Previous Issue
Volume 9, June

Table of Contents

ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 9, Issue 7 (July 2020) – 23 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Geospatial Virtual Reality for Cyberlearning in the Field of Topographic Surveying: Moving Towards a Cost-Effective Mobile Solution
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070433 (registering DOI) - 10 Jul 2020
Abstract
In spite of the tremendous success in artificial intelligence technology and a high level of automation in geospatial data obtaining processes, there is still a need for topographical field data collection by professional surveyors. Understanding terrain topology and topography is a cognitive skill [...] Read more.
In spite of the tremendous success in artificial intelligence technology and a high level of automation in geospatial data obtaining processes, there is still a need for topographical field data collection by professional surveyors. Understanding terrain topology and topography is a cognitive skill set that has to be demonstrated by geospatial Subject Matter Experts (SME) for the productive work in the topographic surveying field. For training of the mentioned above skillset, one has to be exposed to the theory and must also practice with surveying instruments in field conditions. The challenge of any surveying/geospatial engineering workforce training is to expose students to field conditions which might be limited due to equipment expenses and meteorological conditions that prevent good data collection. To meet this challenge, the Integrated Geospatial Technology research group is working on a geospatial virtual reality (VR) project which encompasses the following components: (a) immersive visualization of terrain; (b) virtual total station instrument; (c) virtual surveyor with reflector installed on the virtual rod. The application scenario of the technology we are working with has the following stages: (1) student is installing total station on the optimal location; (2) students move virtual surveyor on the sampling points they consider to be important (3) contours are generated and displayed in 3D being superimposed on 3D terrain; (4) accuracy of terrain modeling is observable and measurable by comparing the sampling model with initial one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Geo Visual Knowledge Discovery)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Balancing Hazard Exposure and Walking Distance in Evacuation Route Planning during Earthquake Disasters
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070432 (registering DOI) - 10 Jul 2020
Abstract
Efficient evacuation planning is important for quickly navigating people to shelters during and after an earthquake. Geographical information systems are often used to plan routes that minimize the distance people must walk to reach shelters, but this approach ignores the risk of exposure [...] Read more.
Efficient evacuation planning is important for quickly navigating people to shelters during and after an earthquake. Geographical information systems are often used to plan routes that minimize the distance people must walk to reach shelters, but this approach ignores the risk of exposure to hazards such as collapsing buildings. We demonstrate evacuation route assignment approaches that consider both hazard exposure and walking distance, by estimating building collapse hazard zones and incorporating them as travel costs when traversing road networks. We apply our methods to a scenario simulating the 2016 Gyeongju earthquake in South Korea, using the floating population distribution as estimated by a mobile phone network provider. Our results show that balanced routing would allow evacuees to avoid the riskiest districts while walking reasonable distances to open shelters. We discuss the feasibility of the model for balancing both safety and expediency in evacuation route planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geomatics and Geo-Information in Earthquake Studies)
Open AccessArticle
Using Social Networks to Analyze the Spatiotemporal Patterns of the Rolling Stock Manufacturing Industry for Countries in the Belt and Road Initiative
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070431 - 09 Jul 2020
Viewed by 123
Abstract
The new wave of modern rail transit and the proposal of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) have complicated the business patterns of the rolling stock manufacturing industry (RSMI) and the export of rolling stock products, especially in the case of countries participating [...] Read more.
The new wave of modern rail transit and the proposal of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) have complicated the business patterns of the rolling stock manufacturing industry (RSMI) and the export of rolling stock products, especially in the case of countries participating in the BRI. Based on the analysis of trade patterns—which focuses on the evolution of trade links, community structures, and intraregional export competitiveness—this study aims to explore the changes in the RSMI within the BRI region from 2003 to 2017. Sequential clustering was applied to the creation of a three-phase timeline. The network models of the cumulative trade of the rolling stock products and trades of two typical categories of products were constructed in each phase for the evolution analysis. Social network analysis methods, such as the analysis of network indices and community detection, were also applied. The results show that from 2003 to 2017, the connectivity of the rolling stock trade in this region significantly increased. China was the largest exporter, with increasing trade influence and technological strength. Ukraine and Russia were less competitive and highly mutually dependent. Czechia and Austria’s competitiveness remained prominent, but compared with China they lacked expansive vitality. South Korea was also an active and competitive country with strong technological prowess. These countries accounted for the majority of the exports, and were always at the center of their own separate communities, over which they maintained a sphere of influence. The grouping of countries far from any such spheres of influence changed frequently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geographic Complexity: Concepts, Theories, and Practices)
Open AccessArticle
Earthquake Risk Assessment for Tehran, Iran
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070430 - 09 Jul 2020
Viewed by 148
Abstract
The megacity of Tehran, the capital of Iran, is subjected to a high earthquake risk. Located at the central part of the Alpine–Himalayan seismic belt, Tehran is surrounded by several active faults that show some M7+ historical earthquake records. The high seismic hazard [...] Read more.
The megacity of Tehran, the capital of Iran, is subjected to a high earthquake risk. Located at the central part of the Alpine–Himalayan seismic belt, Tehran is surrounded by several active faults that show some M7+ historical earthquake records. The high seismic hazard in combination with a dense population distribution and several vulnerability factors mean Tehran is one of the top 20 worldwide megacities at a high earthquake risk. This article aims to prepare an assessment of the present-day earthquake risk in Tehran. First, the earthquake risk components including hazard, exposure, and vulnerability are evaluated based on some accessible GIS-based datasets (e.g., seismicity, geology, active faults, population distribution, land use, urban fabric, buildings’ height and occupancy, structure types, and ages, as well as the vicinity to some critical infrastructures). Then, earthquake hazard maps in terms of PGA are prepared using a probabilistic approach as well as a surface rupture width map. Exposure and vulnerability maps are also provided deterministically in terms of population density and hybrid physical vulnerability, respectively. Finally, all these components are combined in a spatial framework and an earthquake risk map is provided for Tehran. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Cognitive Load of Expert and Novice Map Users Using EEG and Eye Tracking
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070429 - 08 Jul 2020
Viewed by 232
Abstract
The main objective of this research is to explore the cognitive processes of expert and novice map users during the retrieval of map-related information, within varying difficulty levels (i.e., easy, moderate, hard), by using eye tracking and electroencephalogram (EEG). In this context, we [...] Read more.
The main objective of this research is to explore the cognitive processes of expert and novice map users during the retrieval of map-related information, within varying difficulty levels (i.e., easy, moderate, hard), by using eye tracking and electroencephalogram (EEG). In this context, we present a spatial memory experiment consisting of a large number of stimuli to study the effect of task difficulty on map users’ behavior through cognitive load measurements. Next to the reaction time and success rate, we used fixation and saccade related eye tracking metrics (i.e., average fixation duration, the number of fixations per second, saccade amplitude and saccade velocity), and EEG power spectrum (i.e., event-related changes in alpha and theta frequency bands) to identify the cognitive load. While fixation metrics indicated no statistically significant difference between experts and novices, saccade metrics proved the otherwise. EEG power spectral density analysis, on the other side, suggested an increase in theta (i.e., event-related synchronization) and a decrease in alpha (except moderate tasks) (i.e., event-related desynchronization) at all difficulty levels of the task for both experts and novices, which is an indicator of cognitive load. Although no significant difference emerged between two groups, we found a significant difference in their overall performances when the participants were classified as good and relatively bad learners. Triangulating EEG results with the recorded eye tracking data and the qualitative analysis of focus maps indeed provided a detailed insight on the differences of the individuals’ cognitive processes during this spatial memory task. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Spatial Data Science
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070428 - 08 Jul 2020
Viewed by 80
Abstract
The field of data science has had a significant impact in both academia and industry, and with good reason [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Data Science)
Open AccessArticle
Change Detection from Remote Sensing to Guide OpenStreetMap Labeling
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070427 - 02 Jul 2020
Viewed by 252
Abstract
The growing amount of openly available, meter-scale geospatial vertical aerial imagery and the need of the OpenStreetMap (OSM) project for continuous updates bring the opportunity to use the former to help with the latter, e.g., by leveraging the latest remote sensing data in [...] Read more.
The growing amount of openly available, meter-scale geospatial vertical aerial imagery and the need of the OpenStreetMap (OSM) project for continuous updates bring the opportunity to use the former to help with the latter, e.g., by leveraging the latest remote sensing data in combination with state-of-the-art computer vision methods to assist the OSM community in labeling work. This article reports our progress to utilize artificial neural networks (ANN) for change detection of OSM data to update the map. Furthermore, we aim at identifying geospatial regions where mappers need to focus on completing the global OSM dataset. Our approach is technically backed by the big geospatial data platform Physical Analytics Integrated Repository and Services (PAIRS). We employ supervised training of deep ANNs from vertical aerial imagery to segment scenes based on OSM map tiles to evaluate the technique quantitatively and qualitatively. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Geographical and Economic Factors Affecting the Spatial Distribution of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises: An Empirical Study of The Kujawsko-Pomorskie Region in Poland
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070426 - 01 Jul 2020
Viewed by 245
Abstract
Micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) are an essential part of economies at the national, regional, and local levels. Understanding the determinants of the development of this sector is interesting not only for researchers but also for local governments to support the development [...] Read more.
Micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) are an essential part of economies at the national, regional, and local levels. Understanding the determinants of the development of this sector is interesting not only for researchers but also for local governments to support the development of this sector. This paper analyses micro, small, and medium enterprises at the gmina (local) level in one region, the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodship (NUTS2) in Poland. The authors use multivariate linear regression, spatial econometrics, and classification trees to model the influence of different factors on the number of enterprises relative to population size. The authors found that the most crucial factor in all cases, independently of the method used, is the local government’s revenue from personal income tax per capita. This finding, together with the lack of significance of variables related to the distance to technological parks or economic zones, indicates that the enterprises in the region produce mainly for local consumption and lack innovativeness. The authors also examined the influence of spatial context on the number of enterprises. The most important factor seems to be the percentage of built-up areas, but there are also others, depending on the model type; again, this confirms the local character of the activity of micro, small, and medium enterprises in the region. Variables representing the spatial context can explain the relative number of enterprises with coefficient of determination (R2) between 0.30 and 0.45, which shows that this context played a relatively significant role in the development of the MSME sector in the region. On the other hand, the econometric models (that include the neighborhood) are only significant (improving R2) for medium enterprises, which means that medium enterprises expand their activity beyond the local range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spationomy—Spatial Exploration of Economic Data)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Automated Geolocation in Urban Environments Using a Simple Camera-Equipped Unmanned Aerial Vehicle: A Rapid Mapping Surveying Alternative?
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070425 - 30 Jun 2020
Viewed by 201
Abstract
GNSS positioning accuracy can be degraded in areas where the surrounding object geometry and morphology interacts with the GNSS signals. Specifically, urban environments pose challenges to precise GNSS positioning because of signal interference or interruptions. Also, non-GNSS surveying methods, including total stations and [...] Read more.
GNSS positioning accuracy can be degraded in areas where the surrounding object geometry and morphology interacts with the GNSS signals. Specifically, urban environments pose challenges to precise GNSS positioning because of signal interference or interruptions. Also, non-GNSS surveying methods, including total stations and laser scanners, involve time consuming practices in the field and costly equipment. The present study proposes the use of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for autonomous rapid mapping that resolves the problem of localization for the drone itself by acquiring location information of characteristic points on the ground in a local coordinate system using simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) and vision algorithms. A common UAV equipped with a camera and at least a single known point, are enough to produce a local map of the scene and to estimate the relative coordinates of pre-defined ground points along with an additional arbitrary point cloud. The resulting point cloud is readily measurable for extracting and interpreting geometric information from the area of interest. Under two novel optimization procedures performing line and plane alignment of the UAV-camera-measured point geometries, a set of experiments determines that the localization of a visual point in distances reaching 15 m from the origin, delivered a level of accuracy under 50 cm. Thus, a simple UAV with an optical sensor and a visual marker, prove quite promising and cost-effective for rapid mapping and point localization in an unknown environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unmanned Aerial Systems and Geoinformatics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Application of Image Segmentation in Surface Water Extraction of Freshwater Lakes using Radar Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070424 - 30 Jun 2020
Viewed by 207
Abstract
Freshwater lakes supply a large amount of inland water resources to sustain local and regional developments. However, some lake systems depend upon great fluctuation in water surface area. Poyang lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, undergoes dramatic seasonal and interannual variations. Timely [...] Read more.
Freshwater lakes supply a large amount of inland water resources to sustain local and regional developments. However, some lake systems depend upon great fluctuation in water surface area. Poyang lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, undergoes dramatic seasonal and interannual variations. Timely monitoring of Poyang lake surface provides essential information on variation of water occurrence for its ecosystem conservation. Application of histogram-based image segmentation in radar imagery has been widely used to detect water surface of lakes. Still, it is challenging to select the optimal threshold. Here, we analyze the advantages and disadvantages of a segmentation algorithm, the Otsu Method, from both mathematical and application perspectives. We implement the Otsu Method and provide reusable scripts to automatically select a threshold for surface water extraction using Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery on Google Earth Engine, a cloud-based platform that accelerates processing of Sentinel-1 data and auto-threshold computation. The optimal thresholds for each January from 2017 to 2020 are 14 . 88 , 16 . 93 , 16 . 96 and 16 . 87 respectively, and the overall accuracy achieves 92 % after rectification. Furthermore, our study contributes to the update of temporal and spatial variation of Poyang lake, confirming that its surface water area fluctuated annually and tended to shrink both in the center and boundary of the lake on each January from 2017 to 2020. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Advances in Landscape Ecology)
Open AccessArticle
A Gamification-Based Approach on Indoor Wayfinding Research
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070423 - 30 Jun 2020
Viewed by 200
Abstract
Indoor environments can be very complex. Due to the challenges in these environments in combination with the absence of mobile wayfinding aids, a great need exists for innovative research on indoor wayfinding. In this explorative study, a game was developed in Unity to [...] Read more.
Indoor environments can be very complex. Due to the challenges in these environments in combination with the absence of mobile wayfinding aids, a great need exists for innovative research on indoor wayfinding. In this explorative study, a game was developed in Unity to investigate whether the concept of gamification could be used in studies on indoor wayfinding so as to provide useful information regarding the link between wayfinding performance, personal characteristics, and building layout. Results show a significant difference between gamers and non-gamers as the complexity of the player movement has an important impact on the navigation velocity in the game. However, further analysis reveals that the architectural layout also has an impact on the navigation velocity and that wrong turns in the game are influenced by the landmarks at the decision points: navigating at deeper decision points in convex spaces is slower and landmarks of the categories pictograms and infrastructural were more effective in this particular building. Therefore, this explorative study, which provides an approach for the use of gamification in indoor wayfinding research, has shown that serious games could be successfully used as a medium for data acquisition related to indoor wayfinding in a virtual environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gaming and Geospatial Information)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Sharp Feature Detection as a Useful Tool in Smart Manufacturing
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070422 - 30 Jun 2020
Viewed by 190
Abstract
Industry 4.0 comprises a wide spectrum of developmental processes within the management of manufacturing and chain production. Presently, there is a huge effort to automate manufacturing and have automatic control of the production. This intention leads to the increased need for high-quality methods [...] Read more.
Industry 4.0 comprises a wide spectrum of developmental processes within the management of manufacturing and chain production. Presently, there is a huge effort to automate manufacturing and have automatic control of the production. This intention leads to the increased need for high-quality methods for digitization and object reconstruction, especially in the area of reverse engineering. Commonly used scanning software based on well-known algorithms can correctly process smooth objects. Nevertheless, they are usually not applicable for complex-shaped models with sharp features. The number of the points on the edges is extremely limited due to the principle of laser scanning and sometimes also low scanning resolution. Therefore, a correct edge reconstruction problem occurs. The same problem appears in many other laser scanning applications, i.e., in the representation of the buildings from airborne laser scans for 3D city models. We focus on a method for preservation and reconstruction of sharp features. We provide a detailed description of all three key steps: point cloud segmentation, edge detection, and correct B-spline edge representation. The feature detection algorithm is based on the conventional region-growing method and we derive the optimal input value of curvature threshold using logarithmic least square regression. Subsequent edge representation stands on the iterative algorithm of B-spline approximation where we compute the weighted asymmetric error using the golden ratio. The series of examples indicates that our method gives better or comparable results to other methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research Based on Multi-Dimensional Point Cloud Analysis)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Spatial Exploration of Economic Data—Insight into Attitudes of Students towards Interdisciplinary Knowledge
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070421 - 30 Jun 2020
Viewed by 178
Abstract
This paper uses the technology acceptance model (TAM) framework for the research of economic and geography students’ attitudes towards interdisciplinary knowledge. Based on the SmartPLS Structural equation modelling SEM variance-based method, research results were gained through analysis of survey data of economic and [...] Read more.
This paper uses the technology acceptance model (TAM) framework for the research of economic and geography students’ attitudes towards interdisciplinary knowledge. Based on the SmartPLS Structural equation modelling SEM variance-based method, research results were gained through analysis of survey data of economic and geography students. They participated in the Spationomy project in the period of 2017–2019. Online questionnaires were fulfilled before and after students’ participation in the project and their future behavioural intention to use interdisciplinary knowledge was analysed. Based on the research, we can confirm that the Spationomy project has achieved its purpose, as both groups of students (economic and geography students) have acquired interdisciplinary knowledge and students intend to use it also in the future. Therefore, we can argue that the students included in the project in practice gained recognition of systems thinking about the importance of mutual interdisciplinary cooperation towards achieving synergies. The results also show that TAM can be successfully implemented to analyse how students of economics and geography accept the use of interdisciplinary knowledge in the learning process, which is an important implication for management and education as well as from the theoretical implications viewpoint. While effective analysis using TAM has been used successfully and relatively frequently in economics and business field, we have not found relevant examples of its implementation in the broader field of geography. However, the acceptance of geographic information system (GIS) or other information technologies/information software (IT/IS) tool-based approaches of analysis in the geography field may be of most importance. Therefore, also, this represents an important implication for the research area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spationomy—Spatial Exploration of Economic Data)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Research on the Colors of Military Symbols in Digital Situation Maps Based on Event-Related Potential Technology
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070420 - 30 Jun 2020
Viewed by 193
Abstract
Under the trend of increasingly informationalized military operations and the increasing maneuverability of combat units, military commanders have put forward higher requirements for the accuracy and promptness of information on battlefield situation maps. Based on the sea battlefield, this paper studies the pros [...] Read more.
Under the trend of increasingly informationalized military operations and the increasing maneuverability of combat units, military commanders have put forward higher requirements for the accuracy and promptness of information on battlefield situation maps. Based on the sea battlefield, this paper studies the pros and cons of the color matching of military symbols on sea situation maps. Fifteen colors, where each Hue had five colors, were chosen using the Munsell Color System according to Chroma axis and the Value axis on a span of 2 and 4. By collecting and analyzing the P300 EEG data, reaction time data, and accuracy data of 20 subjects, a better color matching selection of military symbols on pure color (L = 85, a = −10, and b = −23) sea situation maps is put forward, and the conclusions are as follows: (1) the different colors all cause the P300 component in EEG experiment. Among them, the P300 amplitude that is caused by military symbols with lower Chroma is smaller and the latency is shorter, indicating that the user experience and efficiency of low Chroma color symbols will be better than those with high Chroma color symbols. (2) High Value color map military symbols cause higher P300 amplitude and longer latency. According to the results above, this paper puts forward three optimized colors, namely, blue (L = 39, a = 20, and b = −49), green (L = 80, a = −72, and b = 72), and red (L = 20, a = 41, and b = 28). Additionally, three map interfaces were designed to confirm the validity of these colors. By means of applying the NASA-TLX (Task Load Index) scale to evaluate the task load of the confirmation interfaces, it can be concluded that these three optimized colors are preferred by users who are skilled in GIS and interface design. Therefore, the research conclusion of this paper can provide important reference values for military map design, which is helpful in shortening the identification and judgment time during the use of situation maps and it can improve users’ operation performance. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
A Hybrid Approach Integrating Entropy-AHP and GIS for Suitability Assessment of Urban Emergency Facilities
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070419 - 30 Jun 2020
Viewed by 221
Abstract
Globalization has become a major issue of focus as rapid urban populations and urbanization effects are on the rise. A critical need arises for effective urban planning for Istanbul in relation to the use of a hybrid approach integrating AHP-Entropy and GIS for [...] Read more.
Globalization has become a major issue of focus as rapid urban populations and urbanization effects are on the rise. A critical need arises for effective urban planning for Istanbul in relation to the use of a hybrid approach integrating AHP-Entropy and GIS for emergency facility planning. In this paper, the combination of AHP and Entropy methods was used for evaluating criterion weights subjectively and objectively. These techniques were utilized with regard to the assessment of suitable areas for planning new urban emergency facilities for Istanbul province which experiences increasing urban fire-related emergencies. AHP and Entropy have been used to evaluate the weights of determined criteria from expert preference judgments and GIS for processing, analysis and visualization of the model result in the form of a suitability map for new urban emergency facilities. Validation of the model was performed on the criteria with the strongest influence in the decision outcome and spatially visualized using the sensitivity analysis (SA) method of one-at-a-time (OAT). From the findings, it was estimated that 28.1% of the project area, accounting for a third of it, is likely to be exposed to the risk of urban fires and therefore immediate planning of new urban emergency facilities is recommended for adequate fire service coverage and protection. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
GeohashTile: Vector Geographic Data Display Method Based on Geohash
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070418 - 30 Jun 2020
Viewed by 183
Abstract
In the development of geographic information-based applications for mobile devices, achieving better access speed and visual effects is the main research aim. In this paper, we propose a new geographic data display method based on Geohash, namely GeohashTile, to improve the performance of [...] Read more.
In the development of geographic information-based applications for mobile devices, achieving better access speed and visual effects is the main research aim. In this paper, we propose a new geographic data display method based on Geohash, namely GeohashTile, to improve the performance of traditional geographic data display methods in data indexing, data compression, and the projection of different granularities. First, we use the Geohash encoding system to represent coordinates, as well as to partition and index large-scale geographic data. The data compression and tile encoding is accomplished by Geohash. Second, to realize a direct conversion between Geohash and screen-pixel coordinates, we adopt the relative position projection method. Finally, we improve the calculation and rendering efficiency by using the intermediate result caching method. To evaluate the GeohashTile method, we have implemented the client and the server of the GeohashTile system, which is also evaluated in a real-world environment. The results show that Geohash encoding can accurately represent latitude and longitude coordinates in vector maps, while the GeohashTile framework has obvious advantages when requesting data volume and average load time compared to the state-of-the-art GeoTile system. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
3D Geometry-Based Indoor Network Extraction for Navigation Applications Using SFCGAL
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070417 - 29 Jun 2020
Viewed by 277
Abstract
This study is focused on indoor navigation network extraction for navigation applications based on available 3D building data and using SFCGAL library, e.g. simple features computational geometry algorithms library. In this study, special attention is given to 3D cadastre and BIM (building information [...] Read more.
This study is focused on indoor navigation network extraction for navigation applications based on available 3D building data and using SFCGAL library, e.g. simple features computational geometry algorithms library. In this study, special attention is given to 3D cadastre and BIM (building information modelling) datasets, which have been used as data sources for 3D geometric indoor modelling. SFCGAL 3D functions are used for the extraction of an indoor network, which has been modelled in the form of indoor connectivity graphs based on 3D geometries of indoor features. The extraction is performed by the integration of extract transform load (ETL) software and the spatial database to support multiple data sources and provide access to SFCGAL functions. With this integrated approach, the current lack of straightforward software support for complex 3D spatial analyses is addressed. Based on the developed methodology, we perform and discuss the extraction of an indoor navigation network from 3D cadastral and BIM data. The efficiency and performance of the network analyses were evaluated using the processing and query execution times. The results show that the proposed methodology for geometry-based navigation network extraction of buildings is efficient and can be used with various types of 3D geometric indoor data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Indoor Mapping and Modelling)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Applications of GIScience for Land Administration
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070416 - 29 Jun 2020
Viewed by 209
Abstract
Land administration is an essential part of public administration. Geographic Information Science (GIScience) deals with the concepts, principles, and models of geographic information. Land administration has always adopted new technological and scientific developments and thus it is reasonable to check, which results from [...] Read more.
Land administration is an essential part of public administration. Geographic Information Science (GIScience) deals with the concepts, principles, and models of geographic information. Land administration has always adopted new technological and scientific developments and thus it is reasonable to check, which results from GIScience can be used to improve land administration systems. This editorial paper introduces the key research areas for land administration. After that, 12 original papers are presented, which provide a general picture of recent trends in land administration research. This Special Issue shows that land administration as a scientific field is still evolving and adopting to the changing societal needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of GIScience for Land Administration)
Open AccessArticle
Numbers on Thematic Maps: Helpful Simplicity or Too Raw to Be Useful for Map Reading?
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070415 - 28 Jun 2020
Viewed by 250
Abstract
As the development of small-scale thematic cartography continues, there is a growing interest in simple graphic solutions, e.g., in the form of numerical values presented on maps to replace or complement well-established quantitative cartographic methods of presentation. Numbers on maps are used as [...] Read more.
As the development of small-scale thematic cartography continues, there is a growing interest in simple graphic solutions, e.g., in the form of numerical values presented on maps to replace or complement well-established quantitative cartographic methods of presentation. Numbers on maps are used as an independent form of data presentation or function as a supplement to the cartographic presentation, becoming a legend placed directly on the map. Despite the frequent use of numbers on maps, this relatively simple form of presentation has not been extensively empirically evaluated. This article presents the results of an empirical study aimed at comparing the usability of numbers on maps for the presentation of quantitative information to frequently used proportional symbols, for simple map-reading tasks. The study showed that the use of numbers on single-variable and two-variable maps results in a greater number of correct answers and also often an improved response time compared to the use of proportional symbols. Interestingly, the introduction of different sizes of numbers did not significantly affect their usability. Thus, it has been proven that—for some tasks—map users accept this bare-bones version of data presentation, often demonstrating a higher level of preference for it than for proportional symbols. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Generalized Linear Mixed Model Approach to Assess Emerald Ash Borer Diffusion
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070414 - 27 Jun 2020
Viewed by 271
Abstract
The Asian Emerald Ash Borer beetle (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) can cause damage to all species of Ash trees (Fraxinus), and rampant, unchecked infestations of this insect can cause significant damage to forests. It is thus critical to assess and model the spread [...] Read more.
The Asian Emerald Ash Borer beetle (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) can cause damage to all species of Ash trees (Fraxinus), and rampant, unchecked infestations of this insect can cause significant damage to forests. It is thus critical to assess and model the spread of the EAB in a manner that allows authorities to anticipate likely areas of future tree infestation. In this study, a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), combining the features of the commonly used generalized linear model (GLM) and a random effects model, was developed to predict future EAB spread patterns in Southern Ontario, Canada. The GLMM was designed to deal with autocorrelation in the data. Two random effects were established based on the geographic information provided with the EAB data, and a method based on statistical inference was proposed to identify the most significant factors associated with the distribution of the EAB. The results of the model showed that 95% of the testing data were correctly classified. The predictive performance of the GLMM was substantially enhanced in comparison with that obtained by the GLM. The influence of climatic factors, such as wind speed and anthropogenic activities, had the most significant influence on the spread of the EAB. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Urban Ageing in Europe—Spatiotemporal Analysis of Determinants
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070413 - 27 Jun 2020
Viewed by 281
Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify determinants of the population ageing process in 270 European cities. We analyzed the proportion of older people: men and women separately (aged 65 or above) in city populations in the years 1990–2018. To understand territorially-varied [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to identify determinants of the population ageing process in 270 European cities. We analyzed the proportion of older people: men and women separately (aged 65 or above) in city populations in the years 1990–2018. To understand territorially-varied relationships and to increase the explained variability of phenomena, an explanatory spatial data analysis (ESDA) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) were applied. We used ArcGIS and GeoDa software in this study. In our research, we also took into account the spatial interactions as well as the structure of cities by size and level of economic development. Results of the analysis helped to explain why some urban areas are ageing faster than others. An initial data analysis indicated that the proportion of the elderly in the population was spatially diversified and dependent on gender, as well as the size and economic development of a unit. In general, elderly individuals were more willing to live in larger and highly developed cities; however, women tended to live in large areas and men in medium-sized to large urban areas. Then, we conducted the urban ageing modelling for men and women separately. The application of GWR models enabled not only the specification of the city population ageing determinants, but also the analysis of the variability in the strength and direction of dependencies occurring between the examined variables in individual cities. Significant differences were noted in the analysis results for specific cities, which were often grouped due to similar parameter values, forming clusters that divided Europe into the eastern and western parts. Moreover, substantial differences in results were obtained for women and men. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
User Experience in Using Graphical User Interfaces of Web Maps
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070412 - 27 Jun 2020
Viewed by 278
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to show the differences in users’ experience when performing an interactive task with GUI buttons arrangement based on Google Maps and OpenStreetMap in a simulation environment. The graphical user interface is part of an interactive multimedia map, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this article is to show the differences in users’ experience when performing an interactive task with GUI buttons arrangement based on Google Maps and OpenStreetMap in a simulation environment. The graphical user interface is part of an interactive multimedia map, and the interaction experience depends mainly on it. For this reason, we performed an eye-tracking experiment with users to examine how people experience interaction through the GUI. Based on the results related to eye movement, we presented several valuable recommendations for the design of interactive multimedia maps. For better GUI efficiency, it is suitable to group buttons with similar functions in screen corners. Users first analyze corners and only then search for the desired button. The frequency of using a given web map does not translate into generally better performance while using any GUI. Users perform more efficiently if they work with the preferred GUI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Sightseeing Spot Recommendation System That Takes into Account the Visiting Frequency of Users
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(7), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi9070411 - 27 Jun 2020
Viewed by 239
Abstract
The present study aimed to design, develop, operate and evaluate a sightseeing spot recommendation system that can efficiently and usefully support tourists while considering their visiting frequencies. This system was developed by integrating social networking services (SNSs), Web-geographic information systems (GIS) and recommendation [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to design, develop, operate and evaluate a sightseeing spot recommendation system that can efficiently and usefully support tourists while considering their visiting frequencies. This system was developed by integrating social networking services (SNSs), Web-geographic information systems (GIS) and recommendation systems. The system recommends sightseeing spots to users with different visiting frequencies, adopting two recommendation methods (knowledge-based recommendation and collaborative recommendation methods). Additionally, the system was operated for six weeks in Kamakura City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, and the total number of users was 61. Based on the results of the web questionnaire survey, the usefulness of the system when sightseeing was high, and the recommendation function of sightseeing spots, which is an original function, received mainly good ratings. From the results of the access analysis of users’ log data, the total number of sessions in this system was 329, 77% used mobile devices, and smartphones were used most frequently. Therefore, it is evident that the system was used by different types of devices just as it was designed for, and that the system was used according to the purpose of the present study, which is to support the sightseeing activities of users. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop