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Structure and Superstructures in Complex Social Systems

Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain
Institute of Education, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Systems 2017, 5(2), 28;
Received: 9 December 2016 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 23 March 2017 / Published: 26 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complex Social Systems: Theory And Practice)
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In classical sociology, there is a sharp separation between the superstructure reflecting cultural ideals and the concrete Structural Base (SB). The authors hypothesize a Doxical Superstructure (DS) in its own space at a higher level, containing concepts such as completeness, necessity and possibility associated with abstract concepts like beliefs, ethics, knowledge, relations and science. The DS or image (DS-image) is defined as the “explanation” (for the Subject-agent) of the Structural Base. A Mythical Superstructure (MS) is defined as a third superstructure. An analysis is carried out on the Structural Base. Concepts or denotative significances (d-significances) are defined for SB deontic relations. Alethic properties (existence, completeness, possibility and necessity) and deontic properties (permission, obligation and choice) of deontic relations are introduced, defined, and examined in relation to the Ideological Doxical Superstructure (IDS), including Meinong objects (thoughts, feelings and desires). View Full-Text
Keywords: alethic components; belief; connotation; denotation; deontical components; ideology; image; projection; significance alethic components; belief; connotation; denotation; deontical components; ideology; image; projection; significance

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Nescolarde-Selva, J.A.; Usó-Doménech, J.L.; Gash, H. Structure and Superstructures in Complex Social Systems. Systems 2017, 5, 28.

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