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Sci. Pharm., Volume 85, Issue 2 (June 2017)

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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Nepeta trachonitica: Analysis of Its Phenolic Compounds Using HPLC-MS/MS
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm85020024
Received: 5 February 2017 / Revised: 3 May 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 15 May 2017
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2031 | PDF Full-text (739 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Continuing our work on the sources of natural bioactive compounds, we evaluated the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Nepeta trachonitica as well as its major phenolic content using the high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) technique. For antioxidant activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power [...] Read more.
Continuing our work on the sources of natural bioactive compounds, we evaluated the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Nepeta trachonitica as well as its major phenolic content using the high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) technique. For antioxidant activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) methods were performed to measure the reducing power and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was employed to evaluate the radical scavenging activity of the sample. For antimicrobial activity, three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative microbial species as well as three fungi species were tested. N. trachonitica appeared to have reasonable antioxidant activity and decent antimicrobial activity as indicated by the inhibition of the organisms’ growth. The most susceptible species were Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Escherichia coli ATCC 11229 among the organisms tested. Ethanol extract of the plant has the highest effect on Saccharomyces cerevisiae but no effect on Yarrowia lipolytica. The HPLC-MS/MS analysis showed that at least 11 major phenolic compounds of N. trachonitica exist, the major ones being rosmarinic acid, chlorogenic acid and quinic acid. The obtained results suggest that N. trachonitica could be a promising source for food and nutraceutical industries because of its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties and phenolic compounds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Education through Short Message Service (SMS) Messages on Diabetic Patients Adherence
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm85020023
Received: 2 March 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
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Abstract
Poor adherence and a lack of understanding of medication instructions for oral antidiabetic use are key factors that inhibit the control of glycemic levels. The aforementioned situation needs intervention to improve medication adherence and the therapy. This study was conducted with a quasi-experimental [...] Read more.
Poor adherence and a lack of understanding of medication instructions for oral antidiabetic use are key factors that inhibit the control of glycemic levels. The aforementioned situation needs intervention to improve medication adherence and the therapy. This study was conducted with a quasi-experimental design with prospective data collection. The subjects of this study were 50 outpatients with type 2 diabetes melitus (T2DM) who had received oral antidiabetic medicine therapy at least six months prior to adherence measurement. The patients were classified into two groups—the control group and the intervention group. The intervention group received Short Message Service (SMS) messages of diabetes education, while the control group did not. Data collection was conducted by doing interviews and administering the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) questionnaire. The results showed the increase in adherence in the intervention group as 1.15 ± 1.04 and that in the control group as 0.72 ± 0.90. These results indicated that there were significant differences in MMAS score between the control and intervention groups (p < 0.05). The decrease in fasting blood glucose and glucose measured 2 h postprandially was greater in the intervention group than that in the control group. It was concluded that the provision of education through SMS had a positive effect on medication adherence and glycemic levels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Rational Drug Use for Acute Pharyngitis Associated with the Incidence and Prevalence of the Disease at Two Community Health Centers in Indonesia
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm85020022
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 3 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1734 | PDF Full-text (463 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
According to Indonesia’s Result of Basic Health Research of 2013, prevalence of acute respiratory infection in 2007 and 2013 were not significantly different (25.5% and 25.0%, respectively). Identifying the cause of acute pharyngitis is a key point in determining the optimal treatment. The [...] Read more.
According to Indonesia’s Result of Basic Health Research of 2013, prevalence of acute respiratory infection in 2007 and 2013 were not significantly different (25.5% and 25.0%, respectively). Identifying the cause of acute pharyngitis is a key point in determining the optimal treatment. The main purpose is to evaluate the rational use of drugs and its irrational impact as well as the correlation of the drug use with the incidence and prevalence of acute pharyngitis. This study was a descriptive and observational study, carried out retrospectively and concurrently at two community health centers located in Bandung and Cimahi, Indonesia. There was overprescription of antibiotics in 80.01% of prescription cases, with a total of 8.98% being non-treatment option, and 62.43% being irrational use of corticosteroids. The incidence and prevalence of acute pharyngitis at one health center in Bandung were 2.45% and 2.31%, respectively, with an irrationality rate of 83.82%. Those recorded at one health center in Cimahi were 2.11% incidence and 2.00% prevalence with an irrational rate of 91.29%. It can be concluded that there is still an irrational use of medicines in the treatment of acute pharyngitis in community health centers. The higher incidence and prevalence might indicate the declining quality of health services. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Neuroprotective and Cognitive Enhancement Potentials of Angelica gigas Nakai Root: A Review
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm85020021
Received: 21 February 2017 / Revised: 25 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
Angelica gigas Nakai is an important medicinal plant with health promoting properties that is used to treat many disorders. In traditional herbal medicine, the root of this plant is used to promote blood flow, to treat anemia, and is used as sedative or [...] Read more.
Angelica gigas Nakai is an important medicinal plant with health promoting properties that is used to treat many disorders. In traditional herbal medicine, the root of this plant is used to promote blood flow, to treat anemia, and is used as sedative or tonic agent. The root contains various bioactive metabolites; in particular, decursin and decursinol (pyranocoumarin type components) have been reported to possess various pharmacological properties. Recently, several in vitro and in vivo studies have reported that the crude extracts and isolated components from the root of A. gigas exhibited neuroprotective and cognitive enhancement effects. Neuronal damage or death is the most important factor for many neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, recent studies have clearly demonstrated the possible mechanisms behind the neuroprotective action of extracts/compounds from the root of A. gigas. In the present review, we summarized the neuroprotective and cognitive enhancement effects of extracts and individual compounds from A. gigas root. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pharmaceutical Equivalence of Clarithromycin Oral Dosage Forms Marketed in Nairobi County, Kenya
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm85020020
Received: 19 March 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
Clarithromycin is a broad-spectrum semi-synthetic macrolide indicated for treatment of pneumonias, Helicobacter pylori, and chlamydial and skin infections. The object of this study was to evaluate the pharmaceutical equivalence of 14 generic clarithromycin products marketed in Nairobi County, Kenya, to the innovator [...] Read more.
Clarithromycin is a broad-spectrum semi-synthetic macrolide indicated for treatment of pneumonias, Helicobacter pylori, and chlamydial and skin infections. The object of this study was to evaluate the pharmaceutical equivalence of 14 generic clarithromycin products marketed in Nairobi County, Kenya, to the innovator products, using in vitro dissolution profiles and similarity factors (f2). Further, dissolution profiles of four innovator formulations manufactured in different sites were compared. Fourteen clarithromycin tablets/capsules and four suspensions were subjected to assay and comparative dissolution runs at pH 1.2, 4.5 and 6.8, for 60 and 90 min, respectively. All products complied with pharmacopoeial assay specifications. However, significant differences were observed in their dissolution profiles. The non-compliance rates for tablets/capsules were 50% at pH 1.2, 33% at pH 4.5 and 50% at pH 6.8, while none of the four suspensions were compliant. Overall, only four (25%) products complied with the specifications for similarity factor. The results obtained indicate that a significant percentage of generic clarithromycin products are pharmaceutically non-equivalent to the innovator products, and that assay and single-point dissolution tests are insufficient demonstration of equivalence between the generic and innovator products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Cinnamon Bark, Honey, and Their Combination Effects against Acne-Causing Bacteria
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm85020019
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 29 March 2017 / Accepted: 5 April 2017 / Published: 11 April 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4048 | PDF Full-text (510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the major skin bacteria that cause the formation of acne. The present study was conducted to investigate antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of cinnamon bark, honey, and their combination against acne bacteria. The antibacterial activity of extract [...] Read more.
Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the major skin bacteria that cause the formation of acne. The present study was conducted to investigate antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of cinnamon bark, honey, and their combination against acne bacteria. The antibacterial activity of extract of cinnamon bark and honey were investigated against P. acnes and S. epidermidis using disc diffusion. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were attained using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) methods. The interaction between cinnamon bark extract and honey was determined using a checkerboards method. The results showed that the MICs of cinnamon bark extract and honey against P. acne were 256 µg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively, while those against S. epidermidis were 1024 µg/mL and 50% v/v, respectively. The MBC of cinnamon bark extract against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were more than 2048 µg/mL, whereas the MBC for honey against P. acnes and S. epidermidis were 100%. The combination of cinnamon bark extract and honey against P. acnes and S. epidermidis showed additive activity with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) value of 0.625. Therefore, the combination of cinnamon bark extract and honey has potential activity against acne-causing bacteria. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The In Vitro–In Vivo Safety Confirmation of PEG-40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil as a Surfactant for Oral Nanoemulsion Formulation
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm85020018
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 31 March 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1770 | PDF Full-text (4161 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Evaluation on the safety use of high concentration of polyoxyl 40 (PEG-40) hydrogenated castor oil as a surfactant for oral nanoemulsion was performed in Webster mice. As previously reported, nearly 20% of PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil was used to emulsify the glyceryl monooleate [...] Read more.
Evaluation on the safety use of high concentration of polyoxyl 40 (PEG-40) hydrogenated castor oil as a surfactant for oral nanoemulsion was performed in Webster mice. As previously reported, nearly 20% of PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil was used to emulsify the glyceryl monooleate (GMO) as an oil to the aqueous phase. Thermodynamically stable and spontaneous nanoemulsion was formed by the presence of co-surfactant polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG-400). Standard parameters were analyzed for nanoemulsion including particle size and particle size distribution, the surface charge of nanoemulsion, and morphology. To ensure the safety of this nanoemulsion, several cell lines were used for cytotoxicity study. In addition, 5000 mg/kg body weight (BW) of the blank nanoemulsion was given orally to Webster mice once a day for 14 days. Several parameters such as gross anatomy, body weight, and main organs histopathology were observed. In particular, by considering the in vivo data, it is suggested that nanoemulsion composed with a high amount of PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil is acceptable for oral delivery of active compounds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A PCR-Based Molecular Detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in Human Stool Samples from Tabriz City, Iran
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm85020017
Received: 28 November 2016 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 19 March 2017 / Published: 27 March 2017
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1235 | PDF Full-text (501 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Strongyloides stercoralis is a nematode causing serious infections in immunocompromised patients. In chronically infected patients, the low parasitic content as well as the resemblance of the larvae to several other species make diagnosis basedonmorphology difficult. In the present study, a PCR-based method targeting [...] Read more.
Strongyloides stercoralis is a nematode causing serious infections in immunocompromised patients. In chronically infected patients, the low parasitic content as well as the resemblance of the larvae to several other species make diagnosis basedonmorphology difficult. In the present study, a PCR-based method targeting the internal transcribed sequence 2 (ITS2) of the rDNA region was examined for the molecular detection of S. stercoralis infection from the stool samples. A total of 1800 patients were included. Three fresh stool samples were collected per patient, and S. stercoralis isolates were identified by the morphological method. A subset of isolates was later used in the PCR-based method as positive controls. Additionally, negative and no-template controls were included. Data analysis was accomplished using an x2 test. Ap-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. In total, fivestool samples were found to be infected with S. stercoralis using the morphology method. PCR method detected S. stercoralis DNA target from all of the fiveDNA samples extracted from positive fecal samples. Conclusions: The PCR method used for amplifying a short fragment was successful for diagnosis of S. stercoralis in fecal samples and can be reliable for directly detecting the parasite bypassing morphological method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Vernonia amygdalina Del. Leaf Ethanolic Extract on Intoxicated Male Wistar Rats Liver
Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm85020016
Received: 29 December 2016 / Revised: 16 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 23 March 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1532 | PDF Full-text (2211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vernonia amygdalina has been shown to have antioxidant activity, and is also expected to have hepatoprotective activity. This study was conducted to study the effect of V. amygdalina ethanol extracts on intoxicated rat livers. Fresh leaves were extracted in ethanol, and the hepatoprotective [...] Read more.
Vernonia amygdalina has been shown to have antioxidant activity, and is also expected to have hepatoprotective activity. This study was conducted to study the effect of V. amygdalina ethanol extracts on intoxicated rat livers. Fresh leaves were extracted in ethanol, and the hepatoprotective activity was tested on male Wistar rats induced with a combination of isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin. Parameters observed were the activity of the enzyme alanine transferase (ALT), serum albumin levels, liver index, and histopathological of the rat liver. The results showed that 50 and 100 mg/kg rat body weight of V. amygdalina ethanol extracts could prevent liver intoxication, starting on day 14. Based on serum albumin concentrations and ALT activity, the high dose extract (100 mg/kg) was more potent as a hepatoprotective agent compared to the extract at a low dose (50 mg/kg). The group of rats treated with a high dose extract showed normal liver index compared to the positive control. Through histology examination, the liver of rats treated with a high dose extract (100 mg/kg) showed minimal liver cell structure damage, and showed similar patterns to the normal rat. Based on these results, it can be concluded that V. amygdalina ethanol extracts can be used to protect the liver in a combination of INH and rifampicin as antituberculosis treatment. Full article
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