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Resources, Volume 13, Issue 7 (July 2024) – 15 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Extractive activities can generate, in the case of siliceous stone (such as granites, gneisses, diorites, etc.), waste that can contain significant quantities of feldspar, which can be recovered for the ceramic industry. After an initial dressing (crushing, sieving, and magnetic separation) to separate quartz and feldspar for ceramic applications, the magnetic concentrate samples (the mafic portion) show interesting concentrations of minerals featuring rare earth elements (REEs). In this context, REEs represent a byproduct of feldspar extraction (a primary mineral in Italy). This is true both for the extractive waste and also for the natural deposits of siliceous rocks present in the Piemonte Region (NW Italy). View this paper
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11 pages, 2867 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Yield and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Selected Wild Indigenous Fruits in Rwanda
by Gaudence Nishimwe, Suzana Augustino, Anna Sigrun Dahlin and Fidèle Niyitanga
Resources 2024, 13(7), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13070101 - 22 Jul 2024
Viewed by 350
Abstract
A study was carried out to assess the physico-chemical characteristics of wild fruits: Myrianthus holstii and Garcinia buchananii, consumed by rural communities in Rwanda. Although the species have been prioritized for domestication in the country, very little information has been documented on [...] Read more.
A study was carried out to assess the physico-chemical characteristics of wild fruits: Myrianthus holstii and Garcinia buchananii, consumed by rural communities in Rwanda. Although the species have been prioritized for domestication in the country, very little information has been documented on their yield potential, morphological traits, and nutritional compositions. Data were collected from nine fruiting trees for each species in the Bugesera and Nyamagabe districts. All fruits per tree were counted and 10 fruits were harvested for characterization. The proximate composition, vitamins, and minerals were analyzed using Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods. Analyses of inferential statistics were performed to detect differences in means among the fruits from different populations. The highest yield (279 kg/tree) for M. holstii was recorded in the Musebeya population while the highest (15.12 kg/tree) for G. buchananii was recorded in the Juru populations. The quantities of vitamins A and C in M. holstii fruits ranged from 0.92 mg/100 g to 0.93 mg/100 g and from 19.22 mg/100 g to 19.94 mg/100 g, respectively. The quantities of vitamins A and C in G. buchananii fruits ranged from 0.56 mg/100 g to 0.95 mg/100 g and 33.82 mg/100 g to 34.84 mg/100 g, respectively. The most abundant mineral element recorded in this study was iron (15.95 mg/100 g) found in the M. holstii species and contributing 159.5% of the recommended daily allowance. The results obtained in this work suggest the potential value of G. buchananii and M. holstii for the development of novel products in the food industry. The findings also offer opportunities for tree selection to support their domestication and to reduce pressure on the remaining population in the wild. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resource Extraction from Agricultural Products/Waste: 2nd Edition)
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20 pages, 4111 KiB  
Article
Valorization of Fine-Fraction CDW in Binary Pozzolanic CDW/Bamboo Leaf Ash Mixtures for the Elaboration of New Ternary Low-Carbon Cement
by Javier Villar-Hernández, Ernesto Villar-Cociña, Holmer Savastano, Jr. and Moisés Frías Rojas
Resources 2024, 13(7), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13070100 - 19 Jul 2024
Viewed by 251
Abstract
This paper presents the characterization of a binary mixture of construction and demolition waste (CDW) and bamboo leaf ash (BLAsh) calcined at 600 °C (novel mixture) and the study of its pozzolanic behavior. Different dosages in a pozzolan/Ca(OH)2 system were employed. The [...] Read more.
This paper presents the characterization of a binary mixture of construction and demolition waste (CDW) and bamboo leaf ash (BLAsh) calcined at 600 °C (novel mixture) and the study of its pozzolanic behavior. Different dosages in a pozzolan/Ca(OH)2 system were employed. The aim is the valorization of fine-fraction CDW that achieves a more reactive binary mixture and allows an adequate use of CDW as waste, as CDW is a material of limited use due to its low pozzolanic activity. The pozzolanic behavior of the mixture was analyzed using the conductometric method, which measures the electrical conductivity in the CDW + BLAsh/CH solution versus reaction time. With the application of a kinetic–diffusive mathematical model, the kinetic parameters of the pozzolanic reaction were quantified. This allowed a quantitative evaluation of the pozzolanic activity based on the values of these parameters. To validate these results, other experimental techniques were used: X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Also, mechanical compressive strength assays were carried out. The results show an increase in the pozzolanic activity of binary mixes of CDW + BLAsh for all the dosages used in comparison to the pozzolanic activity of CDW alone. The quantitative assessment (kinetic parameters) shows that the binary mixture CDW50 + BLAsh50 is the most reactive (reaction rate constant of 7.88 × 10−1 h−1) and is superior to the mixtures CDW60 + BLAsh40 and CDW70 + BLAs30. Compressive strength tests show higher strength values for the ternary mixes (OPC + CDW + BLAsh) compared to the binary mixes (OPC + CDW). In view of the results, the binary blend of pozzolans CDW + BLAsh is suitable for the manufacture of future low-carbon ternary cements. Full article
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23 pages, 8277 KiB  
Article
Navigating the Past through an Interactive Geovisualisation-Driven Methodology: Locating a 15th–19th Century Paddy Field as a Source of Agro-Ecological Knowledge (Thessaly, Greece)
by Dimitris Goussios and Ioannis Faraslis
Resources 2024, 13(7), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13070099 - 16 Jul 2024
Viewed by 269
Abstract
The interconnection between the objectives of territorial development and those of the agro-ecological transition highlights the value of past knowledge in the sustainable management of resources and agro-ecological systems. However, the lack of data creates difficulties for retrospection in rural areas. This paper [...] Read more.
The interconnection between the objectives of territorial development and those of the agro-ecological transition highlights the value of past knowledge in the sustainable management of resources and agro-ecological systems. However, the lack of data creates difficulties for retrospection in rural areas. This paper contributes to the search for such knowledge from the past by developing an interactive methodology capable of combining heterogeneous information sources with the activation of local collective memory. Its effectiveness is based on ensuring the interoperability of information and communication in an environment simultaneously shaped by geoinformatics and 3D geovisualisations. This virtual environment fostered participation and interactivity, supported by representations of the paleo-landscape (Ottoman period). Furthermore, synergies were achieved between information sources, which were integrated into local spatial systems. The application example involved identifying a rice field that existed between the 15th and 19th centuries in Thessaly, Greece. It is an interesting case because the research results indicated that the location and organisation of the crop, combined with the spatio-temporal coordination required, ensured the sustainable use of natural resources. The interplay between information and communication facilitated community participation and the activation of its collective memory as an information source that enriched the search itself and local intelligence. Full article
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18 pages, 1094 KiB  
Article
Phytoremediation Characterization of Heavy Metals by Some Native Plants at Anthropogenic Polluted Sites in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
by Sameera A. Alghamdi and Manal El-Zohri
Resources 2024, 13(7), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13070098 - 16 Jul 2024
Viewed by 483
Abstract
Many anthropogenic activities have lately resulted in soil adulteration by heavy metals (HMs). The assessment of native plant species that grow in the polluted environments is of great importance for using these plants in phytoremediation techniques. This study was conducted in three industrial [...] Read more.
Many anthropogenic activities have lately resulted in soil adulteration by heavy metals (HMs). The assessment of native plant species that grow in the polluted environments is of great importance for using these plants in phytoremediation techniques. This study was conducted in three industrial regions in Jeddah city, Wadi Marik, Bahra, and Khumrah, to assess the HM contamination level in them. This study also evaluated the phytoremediation ability of nine plant species collected from the studied regions. Soil physicochemical properties of the studied sites were investigated. Nine HMs, aluminum (Al), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), and barium (Ba), have been evaluated in the collected soil, plant shoots, and root samples. Total thiol concentration in the plant shoots and roots was determined. The phytoremediation indexes, such as bioaccumulation factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF), were estimated. The results show that the soil of all the explored sites was sandy and slightly alkaline. It was found that Ni, Pb, and Cr were above the international permissible limit in all soil samples. The Wadi Marik region recorded the highest HM concentration compared to the other sites. In the Bahra region, Fe, Zn, Co, and Mn in all collected soil samples were below internationally permissible levels. In Khumrah, the highest concentration of Zn was found in the soil sample collected around F. indica plants, while Fe, Co, and Mn in all collected soil samples were below the international permissible limit. Depending on the BCF calculations, most of the investigated species showed phytostabilization ability for most of the studied HMs. Of them, E. indica, T. nubica, and P. divisum recorded the highest BCF values that ranged from 16.1 to 3.4. The BCF values of the studied HMs reduced in the order of Cr > Zn > Mn > Co > Ba > Fe > Al > Pb. Phytoextration of Co and Cr could be achieved by P. oleracea and F. indica, which showed TF values that reached 6.7 and 6.1, respectively. These plants showed high potential for phytoremediation and can be suggested as protective belts close to the contaminated regions of Jeddah. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mine Ecological Restoration)
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26 pages, 17996 KiB  
Article
Critical Raw Materials Supply: Challenges and Potentialities to Exploit Rare Earth Elements from Siliceous Stones and Extractive Waste
by Xinyuan Zhao, Faten Khelifi, Marco Casale, Alessandro Cavallo, Elio Padoan, Ke Yang and Giovanna Antonella Dino
Resources 2024, 13(7), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13070097 - 15 Jul 2024
Viewed by 771
Abstract
Critical raw materials (CRMs) supply is a challenge that EU countries have to face, with many thinking about domestic procurement from natural ore deposits and anthropogenic deposits (landfills and extractive waste facilities). The present research focuses on the possibilities linked to the supply [...] Read more.
Critical raw materials (CRMs) supply is a challenge that EU countries have to face, with many thinking about domestic procurement from natural ore deposits and anthropogenic deposits (landfills and extractive waste facilities). The present research focuses on the possibilities linked to the supply of CRMs and the potential for exploiting rare earth elements (REEs), investigating a large variety of extractive waste and siliceous rocks in the Piedmont region (Northern Italy). Indeed, the recovery of REEs from the extractive waste (EW) of siliceous quarries and other siliceous ore deposits can be a valuable way to reduce supply chain risks. Starting with a review of the literature on mining activities in Piedmont and continuing with the sampling and geochemical, mineralogical, petrographic, and environmental characterization of EW facilities connected to siliceous dimension stones, of kaolinitic gneiss ore deposits, and of soils present near the investigated areas, this study shows that the degree of REEs enrichment differs depending on the sampling area (soil or EW) and lithology. The concentration of REEs in the EW at some sampling sites fulfils the indicators of industrial-grade and industrial recovery; the high cumulative production and potential market values of EW and the positive recovery effects through proven methodologies indicate a viable prospect of REE recovery from EW. However, REE recovery industrialization faces challenges such as the difficulty in achieving efficient large-scale recovery due to large regional differences in REE abundance, the mismatch between potential market value and waste annual production, etc. Nonetheless, in the future, EW from dimension stone quarries could be differentially studied and reused based on the enrichment and distribution characteristics of trace elements. The present paper shows investigation procedures undertaken to determine both CRMs potentialities and environmental issues (on the basis of literature data employed to select the more-promising areas and on sampling and characterization activities in the selected areas), together with procedures to determine the waste quantities and tentative economic values of REEs present in the investigated areas. This approach, tested on a large area (Piedmont region), is replicable and applicable to other similar case studies (at EU and non-EU levels) and offers decision makers the possibility to acquire a general overview of the potential available resources in order to decide whether and where to concentrate efforts (including economic ones) in a more detailed study to evaluate the exploitable anthropogenic deposits. Full article
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18 pages, 1217 KiB  
Article
Production of Motor Fuel Components by Processing Vegetable Oils Using a CoMo/Al2O3 Hydrotreating Catalyst and a ZSM-5 Zeolite Catalyst
by Daria Sosnina, Andrey Altynov, Maria Kirgina and Ilya Bogdanov
Resources 2024, 13(7), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13070096 - 11 Jul 2024
Viewed by 430
Abstract
Nowadays, there is a need to search for new renewable energy sources from which it is possible to obtain hydrocarbons that are similar in composition and properties to hydrocarbons of petroleum origin. This is due to a significant increase in demand for natural [...] Read more.
Nowadays, there is a need to search for new renewable energy sources from which it is possible to obtain hydrocarbons that are similar in composition and properties to hydrocarbons of petroleum origin. This is due to a significant increase in demand for natural minerals and, as a consequence, the depletion of their reserves. Today, the most promising alternative renewable energy sources are various vegetable oils, which are used both in their pure form, adding them to commercial mineral fuels, and as products of catalytic processing using various catalysts. However, most studies in the field of alternative energy show that the use of fuels obtained from vegetable oils is limited by their properties as well as the climatic conditions of the areas where biofuels can be used. In this work, we propose an integrated approach to the processing of vegetable oils, which allows us to obtain products of a wide fractional composition with improved operational properties. This approach consists of sequential processing of vegetable oils, first using a CoMo/Al2O3 hydrotreating catalyst in order to obtain classical long-chain hydrocarbons with unsatisfactory properties, and then using a zeolite catalyst, ZSM-5 type, which is characterized by the active occurrence of cracking, isomerization, and aromatization reactions, which are accompanied by a decrease in the length of the hydrocarbon chain of the hydrocarbons obtained during the hydrotreating process and, as a result, improving the physicochemical and low-temperature properties of the resulting processed products. Full article
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25 pages, 6261 KiB  
Article
Quantifying Forest Cover Loss during the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Lubumbashi Charcoal Production Basin (DR Congo) through Remote Sensing and Landscape Analysis
by Yannick Useni Sikuzani, Médard Mpanda Mukenza, Ildephonse Kipili Mwenya, Héritier Khoji Muteya, Dieu-donné N’tambwe Nghonda, Nathan Kasanda Mukendi, François Malaisse, Françoise Malonga Kaj, Donatien Dibwe Dia Mwembu and Jan Bogaert
Resources 2024, 13(7), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13070095 - 5 Jul 2024
Viewed by 401
Abstract
In the context of the Lubumbashi Charcoal Production Basin (LCPB), the socio-economic repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic have exacerbated pressures on populations dependent on forest resources for their subsistence. This study employs a comprehensive methodological approach, integrating advanced remote sensing techniques, including image [...] Read more.
In the context of the Lubumbashi Charcoal Production Basin (LCPB), the socio-economic repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic have exacerbated pressures on populations dependent on forest resources for their subsistence. This study employs a comprehensive methodological approach, integrating advanced remote sensing techniques, including image classification, mapping, and detailed landscape analysis, to quantify alterations in forest cover within the LCPB during the pandemic period. Our findings reveal a consistent trend of declining forested area, characterized by processes of attrition and dissection observed throughout various study phases, spanning from May 2019 to November 2023. This reduction in forest cover, notably more pronounced in the vicinity of Lubumbashi city and the northern zone of the LCPB, proved to be less pronounced between November 2019 and September 2020, underscoring the influence of COVID-19 pandemic-induced confinement measures on forest management practices in the region. However, subsequent to this period of restriction, deforestation activity intensified, leading to significant landscape transformations within the LCPB, primarily attributable to expanded human activities, consequently resulting in a notable decrease in the proportion of land occupied by these natural ecosystems. Consequently, the size of the largest forest patch declined substantially, decreasing from 14.62% to 8.20% between May 2019 and November 2023, thereby fostering a heightened density of forest edges over time. Our findings provide a significant contribution to understanding the complex interactions between the COVID-19 pandemic and deforestation phenomena, emphasizing the urgent need to adopt adaptive management strategies and appropriate conservation measures in response to current economic challenges. Full article
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25 pages, 887 KiB  
Systematic Review
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Factors Influencing Water Use Behaviour and the Efficiency of Agricultural Production in South Africa
by Heinrich C. Kotze, Mlibo S. M. A. Qotoyi, Yonas T. Bahta, Henry Jordaan and Markus A. Monteiro
Resources 2024, 13(7), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13070094 - 1 Jul 2024
Viewed by 790
Abstract
Water use behaviour and efficiency are essential topics regarding water scarcity. Water is a life-sustaining resource used for various activities within the three primary sectors: agricultural, industrial, and domestic. Increasing competition among these sectors could affect the availability and sustainability of water use. [...] Read more.
Water use behaviour and efficiency are essential topics regarding water scarcity. Water is a life-sustaining resource used for various activities within the three primary sectors: agricultural, industrial, and domestic. Increasing competition among these sectors could affect the availability and sustainability of water use. The higher demand for agricultural-related commodities emphasizes the efficient and productive use of water. Still, to achieve this, the behaviour of consumers regarding water use needs to be changed. This systematic review paper aims to highlight the factors affecting water use behaviour and efficiency for agricultural production in South Africa. It further aims to determine how agricultural producers change their behaviour to improve their water use efficiency. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria were used as a reporting framework and guidelines to identify the articles included in the review. The review only included articles focussing on agricultural water use behaviour and efficiency and articles written in English and excluded articles from web pages, blogs, magazines, etc. The databases used for the review were Google Scholar and Web of Science. The articles were reviewed by the five authors to avoid the risk of bias, along with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The final review included 30 peer-reviewed articles. A word frequency table was developed using the NVivo 14 software to conduct a thematic analysis for the review. The main factors which played a role in the water use behaviour and efficiency of farmers were (i) climate and adaptation strategies, (ii) policy and water pricing, and (iii) agricultural production and management. Each category elaborated on how water use could be improved and the different measures adopted to incorporate sustainable farm water use. This could be a guideline for farmers, stakeholders, and policymakers to improve and enhance water use behaviour and efficiency in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly South Africa. This could ultimately assist in efficiently using the water while enhancing sustainability within the agricultural sector and attaining Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) six, which is to increase water use efficiency. The limitation of this study was that it was only narrowed down to the geographical context of South Africa. This review was funded by the Water Research Commission (WRC) of South Africa (Project Number: C20222023-00798). This review was not registered. Full article
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14 pages, 1712 KiB  
Review
A Review of Environmental Impacts of Wheat Production in Different Agrotechnical Systems
by Kamran Kheiralipour, Miguel Brandão, Malgorzata Holka and Adam Choryński
Resources 2024, 13(7), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13070093 - 1 Jul 2024
Viewed by 598
Abstract
In light of the environmental challenges currently facing humanity, the issue of the environmental sustainability of crop production is becoming increasingly pressing. This is due to the fact that global population growth and the related demand for food are placing significant pressure on [...] Read more.
In light of the environmental challenges currently facing humanity, the issue of the environmental sustainability of crop production is becoming increasingly pressing. This is due to the fact that global population growth and the related demand for food are placing significant pressure on the environment. Wheat is a strategic crop globally due to its extensive cultivation area, high production and consumption levels, and vital nutritional properties. It is cultivated across diverse climatic conditions and within various agricultural production systems. It is of the utmost importance to pursue sustainable wheat production on a global scale, given the necessity to protect the environment and climate. The application of life cycle assessment (LCA) enables the identification of potential avenues for enhancing wheat production processes, thereby reducing the negative environmental impacts associated with these processes. This paper presents a synthesis of the existing literature on the environmental LCA of wheat grain production. It compares the impacts of different production systems, highlights critical stages in wheat cultivation, and provides recommendations for sustainable practices and directions for future research. Full article
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24 pages, 506 KiB  
Review
Hydrogen in Energy Transition: The Problem of Economic Efficiency, Environmental Safety, and Technological Readiness of Transportation and Storage
by Svetlana Revinova, Inna Lazanyuk, Bella Gabrielyan, Tatevik Shahinyan and Yevgenya Hakobyan
Resources 2024, 13(7), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13070092 - 1 Jul 2024
Viewed by 544
Abstract
The circular economy and the clean-energy transition are inextricably linked and interdependent. One of the most important areas of the energy transition is the development of hydrogen energy. This study aims to review and systematize the data available in the literature on the [...] Read more.
The circular economy and the clean-energy transition are inextricably linked and interdependent. One of the most important areas of the energy transition is the development of hydrogen energy. This study aims to review and systematize the data available in the literature on the environmental and economic parameters of hydrogen storage and transportation technologies (both mature and at high technological readiness levels). The study concluded that salt caverns and pipeline transportation are the most promising methods of hydrogen storage and transportation today in terms of a combination of all parameters. These methods are the most competitive in terms of price, especially when transporting hydrogen over short distances. Thus, the average price of storage will be 0.35 USD/kg, and transportation at a distance of up to 100 km is 0.3 USD/kg. Hydrogen storage underground in a gaseous state and its transportation by pipelines have the least consequences for the environment: emissions and leaks are insignificant, and there is no environmental pollution. The study identifies these methods as particularly viable given their lower environmental impact and potential for seamless integration into existing energy systems, therefore supporting the transition to a more sustainable and circular economy. Full article
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20 pages, 1451 KiB  
Article
Assessing Food Loss and Waste in Chile: Insights for Policy and Sustainable Development Goals
by Daniel Durán-Sandoval, Gemma Durán-Romero and Ana M. López
Resources 2024, 13(7), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13070091 - 27 Jun 2024
Viewed by 439
Abstract
The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reports that Latin America and the Caribbean experienced the most rapid rise in food insecurity, with approximately 47.7 million individuals in the region affected by hunger in 2022. In Chile, almost three million people, 15.6% of the [...] Read more.
The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reports that Latin America and the Caribbean experienced the most rapid rise in food insecurity, with approximately 47.7 million individuals in the region affected by hunger in 2022. In Chile, almost three million people, 15.6% of the country’s population, do not have regular access to sufficient nutritious food and suffer from some form of food insecurity. Moreover, Chile is particularly susceptible to the impacts of climate change and contends with the depletion of several critical natural resources, notably water, stemming from severe and prolonged drought conditions. This article aims to comprehensively evaluate food loss and waste (FLW) in Chile and analyzes the implications of FLW on the sustainable development goal (SDG). This will be achieved by utilizing a top-down mass balance methodology that integrates various data sources and an in-depth analysis of the main food categories at different stages of the food supply chain (FSC). In 2021, Chile generated 5.18 million tons of FLW, with fruit being the largest contributor at 2.5 million tons (48% of total FLW). Vegetables accounted for 0.8 million tons (16%). Other food groups each contributed 1% to 10% of the total FLW. Per capita FLW was 295 kg. FLW varied by food group and FSC stage. Fruits, vegetables, starchy roots, and pulses had the most FLW early in the FSC, while cereals had it later. Comparing FLW with the domestic supply quantity of food, it is observed that 68% of the fruit available for the population was discarded. Vegetables and starchy roots also showed significant volumes of discarded food, with 48% and 29% of the availability of these products in Chile. Furthermore, we explore the implications of FLW on realizing SDG 2—zero hunger, particularly emphasizing its correlation with target 12.3. The research underscores the potential of its findings to significantly shape public policies and strategies concerning FLW and their alignment with the associated SDGs, making a tangible impact on the lives of millions. Full article
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24 pages, 5807 KiB  
Article
Proposition and Application of a Conceptual Model for Risk Management in Rural Areas: Rural Basic Sanitation Safety Plan (RBSSP)
by Rafaella Oliveira Baracho, Nolan Ribeiro Bezerra and Paulo Sérgio Scalize
Resources 2024, 13(7), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13070090 - 27 Jun 2024
Viewed by 787
Abstract
Safe access to drinking water and sanitation is a human right and a key goal of sustainable development, which must also be achieved in rural areas. This work proposes and simulates the application of a conceptual model for a basic sanitation safety plan [...] Read more.
Safe access to drinking water and sanitation is a human right and a key goal of sustainable development, which must also be achieved in rural areas. This work proposes and simulates the application of a conceptual model for a basic sanitation safety plan tailored for rural areas, called the Rural Basic Sanitation Safety Plan (RBSSP). The methodology includes technical and scientific review approaches, followed by consultation with specialists through the Delphi method and simulation in a case study. The RBSSP framework includes six fundamental principles, six steps, and twenty actions to be performed. In the case study, the final conceptual model application was simulated for a rural settlement scenario, which led to significant changes in the actions, subdivisions and phases. Key findings highlight that community participation, involvement and empowerment are the most relevant factors for successful implementation. The necessary tools for RBSSP preparation, such as risk assessment methodologies and management plans, must be applied considering the scenario. Finally, after simulating the conceptual model, we conclude that it is necessary to adapt actions and apply methods and techniques developed and appropriate for rural areas to develop an effective RBSSP for each specific scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment of Water Resources)
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17 pages, 2518 KiB  
Article
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Aerial Parts (Italian ‘Finocchio di Isola Capo Rizzuto’ PGI): Valorization of Agri-Food Waste as a Potential Source of Lipase Inhibitors and Antioxidants
by Mariangela Marrelli, Carmine Lupia, Maria Pia Argentieri, Roberto Bava, Fabio Castagna, Nadia Cozza, Vincenzo Mollace, Ernesto Palma and Giancarlo Statti
Resources 2024, 13(7), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13070089 - 26 Jun 2024
Viewed by 848
Abstract
A large amount of waste material derives from the horticultural industry. These plant matrices constitute a valuable source of active secondary metabolites with a wide spectrum of potential applications, including both human health and veterinary science. Italy is one of the leading European [...] Read more.
A large amount of waste material derives from the horticultural industry. These plant matrices constitute a valuable source of active secondary metabolites with a wide spectrum of potential applications, including both human health and veterinary science. Italy is one of the leading European producers of fennel, and the ‘Finocchio di Isola Capo Rizzuto’ is a protected geographical indication (PGI) product, typical of the Calabria region. In this study, the waste material from this PGI Italian fennel was investigated for the first time as a potential source of bioactive compounds. Both bulbs and aerial parts were extracted with ethanol through maceration, and the phenolic content was assessed, together with the antioxidant properties. Moreover, the nutraceutical value was investigated by evaluating the potential anti-obesity effects. To this end, fennel extracts were studied for their inhibitory effects on pancreatic lipase enzyme, which plays a pivotal role in dietary fat absorption. The aerial part extract demonstrated DPPH radical scavenging (IC50 = 293.13 ± 22.98 µg/mL) and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities (IC50 = 43.26 ± 1.90 µg/mL), and it was also effective in inhibiting pancreatic lipase (IC50 = 3.51 ± 0.09 mg/mL). Moreover, a significant positive correlation was highlighted between observed biological properties and fennel phenolic constituents. Obtained results show that ‘Finocchio di Isola Capo Rizzuto’ PGI by-products are a good candidate for further investigations as a potential source of antioxidant and anti-obesity agents useful as functional ingredients. Full article
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22 pages, 724 KiB  
Article
Identifying Hotspots and Most Relevant Flows for Red and White Wine Production in Brazil through Life Cycle Assessment: A Case Study
by Tiago Panizzon, Gregório Bircke Salton, Vania Elisabete Schneider and Matheus Poletto
Resources 2024, 13(7), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13070088 - 25 Jun 2024
Viewed by 815
Abstract
This study undertakes a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of red and white wine production in Brazil, focusing on a leading winery in the Serra Gaúcha region. Given the notable lack of similar research in this area, our study employs LCA methodologies to evaluate [...] Read more.
This study undertakes a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of red and white wine production in Brazil, focusing on a leading winery in the Serra Gaúcha region. Given the notable lack of similar research in this area, our study employs LCA methodologies to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with the winery stage. Our results indicate that although white wine generally exhibits a lower environmental impact than red wine, the specific impacts differ substantially across various environmental categories, highlighting the necessity for context-specific assessments. We also find that electricity consumption, sugar usage, and liquid CO2 production are the primary drivers of environmental impacts, especially in toxicity-related categories. Moreover, our research critically examines the suitability of the Product Environmental Footprint Category Rules (PEFCR) within the Brazilian context and proposes a revised set of impact categories. This revision enhances the accounted impacts from 55% in the existing PEFCR 2.0 to 80% in our recommended framework, suggesting the need for more tailored environmental impact assessment tools in regional settings. Through these findings, our study not only addresses a significant gap in LCA research within the Brazilian wine industry but also sets the stage for improved environmental management practices across Brazilian wine industries. These enhancements are crucial for aligning local production processes with global sustainability standards and advancing the environmental stewardship of the wine sector in Brazil. Full article
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15 pages, 1243 KiB  
Review
Circular Economy, Eco-Innovation and a Business Model for the Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Mexico
by Carmen García-Castillo, Erandi Maldonado-Villalpando, Luis Seguí-Amórtegui and Hilda Guerrero-García-Rojas
Resources 2024, 13(7), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources13070087 - 21 Jun 2024
Viewed by 680
Abstract
Wastewater treatment plants face enormous economic, environmental, technical, and regulatory challenges, including the high energy costs of their operation, waste generation, and the destination of treated water. In this regard, a proposal was made for the operation of municipal WWTPs in Mexico, based [...] Read more.
Wastewater treatment plants face enormous economic, environmental, technical, and regulatory challenges, including the high energy costs of their operation, waste generation, and the destination of treated water. In this regard, a proposal was made for the operation of municipal WWTPs in Mexico, based on the symbiosis of the circular economy and eco-innovation as strategies for sustainable change in their operation. As a result, it was possible to obtain an updated diagnosis of the situation of the WWTPs, a proposal for their operation was made, and a circular and innovative business model was established for these plants in order to channel decision-making and visualize the path for the transition of these facilities to sustainable operation. Full article
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