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Article

Anti-cancer Evaluation of Depsides Isolated from Indonesian Folious Lichens: Physcia millegrana, Parmelia dilatata and Parmelia aurulenta

1
Drug Utilisation and Discovery Research Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Jember, Jember 68121, Indonesia
2
School of Biology, Faculty of Biology, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
3
School of Chemistry & Molecular Bioscience and Molecular Horizons, University of Wollongong, and Illawarra Health & Medical Research Institute, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
4
Labelled Compound and Radiometry Division, Center for Applied Nuclear Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(10), 1420; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10101420
Received: 30 August 2020 / Revised: 22 September 2020 / Accepted: 22 September 2020 / Published: 8 October 2020
Cancer is a serious health burden on global societies. The discovery and development of new anti-cancer therapies remains a challenging objective. Although it has been shown that lichen secondary metabolites may be potent sources for new anti-cancer agents, the Indonesian- grown folious lichens, Physcia millegrana, Parmelia dilatata and Parmeila aurulenta, have not yet been explored. In this study exhaustive preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was employed to isolate the lichen constituents with spectroscopic and spectrometric protocols identifying nine depsides 917, including the new methyl 4-formyl-2,3-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate 13. The cytotoxicity of the depsides towards cancer cells was assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results indicated lowest toxicity of the depsides towards human A549 lung cancer cells. Importantly, the di-depsides (11, 12 and 17) showed greatest toxicity, indicating that these structures are biologically more active than the mono-depsides against the HepG2 liver cancer, A549 lung cancer and HL-60 leukemia cell lines. View Full-Text
Keywords: Indonesia; lichen; Physcia millegrana; Parmelia dilatata; Parmelia aurulenta; depsides; anti-cancer Indonesia; lichen; Physcia millegrana; Parmelia dilatata; Parmelia aurulenta; depsides; anti-cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nugraha, A.S.; Laksono, T.A.; Firli, L.N.; Putri, C.P.Z.S.; Pratoko, D.K.; Zulfikar, Z.; Untari, L.F.; Wongso, H.; Lambert, J.M.; Dillon, C.T.; Keller, P.A. Anti-cancer Evaluation of Depsides Isolated from Indonesian Folious Lichens: Physcia millegrana, Parmelia dilatata and Parmelia aurulenta. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 1420. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10101420

AMA Style

Nugraha AS, Laksono TA, Firli LN, Putri CPZS, Pratoko DK, Zulfikar Z, Untari LF, Wongso H, Lambert JM, Dillon CT, Keller PA. Anti-cancer Evaluation of Depsides Isolated from Indonesian Folious Lichens: Physcia millegrana, Parmelia dilatata and Parmelia aurulenta. Biomolecules. 2020; 10(10):1420. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10101420

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nugraha, Ari S., Tinton A. Laksono, Lilla N. Firli, Chintya P.Z.S. Putri, Dwi K. Pratoko, Zulfikar Zulfikar, Ludmilla F. Untari, Hendris Wongso, Jacob M. Lambert, Carolyn T. Dillon, and Paul A. Keller. 2020. "Anti-cancer Evaluation of Depsides Isolated from Indonesian Folious Lichens: Physcia millegrana, Parmelia dilatata and Parmelia aurulenta" Biomolecules 10, no. 10: 1420. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10101420

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