees by 13.6% while suppressing the increase of the average route length among evacuees by 7.3%, compared with the distance-based route selection and refuge assignment. In addition, we also reveal that the current refuge capacity is not enough to support speedy and reliable evacuation for the residents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomatics and Geo-Information in Earthquake Studies)
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Article
Mining Evolution Patterns from Complex Trajectory Structures—A Case Study of Mesoscale Eddies in the South China Sea
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070441 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 855
Abstract
Real-word phenomena, such as ocean eddies and clouds, tend to split and merge while they are moving around within a space. Their trajectories usually bear one or more branches and are accordingly defined as complex trajectories in this study. The trajectories may show [...] Read more.
Real-word phenomena, such as ocean eddies and clouds, tend to split and merge while they are moving around within a space. Their trajectories usually bear one or more branches and are accordingly defined as complex trajectories in this study. The trajectories may show significant spatiotemporal variations in terms of their structures and some of them may be more prominent than the others. The identification of prominent structures in the complex trajectories of such real-world phenomena could better reveal their evolution processes and even shed new light on the driving factors behind them. Methods have been proposed for the extraction of periodic patterns from simple trajectories (i.e., those with linear structure and without any branches) with a focus on mining the related temporal, spatial or semantic information. Unfortunately, it is not appropriate to directly use such methods to examine complex trajectories. This study proposes a novel method to study the periodic patterns of complex trajectories by considering the inherent spatial, temporal and topological information. First, we use a sequence of symbols to represent the various structures of a complex trajectory over its lifespan. We then, on the basis of the PrefixSpan algorithm, propose a periodic pattern mining of structural evolution (PPSE) algorithm and use it to identify the largest and most frequent patterns (LFPs) from the symbol sequence. We also identify potential periodic behaviors. The PPSE method is then used to examine the complex trajectories of the mesoscale eddy in the South China Sea (SCS) from 1993 to 2016. The complex trajectories of ocean eddies in the southeast of Vietnam show are different from other regions in the SCS in terms of their structural evolution processes, as indicated by the LFPs with the longest lifespan, the widest active range, the highest complexity, and the most active behaviors. The LFP in the southeast of Vietnam has the longest lifespan, the widest active range, the highest complexity, and the most active behaviors. Across the SCS, we found seven migration channels. The LFPs of the eddies that migrate through these channels have a temporal cycle of 17–24 years. These channels are also the regions where eddies frequently emerge, as revealed by flow field data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatio-Temporal Models and Geo-Technologies)
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Article
Toward Measuring the Level of Spatiotemporal Clustering of Multi-Categorical Geographic Events
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070440 - 16 Jul 2020
Viewed by 970
Abstract
Human activity events are often recorded with their geographic locations and temporal stamps, which form spatial patterns of the events during individual time periods. Temporal attributes of these events help us understand the evolution of spatial processes over time. A challenge that researchers [...] Read more.
Human activity events are often recorded with their geographic locations and temporal stamps, which form spatial patterns of the events during individual time periods. Temporal attributes of these events help us understand the evolution of spatial processes over time. A challenge that researchers still face is that existing methods tend to treat all events as the same when evaluating the spatiotemporal pattern of events that have different properties. This article suggests a method for assessing the level of spatiotemporal clustering or spatiotemporal autocorrelation that may exist in a set of human activity events when they are associated with different categorical attributes. This method extends the Voronoi structure from 2D to 3D and integrates a sliding-window model as an approach to spatiotemporal tessellations of a space-time volume defined by a study area and time period. Furthermore, an index was developed to evaluate the partial spatiotemporal clustering level of one of the two event categories against the other category. The proposed method was applied to simulated data and a real-world dataset as a case study. Experimental results show that the method effectively measures the level of spatiotemporal clustering patterns among human activity events of multiple categories. The method can be applied to the analysis of large volumes of human activity events because of its computational efficiency. Full article
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Review
Extended Reality in Spatial Sciences: A Review of Research Challenges and Future Directions
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070439 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3653
Abstract
This manuscript identifies and documents unsolved problems and research challenges in the extended reality (XR) domain (i.e., virtual (VR), augmented (AR), and mixed reality (MR)). The manuscript is structured to include technology, design, and human factor perspectives. The text is visualization/display-focused, [...] Read more.
This manuscript identifies and documents unsolved problems and research challenges in the extended reality (XR) domain (i.e., virtual (VR), augmented (AR), and mixed reality (MR)). The manuscript is structured to include technology, design, and human factor perspectives. The text is visualization/display-focused, that is, other modalities such as audio, haptic, smell, and touch, while important for XR, are beyond the scope of this paper. We further narrow our focus to mainly geospatial research, with necessary deviations to other domains where these technologies are widely researched. The main objective of the study is to provide an overview of broader research challenges and directions in XR, especially in spatial sciences. Aside from the research challenges identified based on a comprehensive literature review, we provide case studies with original results from our own studies in each section as examples to demonstrate the relevance of the challenges in the current research. We believe that this paper will be of relevance to anyone who has scientific interest in extended reality, and/or uses these systems in their research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art in Spatial Information Science)
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Article
Interactive Web-Map of the European Freeway Junction A1/A4 Development with the Use of Archival Cartographic Sources
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070438 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 900
Abstract
In the article, authors have analyzed cartographic materials presenting the spatial development of Gliwice with the use of multimedia tools. The materials prove that this area has played an important part in the road system of the region, country and even part of [...] Read more.
In the article, authors have analyzed cartographic materials presenting the spatial development of Gliwice with the use of multimedia tools. The materials prove that this area has played an important part in the road system of the region, country and even part of Europe since the 19th century. The six maps from the studied area were analyzed e.g., the Urmesstischblätter map, polish topographic maps, and the OpenStreetMap. Based on these maps and their legends, vectorization of the main roads of the analyzed area was carried out. The evolution of the main road corridors on the six maps was analyzed with respect to the location of the European freeway junction (A1/A4), constituting a basis for the web map. According to the authors, the use of the interactive web map is the most comprehensive method of all technologies used by modern cartography. Spatial data collected from different cartographic publications (from the first half of the 19th century till the present) consider the most significant aspects of changes in the road network of the analyzed area in a detailed and user-friendly way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
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Article
A Generic and Extensible Core and Prototype of Consistent, Distributed, and Resilient LIS
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070437 - 13 Jul 2020
Viewed by 825
Abstract
The majority of the existing land information systems (LIS) are centralized, transaction processing systems based on object-relational database management systems for data storage, management, and retrieval. These traditional database management systems are dominantly based on a share-everything or share disk architecture and face [...] Read more.
The majority of the existing land information systems (LIS) are centralized, transaction processing systems based on object-relational database management systems for data storage, management, and retrieval. These traditional database management systems are dominantly based on a share-everything or share disk architecture and face challenges in meeting the performance and scalability requirements of distributed, data-intensive systems, including LIS. They support vertical, rather than horizontal scalability, which is of particular importance in distributed systems. In some cases, due to legal, administrative, or infrastructure constraints, LIS need to be distributed rather than centralized systems. Distributed computing systems and share-nothing architecture have become very popular, including new data processing platforms and frameworks with horizontal scalability and fault tolerance capabilities. In this paper, we present cdrLIS—a generic and extensible core of LIS based on relevant international standards and the NewSQL database management system (DBMS) that enables the implementation of consistent, distributed, highly-available, and resilient LIS. A generic core is implemented in the Go programming language and can be easily extended and adopted towards the implementation of a specific country profile. cdrLIS can be deployed either on a computer cluster or on cloud computing platforms and thus support the design and building of a new generation of distributed and resilient data-intensive applications and information systems in the land administration domain. Full article
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Article
Analyzing Links between Spatio-Temporal Metrics of Built-Up Areas and Socio-Economic Indicators on a Semi-Global Scale
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070436 - 11 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1652
Abstract
Manifold socio-economic processes shape the built and natural elements in urban areas. They thus influence both the living environment of urban dwellers and sustainability in many dimensions. Monitoring the development of the urban fabric and its relationships with socio-economic and environmental processes will [...] Read more.
Manifold socio-economic processes shape the built and natural elements in urban areas. They thus influence both the living environment of urban dwellers and sustainability in many dimensions. Monitoring the development of the urban fabric and its relationships with socio-economic and environmental processes will help to elucidate their linkages and, thus, aid in the development of new strategies for more sustainable development. In this study, we identified empirical and significant relationships between income, inequality, GDP, air pollution and employment indicators and their change over time with the spatial organization of the built and natural elements in functional urban areas. We were able to demonstrate this in 32 countries using spatio-temporal metrics, using geoinformation from databases available worldwide. We employed random forest regression, and we were able to explain 32% to 68% of the variability of socio-economic variables. This confirms that spatial patterns and their change are linked to socio-economic indicators. We also identified the spatio-temporal metrics that were more relevant in the models: we found that urban compactness, concentration degree, the dispersion index, the densification of built-up growth, accessibility and land-use/land-cover density and change could be used as proxies for some socio-economic indicators. This study is a first and fundamental step for the identification of such relationships at a global scale. The proposed methodology is highly versatile, the inclusion of new datasets is straightforward, and the increasing availability of multi-temporal geospatial and socio-economic databases is expected to empirically boost the study of these relationships from a multi-temporal perspective in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geodata Science and Spatial Analysis in Urban Studies)
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Editorial
Geo-Spatial Analysis in Hydrology
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070435 - 11 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1149
Abstract
With the increasing demand for accurate and reliable hydrological information, geo-spatial analysis plays a more and more important role in hydrological studies. The development of the geo-spatial technique advances our understanding of the complex and spatially heterogeneous hydrological systems. Meanwhile, how to efficiently [...] Read more.
With the increasing demand for accurate and reliable hydrological information, geo-spatial analysis plays a more and more important role in hydrological studies. The development of the geo-spatial technique advances our understanding of the complex and spatially heterogeneous hydrological systems. Meanwhile, how to efficiently and effectively process and analyze multi-source geo-spatial data has become more challenging in the fields of hydrology. In this editorial, we first review the development and application of geo-spatial analysis in three major topics in hydrological studies, namely the scaling issue, extraction of basin characteristics, and hydrological modelling. We hence introduce the articles of the Special Issue. These studies present the latest results of geo-spatial analysis in different topics in hydrology, and improve geo-spatial analytic methods for better accuracy and reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Spatial Analysis in Hydrology)
Article
Multidimensional Visualization and Processing of Big Open Urban Geospatial Data on the Web
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070434 - 11 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2126
Abstract
The focus of this research is addressing a subset of the geovisualization (i.e., geographic visualization) challenges identified in the literature, namely multidimensional vector and raster geospatial data visualization. Moreover, the work implements an approach for multidimensional raster geospatial data processing. The results of [...] Read more.
The focus of this research is addressing a subset of the geovisualization (i.e., geographic visualization) challenges identified in the literature, namely multidimensional vector and raster geospatial data visualization. Moreover, the work implements an approach for multidimensional raster geospatial data processing. The results of this research are provided through a geoportal comprised of multiple applications that are related to 3D visualization of cities, ground deformation, land use and land cover and mobility. In a subset of the applications, the datasets handled are considered to be large in volume. The geospatial data were visualized on dynamic and interactive virtual globes to enable visual exploration. The geoportal is available on the web to enable cross-platform access to it. Furthermore, the geoportal was developed employing open standards, free and open source software (FOSS) and open data, most importantly to ensure interoperability and reduce the barriers to access it. The geoportal brings together various datasets, different both in terms of context and format employing numerous technologies. As a result, the existing web technologies for geovisualization and geospatial data processing were examined and exemplary and innovative software was developed to extend the state of the art. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geodata Science and Spatial Analysis in Urban Studies)
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