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J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex., Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Open AccessArticle A Study on the Factors Affecting Decrease in the Government Corruption and Mediating Effects of the Development of ICT and E-Government—A Cross-Country Analysis
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc4030041
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
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Abstract
Purpose: As the development of high technology, information and communications technology (ICT) and e-government has pursued improving efficiency, productivity, democracy, responsiveness and transparency in government, the demand for efficient government administration systems and government transparency has increased. Thus, this study aims to derive
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Purpose: As the development of high technology, information and communications technology (ICT) and e-government has pursued improving efficiency, productivity, democracy, responsiveness and transparency in government, the demand for efficient government administration systems and government transparency has increased. Thus, this study aims to derive factors contributing to decreases in corruption based on a literature review, and to examine the relationship between e-government and government corruption through a cross-country analysis. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study first analyzed how government corruption in each country is influenced by e-government user status, governance, and regulations. With ICT and e-government development as mediating variables, the effects of various factors on government corruption were examined by country. That is, the mediating effects of ICT use and e-government development (telecommunication infrastructure, online service, e-participation) were assessed in order to define the relationship between users, governance, regulations and government corruption. This study ensured objectivity of data by utilizing statistics provided by credible organizations such as the Transparency International (TI), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and United Nations (UN) and differs from past research in that it focused on the mediating effects of e-government. In this study, a cross-country analysis (with data from 120 countries), a three-step analysis of the mediating effects (Baron and Kenny, 1986) and a Sobel test (empirical analysis) were used. Results: The results of the analysis show a significant relationship between e-government user levels, governance, government regulation, and government corruption. In addition, the level of current ICT development and e-government partially mediated the effects of user levels, governance and government regulation on decreases in government corruption. These results show that the development of ICT and e-government mediate and contribute to a decrease in government corruption, and that increased utilization of ICT and monitoring government actions using such technologies will be one major factor in decreasing government corruption. Implications: These findings suggest an efficient and effective direction for future anti-corruption strategies in government policy making and implementation processes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Socio-Economic Benefits of Sharing Economy: Colleague-Based Carpooling Service in Korea
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc4030040
Received: 27 May 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
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Abstract
Carpooling—a concept of shared transportation for addressing traffic issues such as congestion and CO2 emissions—has been actively introduced, especially in developed countries. This study proposes a method to estimate the benefits of introducing carpooling for employees in public agencies that are transferring
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Carpooling—a concept of shared transportation for addressing traffic issues such as congestion and CO2 emissions—has been actively introduced, especially in developed countries. This study proposes a method to estimate the benefits of introducing carpooling for employees in public agencies that are transferring innovation cities. To overcome the shortcomings of previous carpooling services, a carpooling service for inter-company employees was designed and evaluated in our study. The traffic flow theory was used to estimate the direct benefits to carpooling users and the indirect benefits to express highway drivers. The results indicate that carpooling services have a significant socio-economic cost-saving effect on traffic congestion, environmental cost reduction, and so forth, and will therefore play an important role in traffic demand management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Efficiency Analysis of National R&D Planning for the Field of Precision Medicine in Korea
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc4030039
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
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Abstract
Precision medicine has received a lot of attention in recent years and we have not yet found any research cases that apply Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to investment decision making in this area. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relative
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Precision medicine has received a lot of attention in recent years and we have not yet found any research cases that apply Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to investment decision making in this area. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relative efficiency of candidate technology sectors in order to determine priorities for government investment in precision medicine. The results of the efficiency analysis can be used as an important reference for government policy makers to determine the amount of government investment in the next year for each candidate technology sector. The candidate technology for government investment in precision medicine was decided for 23 sectors based on the data analysis and the opinions of expert committees. This study applies the input-oriented DEA in regard to 23 technology sectors, which is widely used to analyze relative efficiency in terms of inputs versus outputs and to enhance efficiency through the propositional reduction of inputs. The input variables include the government’s research and development (R&D) investment and forward and backward industry linkage effects. The output variables are the employment creation effect, value-added effect, number of Korean patents, and number of Korean papers. Our analysis results show that the 23 technology sectors in precision medicine overall have a high efficiency, with the exception of the biobank technology sector. Therefore, since the Biobank technology sector has strong infrastructure characteristics, it seems to require continuous investment. The efficiency of DEA is high in most precision medicine sectors; therefore, overall, investing in these technologies is expected to yield good benefits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The System Thinking Perspective in the Open-Innovation Research: A Systematic Review
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc4030038
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
The new logics of competitions are mostly based on exploiting relationships to implement new mechanisms in managing Knowledge. Today, a successful company should be, lean, modular, and with a smart approach to new products development. In this context, the source of competitive advantage
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The new logics of competitions are mostly based on exploiting relationships to implement new mechanisms in managing Knowledge. Today, a successful company should be, lean, modular, and with a smart approach to new products development. In this context, the source of competitive advantage cannot be found into a static heterogeneity of resources, but companies must be able to create and manage a dynamic competitive process to continuously reinvent their products/services and to re-combine their resources with their partners’ ones. A paradigm for this behavior is the Open Innovation one, as created by Chesbrough. According to the rules of this paradigm, companies have to acknowledge that they operate in a network of relationships, they must be open to cooperate with their external partners, and they must not try to limit their actions in reaching only for some pre-defined result. So, Open Innovation Networks appear to be similar to those described by the scholars in the Complex Adaptive Systems field where the actions of the system, and of its parts, are the result of the various actors’ interactions in an emergent way. In this paper, we use a Systematic Literature Review approach to explore how the main topics in the System Thinking Perspective, and in particular, those related to Complex Systems, are linked to the Open Innovation studies. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report Cross-Border Open Innovation of Early Stage Tech Incubation: A Case Study of FORGE, the First UK-China Accelerator Program
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc4030037
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 12 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
This paper is a case study of FORGE, the first UK-China cross border accelerator program, conducted in the context of TusPark Newcastle, an overseas innovation center by TUS Holdings in the United Kingdom. It engages with current research that examines the role of
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This paper is a case study of FORGE, the first UK-China cross border accelerator program, conducted in the context of TusPark Newcastle, an overseas innovation center by TUS Holdings in the United Kingdom. It engages with current research that examines the role of trust, particularly in the area of cross-border trade. We suggest that this is especially pertinent for early stage technology companies, since in many cases, their products, business models and even founder reputations, are more unformed. We also look at the topic of cross-border incubation, particularly with China as the target market, and provide new insights for understanding the channels and barriers for international commercialization in China for early stage tech startups. Finally, we provide some suggestions for policy-makers on both sides to better coordinate efforts to increase innovation relationships like FORGE. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of the WISH (Well-Aging Indexing for Senior Health) Platform for Happiness
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc4030036
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Abstract
Humans now have a life expectancy of nearly 90 years and, as a result, society is rapidly aging. These longer life spans have, however, increased the average length of hospitalization for elderly adults suffering from chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and encephalopathy.
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Humans now have a life expectancy of nearly 90 years and, as a result, society is rapidly aging. These longer life spans have, however, increased the average length of hospitalization for elderly adults suffering from chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and encephalopathy. In a recent survey of 10 well-being indices for elderly adults, the top demands for well-being are physical, spiritual, and psychological. Thus, we developed the WISH (Well-aging Indexing for Senior Health) Platform to enhance the normalizing exponents using survey data. Nowadays, the incidence of many chronic diseases is increasing. Thus, we designed the WISH Platform using clinical research on depression, cerebral infarction, coronary artery, and rheumatism, which are common diseases in Koreans. By applying this study to chronic diseases, which manifest differently among elderly adults across different countries, it is possible to determine influential nutrition and life patterns to create a standardized index. Such an index will help create value for the happiness of active elderly people, which in turn will aid in their efforts to maintain health; it may even benefit health promotion in other age groups. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of E-Hailing Competition on the Urban Taxi Ecosystem and Governance Strategy from a Rent-Seeking Perspective: The China E-Hailing Platform
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc4030035
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Abstract
Nowadays, the way of Internet travel in China presents diversified development. Rapid expansion in the personal mobile terminal and Internet infrastructure for the Internet travels to the ecosystem of development and evolution. This paper explores the influence of the expansion of the e-hailing
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Nowadays, the way of Internet travel in China presents diversified development. Rapid expansion in the personal mobile terminal and Internet infrastructure for the Internet travels to the ecosystem of development and evolution. This paper explores the influence of the expansion of the e-hailing ecological community on the urban taxi ecological community, and the problems of profit-seeking, rent-setting, and rent-seeking from the capital behind the e-hailing platform. With entrance into the urban travel ecosystem with ride-hailing platform enterprises and emerging business models, how does (venture) capital cause the change of the urban taxi ecology? Is it essentially the rent-setting and rent-seeking behavior of capital that obtains the market monopoly status of e-hailing? What are the difficulties for governments and the public in regulating rent-seeking in capital and emerging business models? The aim is to explore the new governing strategy of urban taxi ecology. The paper chooses the case of the DiDi e-hailing platform, and performs a study on the utility and indifference curves quantitatively, and constructs a rent-seeking liaison between platform’s entry into the market and the platform’s monopoly. In this paper, the ecological system of the taxi industry is first sorted out, and the community relationship between the traditional cruise taxi industry and the e-hailing industry, and their market supply and demand relationship are clarified. Secondly, from the main theoretical perspective of rent-seeking behavior, this paper analyzes the causes of the rent-setting rent-seeking behavior of e-hailing platform enterprises and the venture capital behind them, and the problems of public power supervision. As the red pack & subsidy market strategy changes the utility (indifference) curve of passengers, the consumption preference of passengers is more inclined to e-hailing. With the expansion of the e-hailing community, the e-hailing platform partly replaces the regulatory role of the government, and venture capital investors as rational-economic individuals, and its agency responsibilities and profit-seeking characteristics naturally form a contradictory pair. The introduction of competition is a means among market policies to break monopoly. Even so, commercial competitors are able to avoid laws or regulations by the means of commercial mergers or through the implementation of variable interest entities control. Governments should therefore seek to participate actively in the governance of such organizations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Measuring the Efficiency of U.S. Pharmaceutical Companies Based on Open Innovation Types
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc4030034
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Abstract
The pharmaceutical industry, where research and development (R&D) efficiency is central to company survival, has recently faced significant challenges. To increase efficiency, companies must implement strategies such as open innovation (OI), wherein they sell their intellectual property, maximize their use of external resources,
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The pharmaceutical industry, where research and development (R&D) efficiency is central to company survival, has recently faced significant challenges. To increase efficiency, companies must implement strategies such as open innovation (OI), wherein they sell their intellectual property, maximize their use of external resources, adjust their structures, and implement new business models. In this study, we divided 701 U.S. pharmaceutical companies according to their OI strategies to measure and compare their R&D efficiencies between 2001 and 2016. We analyzed the deal data of companies by first dividing them into four groups (inside-out, outside-in, coupled, and closed) to calculate R&D efficiency using stochastic and meta-frontier analyses. In the first group analysis, the coupled group shows high technical efficiency, but in an overall comparison, the inside-out group achieves the highest efficiency values. These values increased between 2005 and 2010, when the R&D crisis in the industry was great at its highest. We thus identified the characteristics of each group based on our results, and presented extensive analyses using a time-series comparison and enterprise-level analysis. We claim that pharmaceutical companies can still cope with the current R&D crisis by implementing different OI strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Framing Open Innovation in Start-Ups’ Incubators: A Complexity Theory Perspective
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc4030033
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
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Abstract
Recently, concepts and principles from the Complexity Theory (or, generally speaking, the complexity sciences) have been applied as a perspective for capturing the influence of the context, interaction, and adaption in the innovation processes, such as the ones enabled in the business incubators.
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Recently, concepts and principles from the Complexity Theory (or, generally speaking, the complexity sciences) have been applied as a perspective for capturing the influence of the context, interaction, and adaption in the innovation processes, such as the ones enabled in the business incubators. The purpose of this paper is to implement a frame of reference for understanding the start-ups’ incubator as a complex system where innovation, learning, and self-organization take place. We build on the interfaces between the Complexity Theory (i.e., complexity sciences) and Open Innovation literature to identify principles, patterns, and conditions that frame the incubation practices as simple rules aimed to sustain the innovation process towards the creation of new ventures. Results from the multiple case studies conducted in five incubators show that the features of variety, nonlinear interaction, interdependence, autonomy, and emergence of the incubation process framed as a complex system are enabled in different ways by the combination of the open innovation practices and services provided by the start-ups’ incubators, including the provision of physical infrastructure, access to funding streams, experts/entrepreneurs networking, education/workshops, mentorship, and advice. Full article
Open AccessArticle Learning Mode and Strategic Concept for the 4th Industrial Revolution
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc4030032
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 28 July 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
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Abstract
Compared to information technology (IT) revolutions, which are characterized by disruptive innovations, the innovations required for the 4th Industrial Revolution will be characterized by the cumulativeness of the innovations. Therefore, we will need new modes of technological learning and new strategic concepts. The
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Compared to information technology (IT) revolutions, which are characterized by disruptive innovations, the innovations required for the 4th Industrial Revolution will be characterized by the cumulativeness of the innovations. Therefore, we will need new modes of technological learning and new strategic concepts. The IT revolution can be divided into two parts: system integration and component supplying. Notice that all IT giants such as Apple and Google emerged only after Intel emerged as the dominant microprocessor unit (MPU) supplier. Therefore, we can ascertain that Intel emerged as a dominant MPU supplier by accommodating the different specifications made by Japanese customers in different industrial sectors. Thus, we will come to the concept of learning-by-accommodation as the dominant learning mode of IT module supplying, while the aforementioned IT giants implemented the mode of learning-by integration. The 4th Industrial Revolution will be characterized by technological evolutions rather than by disruptive innovations. They can be also decomposed into module supplying and the system integration. As to the mode of learning in the modules, we will find that the mode of learning will be prevalent in the same manner as IT module supplying, but in a more pre-emptive way. As for the feedback loops of the system integration, we will divide them into edge computing and the overall system solution. As for the edge solution, it is possible for latecomers to make a leapfrogging. In this context, we will make an analysis on the Chinese development of the “capacitor trolley bus” and come to a totally different mode of learning in the edge solution. We will name this mode “learning-by-porting”, using the terminology derived from the analysis of the design rules of a modular structure. By assuming that an overall feedback loop consists of a hierarchical structured collection of edge solutions, we can conclude that the overall solution is developed by multiple applications of the learning-by-porting of edge solutions. Additionally, the total system is a hierarchical structure, thus, a strategy toward the realization of the 4th industrial revolution will be a multilayered porting strategy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Effects of the Home Energy Management System from an Open Innovation Perspective
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc4030031
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
The Home Energy Management System (HEMS) is a system for the efficient electric power consumption of each household. It can provide real-time electricity cost information according to electricity consumption, and households can immediately control their consumption of electricity. In this study, we analyzed
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The Home Energy Management System (HEMS) is a system for the efficient electric power consumption of each household. It can provide real-time electricity cost information according to electricity consumption, and households can immediately control their consumption of electricity. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the HEMS on the stability of demand for electric power. To do this, we analyzed the causal relationship between the amounts of electric power generation and consumption, from the system dynamics perspective. From the analysis, we found that in the current structure, the fluctuation of the quantity of demand became large due to the time delay in households recognizing the electric bill and adjusting their electric power consumption. However, when the HEMS was introduced, it could be seen that electric power demand remained stable since consumers could see their electricity bill in real-time and could manage their electricity consumption by themselves. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluating Determinant Priority of License Fee in Biotech Industry
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc4030030
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 15 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
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Abstract
This research aimed to build a solid basis through analytic hierarchy process (AHP) analysis to develop a reliable and practical valuation model that reflects the characteristics of the biotech industry and propose a reference formula to estimate the license fee by drug class
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This research aimed to build a solid basis through analytic hierarchy process (AHP) analysis to develop a reliable and practical valuation model that reflects the characteristics of the biotech industry and propose a reference formula to estimate the license fee by drug class for potential business transactions. In this study, we reviewed 135 related studies and found 167 related determinants. We surveyed 25 or more specialists in the biopharmaceutical industries. The survey group consisted of National Research Institutes (‘Group 1’), Companies (‘Group 2’), and Government Agencies–Universities (‘Group 3’). The average of the total group and Group 3 showed the same tendency at a Level 3 ranking, where the priority in determining the license fee was arranged in the order of ‘the market factor, the technology factor, the financial factor, and the environmental factor’ in light of the factors, and ‘patent characteristics, licensee characteristics, and licensor characteristics’ for the characteristics. We noted that the patent characteristics were primarily significant in technology transactions and their contract fee in the groups (Total, Group 2 and Group 3), followed by licensee characteristics. In terms of the in-depth index, we noted that the development phase and attrition rate, intellectual property tradability, and licensee licensing experience, followed by quality of technology, were the most influential determinants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Motivators of MBWA and Communicational Factors behind Them: A Case Study on a Korean Shipyard
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc4030029
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 8 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
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Abstract
This study was conducted with a team of senior managers at a Korean shipyard in an effort to elicit particular motivators for implementing management by walking around (MBWA). To identify the key motivators and communication issues associated with them, a theoretical framework was
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This study was conducted with a team of senior managers at a Korean shipyard in an effort to elicit particular motivators for implementing management by walking around (MBWA). To identify the key motivators and communication issues associated with them, a theoretical framework was produced based on the key tensions of social psychology of communication and upward communication as well as modern organizational theories. For this qualitative research analysis, 12 semi-structured interviews were conducted face-to-face with the executives; the data were then supplemented by five field observations during MBWAs at the shipyard. Coding frame was used to organize modal salient themes for thematic analysis. The organizational and individual motivators identified were then analyzed in-depth to elicit communicational factors underlying these motivators. While identifying 10 salient motivators as organizing themes, the research concludes that MBWA is a contingent management strategy intended to promote upward communication within organizations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identifying Stakeholders and Interactions in the Dementia Café in Seongju through Empathic Service Design Approaches
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc4030028
Received: 9 June 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: As we enter the experience economy, industrial design has focused on social innovation and has flowed into social design. This fresh design perspective has been employed in citizen-centered-policymaking through empathic approaches that emphasize the necessity of public service design. Focusing on
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(1) Background: As we enter the experience economy, industrial design has focused on social innovation and has flowed into social design. This fresh design perspective has been employed in citizen-centered-policymaking through empathic approaches that emphasize the necessity of public service design. Focusing on the results of a 2017 citizen design project, this study aims to identify the effectiveness of an empathic approach in improving public services through investigating stakeholders and their interactions of the Dementia Café in Seongju. (2) Methods: Our team conducted observations and interviews with 20 stakeholders to understand the operational environment of the café. Utilizing the information we gathered, we visualized data in a stakeholder map and carried out critical characteristics analysis (CC) to provide practitioners and researchers addressing the project with quick, intuitive understanding. (3) Results: Three themes were drawn from the observations and interviews conducted in the study: the sustainability of operation, locational and perceptional conditions, and management of clientele. The stakeholder map reveals broken interactions between the café’s staff and its associated hospital, and a loss of opportunities to offer customized administrational dementia care through the café. In the CC analysis, service providers’ patterns were vague while service receivers showed three discernable patterns indicating individualized responses to each group that might be effective. (4) Conclusions: The outcomes including difference of perspectives between the stakeholders confirm that adopting empathic approach enables various stakeholders to offer views and share ideas. Hence this approach possibly helps deliver tailored public services in a creative manner by opening and sharing government-ownership with the public. Since the research was accomplished primarily by qualitative approaches, there may still be limits caused by not including benefits of quantitative approaches in such a large-scaled survey, and these are subject to further research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Entrepreneurial Intention of Female Students in Italy
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc4030027
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 17 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 3 July 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to investigate the entrepreneurial intention of Italian female students according to the Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). In particular, we analysed the women’s intention to become entrepreneurs because the relevance of the female entrepreneurship phenomenon is
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The aim of this paper is to investigate the entrepreneurial intention of Italian female students according to the Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). In particular, we analysed the women’s intention to become entrepreneurs because the relevance of the female entrepreneurship phenomenon is a growing issue. Indeed, millions of women are involved in creating and operating enterprises, which suggests that women are an important engine of economic growth for developing countries. Using survey data from 441 Italian female students, we found that social pressure influences business students’ intention to become entrepreneurs. Focusing on female students, their intention is affected also by the perceived behavioural control. These results are of interest for policy makers and regulators in promoting entrepreneurial skills among young populations, with consequent reduction of the unemployment rate. Finally, this paper provides a new model that helps to understand the students’ entrepreneurial intentions based on gender role. Full article
Open AccessCase Report A Study on the Effectiveness of Entrepreneurship Education Programs in Higher Education Institutions: A Case Study of Korean Graduate Programs
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(3), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc4030026
Received: 10 June 2018 / Revised: 23 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of this study is to verify the effectiveness of the entrepreneurship curriculum and the educational program recognized by students and graduates. This paper has studied the improvement of curriculum and educational programs operated by the Graduate School of Entrepreneurship by using
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The purpose of this study is to verify the effectiveness of the entrepreneurship curriculum and the educational program recognized by students and graduates. This paper has studied the improvement of curriculum and educational programs operated by the Graduate School of Entrepreneurship by using Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA). This study was conducted on students and graduates who attended entrepreneurship graduate schools designated by the Ministry of SMEs and Startups (MSS) in Korea. The results of the questionnaire survey were tested the differences of curriculum courses by paired-sample t test and its improvement was analyzed through Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA). According to the research analysis, there was a difference in the preference of the curriculum and the educational program recognized by graduate students and graduates. The results of this study suggested academic and practical implications. In academic terms, this study classified the subject and educational curriculums of entrepreneurship graduate programs through the analysis of importance-satisfaction. In practical terms, this study suggested implications for the improvement of curriculum and educational programs for the activation of entrepreneurship graduate schools. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Managing Strategic Partnerships with Universities in Innovation Ecosystems: A Research Agenda
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(3), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc4030025
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 June 2018 / Published: 28 June 2018
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Abstract
This paper proposes a research agenda for understanding how to establish and develop strategic partnerships with universities in innovation ecosystems, aimed to support the development of companies’ entrepreneurial and innovation development capacities. In particular, the paper suggests an integrated model to explore how
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This paper proposes a research agenda for understanding how to establish and develop strategic partnerships with universities in innovation ecosystems, aimed to support the development of companies’ entrepreneurial and innovation development capacities. In particular, the paper suggests an integrated model to explore how universities and companies establish, manage, and assess collaborative relationships to foster entrepreneurial and innovative capacity. The framework identifies four fundamental dimensions that characterise the role and function mechanisms of successful collaborative relationships: (1) the entrepreneurial learning network dynamics and the transformational patterns affecting the development of entrepreneurial capital of university-based innovation ecosystems; (2) the role and features of the university-based organisational units to support companies’ entrepreneurial and innovative development in innovation ecosystems; (3) the organisational models and factors influencing a company’s capacity to establish successful partnerships with universities and to develop entrepreneurial and innovative capabilities; and (4) the approaches, models, and tools that can support universities and companies to design, implement, and assess partnerships and initiatives aimed to develop entrepreneurial and innovative capabilities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Factors Affecting the Buying Intention of Organic Tea Consumers of Bangladesh
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc4030024
Received: 23 May 2018 / Revised: 24 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 June 2018 / Published: 27 June 2018
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Abstract
In the modern era of globalization, consumers become aware and concerned about their health as well as natural resources and the environment. Technological improvement and economic growth are continuously exploiting the earth’s resources, resulting in an overwhelming burden on earth's ecology. Confirming a
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In the modern era of globalization, consumers become aware and concerned about their health as well as natural resources and the environment. Technological improvement and economic growth are continuously exploiting the earth’s resources, resulting in an overwhelming burden on earth's ecology. Confirming a state of equilibrium between economic growth and safeguarding the environment becomes a challenge for business people and marketers. Though people worldwide are becoming interested in buying organic food, the concept of organic farming is relatively new in Bangladesh. The tea industry has started off with producing organic tea on a very limited scale. In this study, the researchers tried to examine the buying intention of organic tea among the consumers of Bangladesh. The study demonstrated that trust and perceived price significantly affect the buying intention of organic tea consumers along with product attributes, health consciousness, and environmental concern. Marketers may consider the stated factors to create an influence on the selection process of organic tea by consumers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Emergence of the ERP Software Market between Product Innovation and Market Shaping
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(3), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc4030023
Received: 8 April 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 2 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
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Abstract
In this empirical research, the author focuses on the enterprise resource planning (ERP) software market. Based on a contingent perspective of how markets emerge and can be shaped, the author asks the research question of whether the emergence of the ERP market was
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In this empirical research, the author focuses on the enterprise resource planning (ERP) software market. Based on a contingent perspective of how markets emerge and can be shaped, the author asks the research question of whether the emergence of the ERP market was a necessary, strong, or weak consequence of the product innovation of Systems, Applications & Products in Data Processing (SAP), which was the pioneer innovator in this specific market. This question is answered with a graph theoretical model of contingency and causality in order to measure the causality between events occurring over historical time. In this sense, the research article provides an application of the method proposed by Lehmann-Waffenschmidt. The author finds that the emergence of the ERP software market is contingent and was not predetermined; path dependencies play a big role in the way how this market segment emerged. With respect to both entrepreneurial and economic factors of relevance, the case of the SAP is far from a predetermined success story. The results are relevant for a number of reasons. First, the results indicate that instead of talking about success stories, a new perspective in market shaping can highlight a more realistic way of the contingent nature of entrepreneurial activity and product innovations. Second, the results aim to bridge the gap between marketing and the emergence of markets, as it was indicated as a research gap by recent contributions in marketing science. Third, the introduction of counterfactual events in the business history of SAP indicate a methodological innovation that has not yet been considered by marketing and entrepreneurship scholars, which may be helpful regarding recognizing patterns from the past and also regarding contingent planning for the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Efficiency Analysis of the Royalty System from the Perspective of Open Innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc4030022
Received: 4 June 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of this study is to suggest efficiency improvement using the analysis of the efficiency of the royalty system for government-funded research institutes (GRIs) belonging to the National Research Council of Science & Technology (NST). Twenty three GRIs’ royalty incomes and expenses
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The purpose of this study is to suggest efficiency improvement using the analysis of the efficiency of the royalty system for government-funded research institutes (GRIs) belonging to the National Research Council of Science & Technology (NST). Twenty three GRIs’ royalty incomes and expenses (2013–2015) were analyzed using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) model. First, Research Model 1 was used to find out if the obligated expense category’s distribution ratio were efficient. Five Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes (CCR) model organizations and 14 Banker, Charnes and Cooper (BCC) model organizations demonstrated 100% efficiency. With the exception of the obligated expense category, Research Model 2 was used. Seventeen CCR model organizations and 18 BCC model organizations demonstrated 100% efficiency. GRIs were divided into efficient and inefficient organizations using each model, and potential improvements and benchmarking decision-making units (DMUs) were found for inefficient organizations. Second, multiple regression analysis in Research Model 2 was used to analyze the cause of the efficiency to find factors that influenced the transfer of technology and license improvement. Third, there were efficiency differences among research organizations as a result of the efficiency analysis considering the research organization type with respect to the constant returns to scale (CRS) efficiency of Research Models 1 and 2. Thus, different policies should be applied to improve the efficiency. Finally, the possible improvements, future directions and limits of this study are discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle How to Respond to the Fourth Industrial Revolution, or the Second Information Technology Revolution? Dynamic New Combinations between Technology, Market, and Society through Open Innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc4030021
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
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Abstract
Since Klaus Schwab and the World Economic Forum declared the arrival of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, there has been much discussion about it. However, there is no commonly agreed-upon definition of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Therefore, we attempted to answer the following four
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Since Klaus Schwab and the World Economic Forum declared the arrival of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, there has been much discussion about it. However, there is no commonly agreed-upon definition of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Therefore, we attempted to answer the following four research questions. “What is the definition of the Fourth Industrial Revolution?”, “How can we respond to the Fourth Industrial Revolution in terms of institutions?”, “How can we respond to the Fourth Industrial Revolution in terms of technology?”, “How can we respond to the Fourth Industrial Revolution in terms of firm innovation and start-up strategy?” Brainstorming was conducted by 11 scholars from several countries to answer these four research questions. Therefore, this research is not the end product of four research questions, but a kind of advanced template to answer the four research questions for continuing research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Benefits and Costs of Closed Innovation Strategy: Analysis of Samsung’s Galaxy Note 7 Explosion and Withdrawal Scandal
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2018, 4(3), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc4030020
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 1 June 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
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Abstract
The Samsung Galaxy Note 7 has been withdrawn from the market after a number of the devices exploded after its launch in 2016. Our research seeks to answer three questions and proceeds as follows. Did the closed innovation of Samsung trigger the Galaxy
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The Samsung Galaxy Note 7 has been withdrawn from the market after a number of the devices exploded after its launch in 2016. Our research seeks to answer three questions and proceeds as follows. Did the closed innovation of Samsung trigger the Galaxy Note 7 withdrawal? If so What are the costs and benefits of Samsung’s closed innovation? From among the qualitative inquiry methods, this study used case study research. From this research, we isolated three important implications. The first is the benefit and cost of Samsung Electronics’ closed innovation strategy. The second is the internal impact of the Galaxy Note 7 explosions on Samsung Electronics. The third is that success in open innovation strategies requires a great investment to produce strong effects. Full article
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