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Electronic Circuit with Controllable Negative Differential Resistance and its Applications

1
Research and Development Department, Mathematical Modelling & Research Holding Limited, London W1W 7LT, UK
2
Department of Electronics, National Aviation University, 03058 Kyiv, Ukraine
3
Projects and Maintenance Section, The Private Department of the President of the United Arab Emirates, Abu Dhabi 000372, UAE
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2019, 8(4), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8040409
Received: 5 March 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Electronic Devices)
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Abstract

Electronic devices and circuits with negative differential resistance (NDR) are widely used in oscillators, memory devices, frequency multipliers, mixers, etc. Such devices and circuits usually have an N-, S-, or Λ-type current-voltage characteristics. In the known NDR devices and circuits, it is practically impossible to increase the negative resistance without changing the type or the dimensions of transistors. Moreover, some of them have three terminals assuming two power supplies. In this paper, a new NDR circuit that comprises a combination of a field effect transistor (FET) and a simple bipolar junction transistor (BJT) current mirror (CM) with multiple outputs is proposed. A distinctive feature of the proposed circuit is the ability to change the magnitude of the NDR by increasing the number of outputs in the CM. Mathematical expressions are derived to calculate the threshold currents and voltages of the N-type current-voltage characteristics for various types of FET. The calculated current and voltage thresholds are compared with the simulation results. The possible applications of the proposed NDR circuit for designing single-frequency oscillators and voltage-controlled oscillators (VCO) are considered. The designed NDR VCO has a very low level of phase noise and has one of the best values of a standard figure of merit (FOM) among recently published VCOs. The effectiveness of the proposed oscillators is confirmed by the simulation results and the implemented prototype. View Full-Text
Keywords: negative differential resistance; current-voltage characteristics; multiple simple current mirror; threshold voltage; oscillator; voltage-controlled oscillator negative differential resistance; current-voltage characteristics; multiple simple current mirror; threshold voltage; oscillator; voltage-controlled oscillator
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ulansky, V.; Raza, A.; Oun, H. Electronic Circuit with Controllable Negative Differential Resistance and its Applications. Electronics 2019, 8, 409.

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