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The Dipterose of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Induces Innate Immune Response through Toll-Like Receptor Pathway in Mouse Macrophage RAW264.7 Cells

1
Graduate School of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7, Tarumi, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566, Japan
2
South Ehime Fisheries Research Center, Ehime University, 1289-1, Funakoshi, Ainan, Ehime 798-4292, Japan
3
Department of Global Environment Studies, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Hiroshima Institute of Technology, 2-1-1 Miyake, Saeki-ku, Hiroshima 731-5193, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(11), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9110677
Received: 13 September 2019 / Revised: 26 October 2019 / Accepted: 29 October 2019 / Published: 31 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Natural and Bio-inspired Molecules)
In our study, a novel bioactive polysaccharide was identified in the larvae of the black soldier fly (BSF) (Hermetia illucens) as a molecule that activates the mammalian innate immune response. We attempted to isolate this molecule, which was named dipterose-BSF, by gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatography, followed by nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cells as a marker of immunomodulatory activity. Dipterose-BSF had an average molecular weight of 1.47 × 105 and consisted of ten monosaccharides. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrated that dipterose-BSF enhanced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and interferon β (IFNβ) in RAW264.7 cells. The inhibition of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and 4 (TLR4) significantly attenuated NO production by dipterose-BSF, indicating that dipterose-BSF stimulates the induction of various cytokines in macrophages via the TLR signaling pathway. This observation was analogous with the activation of nuclear factor kappa B in RAW264.7 cells after exposure to dipterose-BSF. Our results suggest that dipterose-BSF has immunomodulatory potential through activating the host innate immune system, which allows it to be a novel immunomodulator for implementation as a functional food supplement in poultry, livestock, and farmed fish. View Full-Text
Keywords: polysaccharide; insect; innate immunity; macrophage; Toll-like receptor polysaccharide; insect; innate immunity; macrophage; Toll-like receptor
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Fariz Zahir Ali, M.; Ohta, T.; Ido, A.; Miura, C.; Miura, T. The Dipterose of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Induces Innate Immune Response through Toll-Like Receptor Pathway in Mouse Macrophage RAW264.7 Cells. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 677.

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