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Impact of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in the Orchestration of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Resistance to Plant Parasitic Nematodes: A Metabolomic Approach to Evaluate Defense Responses Under Field Conditions

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Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, India
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State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang A&F University, Hangzhou 311300, China
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Department of Zoology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, India
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Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Food & Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Botany and Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box. 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Mycology and Plant Disease Survey Department, Plant Pathology Research Institute, ARC, Giza 12511, Egypt
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Department of Botany, S.P. College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 190001, India
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(11), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9110676
Received: 29 September 2019 / Revised: 21 October 2019 / Accepted: 25 October 2019 / Published: 31 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology, Biotechnology and Bioprospecting of Microbial Biomolecules)
The present study deals with biological control of Meloidogyne incognita in 45-days old Lycopersicon esculentum, inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa(M1) and Burkholderia gladioli (M2). The improved plant growth and biomass of nematode infested Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculated plants was observed. Remarkable reduction in the numbers of second stage juvenile (J2s), root galls was recorded after treatment of microbes relative to experimental controls. Moreover, the lowered activities of oxidative stress markers (H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), O2 (superoxide anion), malondialdehyde (MDA)) was estimated in plants after rhizobacterial supplementation. Higher activities of enzymatic (SOD (Superoxide dismutase), POD (Guaiacol peroxidase), CAT (Catalase), GPOX (Glutathione peroxidase), APOX (Ascorbate peroxidase), GST (Glutathione-S-transferase), GR (Glutathione reductase), DHAR (Dehydroascorbate reductase), PPO (Polyphenol oxidase)) and non-enzymatic (glutathione, ascorbic acid, tocopherol) antioxidants were further determined in nematode infected plants following the addition of bacterial strains. The upregulation of photosynthetic activities were depicted by evaluating plant pigments and gas exchange attributes. An increase in the levels of phenolic compounds (total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins), osmoprotectants (total osmolytes, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, trehalose, proline, glycine betaine, free amino acids) and organic acids (fumaric, succinic, citric, malic acid) were reflected in infected plants, showing further enhancement after application of biocontrol agents. The study revealed the understanding of plant metabolism, along with the initiative to commercially exploit the biocontrol agents as an alternative to chemical nematicides in infected fields for sustainable agriculture. View Full-Text
Keywords: root knot nematodes; biocontrol agents; Lycopersicon esculentum; photosynthetic parameters; oxidative damage; antioxidants; phenolics; osmoprotectants and organic acid profiling root knot nematodes; biocontrol agents; Lycopersicon esculentum; photosynthetic parameters; oxidative damage; antioxidants; phenolics; osmoprotectants and organic acid profiling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khanna, K.; Sharma, A.; Ohri, P.; Bhardwaj, R.; Abd_Allah, E.F.; Hashem, A.; Ahmad, P. Impact of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in the Orchestration of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Resistance to Plant Parasitic Nematodes: A Metabolomic Approach to Evaluate Defense Responses Under Field Conditions. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 676.

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