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Design Architectures of the CMOS Power Amplifier for 2.4 GHz ISM Band Applications: An Overview

Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Xiamen University Malaysia, Bandar Sunsuria, Sepang 43900, Selangor, Malaysia
Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
International center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Via Beirut 31, 34100 Trieste, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2019, 8(5), 477;
Received: 20 February 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 29 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoscale CMOS Technologies)
PDF [4952 KB, uploaded 29 April 2019]


Power amplifiers (PAs) are among the most crucial functional blocks in the radio frequency (RF) frontend for reliable wireless communication. PAs amplify and boost the input signal to the required output power. The signal is amplified to make it sufficiently high for the transmitter to propagate the required distance to the receiver. Attempted advancements of PA have focused on attaining high-performance RF signals for transmitters. Such PAs are expected to require low power consumption while producing a relatively high output power with a high efficiency. However, current PA designs in nanometer and micrometer complementary metal–oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology present inevitable drawbacks, such as oxide breakdown and hot electron effect. A well-defined architecture, including a linear and simple functional block synthesis, is critical in designing CMOS PA for various applications. This article describes the different state-of-the art design architectures of CMOS PA, including their circuit operations, and analyzes the performance of PAs for 2.4 GHz ISM (industrial, scientific, and medical) band applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: CMOS; ISM band; PA; transmitter; WSN CMOS; ISM band; PA; transmitter; WSN

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Bhuiyan, M.A.S.; Badal, M.T.I.; Reaz, M.B.I.; Crespo, M.L.; Cicuttin, A. Design Architectures of the CMOS Power Amplifier for 2.4 GHz ISM Band Applications: An Overview. Electronics 2019, 8, 477.

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